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自考《英语(二)》串讲笔记(二)

2006-12-19 13:29   【 】【我要纠错

  2.3 非谓语动词,状语从句和独立结构1) Having done their homework, the children began to play. (分词作状语)

  2) After having done their homework, the children began to play. (连词+分词)

  3) After they had done their homework, the children began to play. (状语从句)

  4) With homework done, the children began to play. (独立结构)

  2.4 非谓语动词作定语1) If there is no choice, there is no decision ___ (make)。 (to be made)

  2) Do you know the man ____ ( stand) in front of the house? (standing)

  3) The question ____ (discuss) at the moment is very important. (being discussed)

  4) The bridge ____ (build) in the 1950s is still in good condition. (built)

  2.5 动名词和动词不定式作主语和表语动名词作主语/表语表示一般、抽象的情况;动词不定时作主语表示具体某次的情况。

  Rising early is good for health. To rise early tomorrow is difficult for me. It is difficult for me to rise early tomorrow. My biggest wish is to go abroad. Seeing is believing.

  作宾语接动名词作宾语的动词:admit, acknowledge, avoid, appreciate, consider, delay, enjoy, escape, excuse, forgive, finish, include, involve, mind, put off, postpone, suggest, feel like, look forward to, be used to, be accustomed to, etc.接动词不定式作宾语的动词:want, tend, intend, pretend, hope, plan, expect, be supposed to, seem, be likely to, used to, be willing to, desire, force, prefer, start, begin

  接动名词和动词不定式有不同含义的动词:1) forget, remember, regret 2) stop, continue 3) need/ want 4) allow doing/ allow sb to do

  (1) How can I forget meeting you for the first time?

  Sorry, I forgot to lock the door.(2) I can‘t stop laughing. Can you stop to give me a hand?

  (3) The grass needs cutting. The grass needs to be cut.(4) We don‘t allow smoking here. You are not allowed to smoke here.

  3.虚拟语气

  第一大类:非真实条件下的虚拟语气

时间  从句  主句 
与现在事实相反  did/ were  should/could/would + do 
与过去事实相反  had done  should/could/would + have done 
与将来事实相反  were to do should do  should/could/would + do 

  If I were you, I would be happy to do it. If we had got the news, we could have prepared earlier. If the job were to succeed, you should work harder.

  第二大类:从句中用过去时或过去完成时的虚拟语气1) would rather + 从句2) wish + 从句3) if only + 从句4) as if/ as though + 从句5) It‘s time + 从句

  I would rather you didn‘t tell me the story now. I would rather you had told me the story yesterday.

  第三大类:从句中用should加动词原形的虚拟语气,其中should可省略。

  1) suggest, propose, advise, move(动议), ask, order, require, request, desire, insist, prefer 等动词后接的宾语从句;2) suggestion, proposal, advice, motion, order, requirement, request, desire, preference等名词后的同位语从句;3) important, necessary, essential, imperative, desirable, advisable, preferable 等形容词用在it is … that…句型中;4) lest, in case, for fear that 等引导的从句中。

  It is suggested that the meeting (should) be put off. It is my suggestion that the meeting (should) be put off. It is necessary that the meeting (should) be put off. He came to the office earlier lest he (should) miss the important meeting.

  4.定语从句和名词性从句

  4.1 定语从句:限制性和非限制性定语从句引导定语从句1)关系代词(在定语从句中作主语、宾语、表语):which, that, who, whom, whose 2)关系副词(在定语从句中作状语):when, where, why, how

  名词性从句:主语从句、宾语从句、表语从句、同位语从句引导名词性从句:1)主从连词(不在从句中作任何成分):that, whether, if 2)连接代词(在从句中作主语、宾语、表语):what, which, who, whom, whose, whatever, whoever…

  3)连接副词(在从句中作状语):when, where, why, how

  4.2 定语从句和同位语从句的区别定语从句对名词进行修饰限制,而同位语从句阐述的是名词的具体内容。从语法上看,that, which在定语从句中做主语或宾语,而同位语的引导词that不在从句中担任任何成分。

  1) The story (that) he told me may not be true. 定语从句2) The story that he has made a fortune may not be true. 同位语从句

  4.3 什么时候用介词+which 的形式?

  如果定语从句缺主语或宾语,用that/ which 形式。如果定语从句缺状语,用介词+which形式。

  1) The place which I visited last week is very beautiful. 2) The place in which I used to live is very beautiful.

  4.4 which 和 as 引导非限制性定语从句which 和 as 都能引导非限制性定语从句,修饰整个一句话。as有“正如”的意思,而which没有。

  1) He is easy to get angry, which is well known. 他很容易生气,这一点大家都知道。

  2) He is easy to get angry, as everybody knows. 正如大家都知道的那样,他很容易生气。

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