So far,Irving ______（live） in New York City for ten years. has lived
Many a writer of newspaper articles_______（trun） to writing novels during the past decade. has turned
Some people think relations between people _______（deteriorate） so much that understanding and friendship are almost impossible . have deteriorated
Nearly a week passed before the girl was able to explain what _______（happen） to her.
In the past two decades,research _____（expand） our knowledge about sleep and dreams . has expanded
The nations that _______actively ________（involve） in earthquake prediction programs include Japan,Russia,and the United States. are involved
There __________（estimate） to be more than 20,000 overseas domestic servants working in Brtain in 1995. were estimated
If you had come earlier,you ______ （not miss） the first act of the play.
would not have missed
If it hadn't been for your help,we _____（be） in real trouble.
would have been
B.在表示建议、命令、要求以及表示“重要性”和“紧迫性”等含义的主语从句、宾语从句、表语从句和同位语从句中，谓语动词常用虚拟语气，由“动词原形”或“should + 动词原形”构成。 should 常常省略
I would recommend that you _______（think） about doing something similar for yourself. （should） think
It was imperative that students ______（finish） their papers before July 1st.
C.动词wish 、would rather （sooner）、if only、as if 后的虚拟语气。
I would rather he _____（buy） the house next year.
bought （ 表示从句中动作尚未发生）
She treats me as if I ______ （be） a stranger. were
The manager told us to be friendly to the visitors as if we _____（ meet） them before.
If only we ______（have） a phone！ I'm tired of waiting outside the public phone box.
D.in case ， for fear that ， lest 等词后从句的谓语动词为（should） + 原形。
He took his umbrella with him lest it _______ （rain.）
E.在It is （high） time that 从句中谓语动词一般用过去时动词。
It's high time that we _______（take） firm measures to protect our environment. took
If we had set out earlier,we wouldn't be walking in the rain.
不定式作定语：If there is no choice,there is no decision ______（make） to be made
不定式作宾语： Robots , already taking over human tasks in the automotive field, are beginning ________（see） . to be seen
不定式作宾补 I notice him _______（ leave ） the classroom. leave （可省略to）
不定式作主补：They were often compelled ______（work） twelve or fourteen hours a day.
to work（ 不可省略to）
We make them （to） work day and night. 不定式作宾语补语，在有些动词后可以省略TO
They are made to work day and night. 不定式作主语补语时，不可省略TO
分词作定语：Anyone ______（want） to understand the industry of the future will have to know about robotics. wanting
As research techniques become more advanced,the number of animals _____（use） in experiments may decrease. used
分词作状语： When ______（present） with a common case,sales managers tend to see sales problems and production managers see production problems. presented
________ （tell） that some guests were coming ,she shopped all morning in the supermarket. Having been told
Her body， with hands and feet _______（bind）, was discovered by a traveler early in the morning. bound
分词做宾补： They may have their passports ______（remove）,making leaving or "escaping"actually impossible. removed
动名词作宾语：If you cannot understand , ask: "Would you mind ______（rephrase） the question , please ？" rephrasing
If we don't start out now， we must risk ______（miss） the train.
The more time you waste， the _____（easy） it is to continue wasting time.easier
As Jane was the _____（old）, she looked after the other children in the family. eldest
The explorers were puzzled over what to do next because they were in a _____（trick）situation .
These electric appliances are all similar in construction but each one is _____（specialize） in its function.
specialize 是动词，应把它变为形容词 specific或 special