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《外刊经贸知识选读》最新串讲资料第一章

2006-09-15 14:53   【 】【我要纠错

  LESSON 1

  一、术语

  制成品 manufactured goods 资本货物 capital goods 国际收支 balance of payments 经常项目 current account 有形贸易项目 visible trade account 无形贸易项目 invisible trade account 贸易顺差 trade surplus 贸易逆差 trade deficit

  易货贸易 barter 补偿贸易 compensation trade 反向贸易 counter-trade 组装生产 assembly manufacturing 工商统一税 industrial and commercial consolidated tax 合资企业 joint venture 延期付款 deferred payment 买方信贷 buyer credit 卖方信贷 supplier credit 软贷款 (低息贷款) soft loan 最惠国待遇 MFN treatment (Most Favored nation treatment)

  永久性正常贸易关系 PNTR(Permanent Normal Trading Relations) 国民收入 NI(National Income) 国民生产总值 GNP(Gross National Product) 国内生产总值 GDP(Gross Domestic Product) 国际复兴和开发银行 IBRD(International Bank for Reconstruction and Development) 国际开发协会 IDA(International Development Association) 国际金融公司 IFC(International Finance Comporation) 经济合作和发展组织 OECD(Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development)

  国际清算银行 BIS(Bank for International Settlement) 欧洲经济共同体 EEC(European Economic Community) 欧洲联盟 EU(European Union) 外商直接投资 FDI(Foreign Direct Investment)

  二、词语释义:

  substantially : dramatically, significantly, considerably

  subsequently: afterwards

  exacerbate: deteriorate, worsen; aggravate; make worse

  withdraw: cancellation

  theme: principle

  in return for: in exchange for

  disrupt: interrupt

  destined: designed

  pronounced: marked

  in the wake of: following; after with undue: too much; unbearable

  reverse: change to the opposite

  buoyant: brisk

  outcome: result

  boost: stimulate; promote; develop

  recover: rebound

  facilitate: make easy

  run-down: reduction mount exhibitions: hold exhibitions insofar as: to the extent bottlenecks: obstacles

  三、句子翻译

  1. During the 1950s China exported agricultural products to the USSR and East European countries in return for manufactured goods and the capital equipment required for the country‘s industrialization programme which placed emphasis on the development of heavy industry.

  20世纪50年代,中国向前苏联和东欧各国出口农产品以换取制成品和国家的工业化计划所要求的资本设备,而国家的工业化计划则强调重工业的发展。

  2. The growth of foreign trade was distrupted again during the Cultural Revolution when agricultural and industrial production fell sharply and transportation constraints became more serious.

  在文化大革命期间,外贸的增长又一次被打断了。当时农业和工业生产急剧下降,运输管制变的更严重。

  3. Exports grew much faster than imports during this period not only because of the strong emphasis placed on exporting by China‘s economic planners, but also because a number of industrial projects were postponed in 1979. Official recognition that foreign technology could play a major role in modernizing the Chinese economy has caused imports to rise by more than 50 per cent in 1978, placing undue strain on the national economy.

  在这个时期,出口增长要快于进口增长不仅是由于中国经济计划者着重强调出口,也是因为大多工业项目在1979年被推迟了。官方承认外国技术能够在中国经济的现代化化中起重大作用,这导致了1978年中国的进口增加了50%以上,从而给国民经济带来了重压。

  4. Chinese official stress the importance of introducing advanced technology to domestic industry, but the need is for technology of varying degrees of sophistication,not necessarily for advanced technology as that term is understood in the West.

  中国官员强调为国内工业引进先进技术的重要性,但是需要的是各种程度不同的精尖技术,而不是像西方国家理解的先进技术。

  5. There are no official statistics covering the invisible account of the balance of payments,but the size of the visible trade surplus during 1981-1983 and a pronounced increase in earnings from tourism suggest that the current account has been in surplus over the past few years. 没有官方的统计资料涉及无形贸易收支,但在1981-1983年期间的有形贸易顺差的大小和旅游赢利的显著增长表明了经常项目在过去几年里有盈余。

  6. Goods are produced according to a sample provided by the customer,while strong encouragement is given to compensation trade whereby a foreign seller supplies raw materials and equipment and receives manufactured goods, produced by the equipment provided,in return .Compensation trade differs from barter or counter-trade insofar as there is a direct link between the equipment supplied from abroad and the manufactured product. Assembly manufacturing began in 1978 and particular forms of foreign trade are eligible for exemption from customs duties and taxation.

  根据顾客提供的样品来生产产品,同时强烈鼓励补偿贸易。由此国外的供应商提供原材料和设备并收到由其提供的设备生产出来的制成品作为回报。补偿贸易在某种程度上不同于易货贸易和反向贸易,在国外提供的设备和制成品中有直接的联系。来件组装始于1978年,特殊的对外贸易形式有资格免除关税和其他税收。

  7. The debt problems confronting a number of developing countries have reinforced China‘s determination to introduce foreign technology by means of direct investment and concessionary finance rather than by raising substantial sums of money on the international capital markets. The authorities do not consider it appropriate to incur large amounts of external debt until a number of practical bottlenecks in the economy, such as an inadequate transport network and energy constraints, have been tackled.

  许多发展中国家面对的债务问题使中国在引进外国技术时下了这样的决心:采用直接投资和优惠付款方式融资,而不是在国际资本市场筹集大额的资金。在经济中的许多实际瓶颈,如运输网络的不足和能源缺乏被克服以前,官方认为招来大笔外债的做法是不妥当的。

本文转载链接:《外刊经贸知识选读》最新串讲资料第一章

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