19.The year before， that distinction went to President Carter's wife， Rosalynn.——The year before， the title/honour was given to President Carter's wife， Rosalynn./The year before， President Carter's wife， Rosalynn， won the honour.前一年，这个称号又送给了卡特总统夫人，罗萨琳。
（ prize， title， honour， property， etc. ） go to sb./sth.：to be given to, awarded to,or inherited by sb.赠送给，授予
The money they raised from the concert all went to the flooded area. 举办音乐会所得款项全部捐赠给水灾地区。
The title “The Best Woman Football Player of the Millenium” went to a Chinese， Sun Wen.
The house was left to his son,and all the paintings went to his daughter.
The 2000 Nobel Prize for Peace went to Kim Dae Chong. 2000年诺贝尔和平奖授予了金大中。
20.The hero was distinguished by his accomplishment ； the celebrity by his image or trademark.
The hero was different from ordinary people because of what he had achieved ； the celebrity differs from ordinary people merely because he is well-known.英雄因其成就而出众，而名流则因其形象或其特征而出名。
21.The hero created himself ； the celebrity is created by the media
The hero was admired for what he had hone for society ； the celebrity bursts onto the scene through the work of the media. 英雄因其成就而名，而名流则因媒体的宣传而出名。（英雄造就自己，媒体造就名流。）
22. The hero was a big man； the celebrity is a big name.
the hero was an outstanding man with excellent qualities ； the celebrity is an average person with an enviable reputation.英雄是了不起的人物，名流是了不起的名声。
23. Except for the attention they get from the media， these people are exactly like us.——If the media didn't give them so much attention， they wouldn't be any different from ordinary people.要不是媒体的关注，这些人和我们没什么两样。
注意except 和except for的区别：
except for： with the exception of （ used to introduce the only thing or a person that prevent a statement from being completely true ）
The essay is excellent except for the conclusion. 这篇文章除结尾之外总体不错。
Cf. All the essays are good except yours and John's. 除了你和约翰的文章之外，其他人的都不错。
The whole class passed the test except for John. 全班除了约翰之外都通过了测试。
Cf. We all passed the test except John. 除约翰之外我们都通过了测试。
The country is not worth seeing， except for its temples. 那个国家除了寺庙之外没有什么值得游览的
The road was deserted except for a few cars. 路上除了几辆轿车之外杳无人绝迹。
Cf. All the roads are deserted except one. 除了一条路之外，其他路上行人绝迹
24. Previously， men like Gould and Harriman, whose names everyone knew， could easily have passed through a crowd without being recognized.——In the past, when famous men like Gould and Harriman walked through a crowd, it was quite possible that people don't recognize them, though everyone knew of them.
could have done sth.（ could have done sth.）。（情态助动词could与完成时形式的动词不定式have done sth.连用）表示过去可能会发生但实际上没有发生的事情：
You could have got a job last year. 你本来去年就可能会找到工作的。（实际上没有找到）
Ten people were killed in the accident . They could have been saved.
pass through ：to go through a town, etc., stopping there for a short time but not staying
25. The reproduction of photos in newspapers turned famous people into celebrities whose dress, appearance,and personal habits were widely commented upon. ——When famous people's photos appeared in newspapers, their outward features-their appearance, their clothes, and the way they carried themselves-began to attract public attention and get talked about, In this way these famous people gradually became celebrities.现在报纸上能刊登照片，这使名人成为名流，他们的衣着、外貌和体态举止都成为人们评论的对象。
Turn…into…： to cause sth./sb. to become…使——成为；把——变成
Her bitter experience has turned her into a strong woman. 痛苦的经历使她成了一个坚强的女人。
The mobile medical team turned an old temple into a first-aid station. 流动医疗队把一座古庙改造成了急救站。
Comment on/upon： to give/express opinions about评论；议论
The U.S.2000 presidential election has been much commented upon.
I don't think it right to comment on people's private affairs. 我觉得议论别人的私事是不对的。
26. Slowly, the focus of public attention began to shift away from knowing what such people did to knowing what they looked like. 公众的注意力逐渐由了解这些人做了些什么转移到了了解他们长得是什么样子。
Shift （ away ）from…to…： to change in emphasis, direction or focus：转移
When the wind shifted from south to north, it began to get cold. 风向由南转北，天气变冷了。
In the early 1960s, the emphasis of our country's economy shifted from heavy industry to light industry and agriculture. 20世纪60年代初期，我国经济的重点工业转向轻工业和农业。
look like： to have the appearance of看起来像
The restaurant looks like a ship. 这家餐馆的外形像条船。
From the way they treat each other they look like sisters. 她们亲昵的样子看起来像是姐儿俩。
like 常与其他表示感官功能（如视觉、触觉、味觉、听觉等look like； feel like； smell like； sound like）的动词连用。
In the middle of the night we were woken up by some noise . It sounded like a fight.
