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英语国家概况精讲系列(二十三)

2007-01-11 16:50   【 】【我要纠错
英语国家概况精讲系列(二十三)

  2. Administration in Great Britain is handled by separate executive agencies of the Department of Social Security. In Northern Ireland by the Social Security Agency.

  大不列颠的社会保险由社会保险部独立执行机构管理,在北爱尔兰则是社会保险局。

  3. contributory social security benefits, it include:( 1) retirement pension; (2) unemployment pension; (3) sickness and invalidity benefit and (4) Maternity allowance and widows‘s benefits.

  需要先交费的社会安全福利(个人有工作收入时交,无收入时领),其中包括:退休金,失业金,病残福利金,孕产期补助金,寡妇补助金。

  4. non-contributory social security benefits, it include: (1) war pensions;(2) industrial injuries disablement benefit;(3) child benefit and (4) family credit.

  不需要先交费的福利金,包括战争伤亡抚恤金,工伤致残救济金,儿童补助金,低收入家庭补助金。

  III. Religion宗教

  1. Everyone in Britain has the right to religious freedom with out interference from the community or the State. He may change his religion at will may manifest his faith in teaching, worship and observance. Except that the Lord Chancellor may be a Roman Catholic, public offices are open without distinction to members of all churches or none.

  在英国,人人都有信仰宗教的权利,社会和政府不得干涉。他可以随意改变宗教信仰,可以在教职,礼拜或仪式中表明他的信仰。除了娃哈哈官不可以是罗马天主教徒外,公共职务对各种信仰或没有信仰的人一律公开。

  2. Established churches

  国教

  There are two established church in Britain: in England the church of England and Scotland the Church of England.

  英国有两大国教,在英格兰是英格兰国教,苏格兰是苏格兰教会(长老教)。

  3. Church of England is uniquely related to the Crown in that the Sovereign must be a member of that Church and as “Defender of the Faith”。 The Church is also linked with the State through the House of loads. The church of England is not free to change its form of worship, as laid down in the Book of Common Prayer without the consent of Parliament.

  英格兰国教与君主有独特的联系。因为君主作为“国教的捍卫者”必须是此教会的一员,他在登基时必须承诺维持国教。国教还通过上议院与政府联系。没有议会同意,英格兰教会不可随意改变“国教祈祷书”中规定的礼拜仪式。

  4. The government of the Church of Scotland is Presbyterian, that is, government by ministers and elders, all of whom are ordained to office. The Monarch is normally represented at the general assembly by the Lord High Commissioner.

  英格兰教的管理时长老制,也就是由教士和长老治理。他们被授予圣职,王室高级代表通常代表君主光临会议。

  5. Unestablished churches

  非国教教会

  There are include: the Anglican Churches(圣公会),the Free Churches(自由教),the Roman Catholic Church(罗马天主教)。

  IV. Festival and Public Holidays

  节假日

  The Christian festival of the year and Christmas, Easter, and Whit Sunday.

  其主要的节日有圣诞节,复活节,圣灵降临节

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