The dish sells like fish, but tastes like beef. 这道菜闻起来像鱼，尝起来像牛肉。
The material feels like silk. 这块料子摸起来像丝绸。
27.With the arrival of television…
Because we now have television…由于电视的出现
with： because of having
With a large family to support, he cannot afford a new coat this year
With John away, we've got more room.
With all the homework to do, I cannot go out this weekend.
28. …than we did about most of the people we know personally.
…than we know about most of the people we actually know.
29.Less than seventy years after the appearance of the first moving pictures, the shift from hero-worship to celebrity-worship was complete.
moving picture 的其他名称为：picture， motion picture, film, movie等。
30.Today an appearance on a television talk show is the ultimate proof of “making it ”； in America.——Today, if you are invited as a guest on a TV talk show,you definitely have proved yourself successful in America.今天在电视台的一个脱口秀节目上一露脸就绝对能证明你在美国“一举成名了”。
Make it ： （ informal ） to be successful in one's career； to succeed, to win acceptance达到预定目标，顺利度过一段困难时期；成功；及时到达。
When he won the prize, he realized that he had made it. 得了奖，他意识到自己成功了。
He's been in some 30 films, but he's never made it as a great actor. 他演了三十多部电影，可是从来没有红起来。
The train leaves at 3， it's 2：30 now， I am afraid I can't make it.火车是3点开，现在已经两点半了，恐怕我赶不上了。
31.Celebrities do not appear on such a program because of an actual desire-or ability-to talk, but simply to gain recognition, and prove, merely by showing up,that they are “somebody.”——Celebrities often appear on talk shows, not because they really want to talk, or because they have something to say, but simply because they want tobecome famous and to show that they are important.名流在这样的节目中出场，并不是因为他们真想说什么，或是口才很棒，而纯属为了出名，并通过在荧屏上露面，证明他们是“重要人物”。
注意not…because （of ） to do sth.的结构中，否定的部分是because （of ），而不是appear.
I didn't see the film because you recommended it . I wanted to see Henry Fonda.
The children didn't do it to please their parents, but simply to enjoy themselves.
show up： （ informal ） to appear ； to arrive, often after a delay到场；露面
He didn't show up at his sister's wedding. 他居然没有在他妹妹的婚礼上露面。
I wonder if he will show up at all. 真不知道他还会不会来。
We all thought he had been killed in the plane crash, but three days later he showed up safe and sound.
Only three of people we had invited didn't show up at the party.
32.Most hosts are grateful just to get someone who will fill the room with sound.——Most hosts are more than happy as long as the guests keep talking.多数主持人只要有人说话，让演播室老有声音就很满意了。
fill…with… ： to make…full of…用——装满
Would you fill these bottles with water, please？ 请把这些瓶子灌满水好吗？
Each time I went to see her, my grandma would fill my pockets with sweets .
The room is filled with an unpleasant smell. 这屋子里有股难闻的味。
The supermarket is filled with shoppers at weekends. 每逢周末这家超市总是挤满了购物的人。
She filled her days with trivial tasks. 她整天忙于处理琐碎的事务。
The thought filled me with pleasure. 这个想法使我感到高兴。
I'm filled with gratitude to all those who have helped me. 我对帮助过我的人充满感激之情。
Her heart was filled with happiness at the party her students organized in her honor.
He was filled with pity for the poor girl . 他对那个可怜的女孩子充满怜悯之情。
The sound of the music filled me with memories . 音乐声使我沉浸在回忆之中。
The market filled rapidly . 市场很快挤满了人。
fill 表示to become full of： Laughter filled the hall. 笑声响彻整个大厅。
When the young lady refused to pay for the shoes she had ordered, unhappiness filled the poor shoemaker's house .
33.… a ratings nightmare .
… a terrible thing for the show， for it wouldn't attract many ratings： the popularity of a television of radio programme as measured by the number of people viewing or listening对收视率来说是可怕的事
34.This kind of attitude rewards smooth, insincere talk, and makes hesitancy look like stupidity.——Talk show coordinators are concerned about whether the guest talks fluently . They don't care whether he/she talks sensibly and intelligently . By doing so, they actually encourage and praise talk show guests who speak fluently but insincerely and make viewers believe those who don't speak fluently are stupid people . 这种看法结果是鼓励了口若悬河的空话，而把迟疑看作是愚笨。
He was rewarded with a three-week-holiday for his achievements.由于他的成就，他被奖励了三个星期的假期。
I am sure that all your hard work will be rewarded.我相信你的辛苦工作一定会得到丰硕的结果。
35.he'd be dragging his bottom in the ratings.
Today ， if he were invited to speak on a talk show, he wouldn't be able to attract a large number of viewers.
Drag one's bottom 可能是由习语drag one's heels/feet（故意拖延，磨洋工）而来。