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自考“英语(二)”词形变换应试技巧

2008-01-08 15:46   【 】【我要纠错

  1.熟练掌握动词词形变化规律。注意:动词形式既包括谓语动词的各种形式,如时态、语态及语气(直陈、虚拟)等,虚拟语气为重点,几年来的考题中都有这方面内容;也包括非谓语动词的各种形式。所以做动词的词形变化时,首先要搞清楚它在句中是谓语动词还是非谓语动词,然后再作相应的变化。

  2.认真学好并熟悉课文。本题所选用的句子是根据教材中出现的句子编写的,其中多数来自课文,所以熟悉教材十分重要。

  3.认真钻研相关的语法讲解。主要指谓语动词、非谓语动词、形容词、副词比较等级、情态动词、虚拟语气\形容词比较级、最高级,等部分。

  动词:动词是考试的重点。主要包括:动词的时态、语态、语气和非谓语动词。

  1)动词的时态:重点是动词的过去时、完成时。

  So far,Irving ______(live) in New York City for ten years. has lived

  Many a writer of newspaper articles_______(trun) to writing novels during the past decade. has turned

  Some people think relations between people _______(deteriorate) so much that understanding and friendship are almost impossible . have deteriorated

  Nearly a week passed before the girl was able to explain what _______(happen) to her.

  had happened

  In the past two decades,research _____(expand) our knowledge about sleep and dreams . has expanded

  2)动词的语态:主要掌握各个时态的被动式。

  The nations that _______actively ________(involve) in earthquake prediction programs include Japan,Russia,and the United States. are involved

  There __________(estimate) to be more than 20,000 overseas domestic servants working in Brtain in 1995. were estimated

  3)动词的语气:

  A.掌握非真实条件句中,谓语动词在主句和条件句中的虚拟语气形式。

  If you had come earlier,you ______ (not miss) the first act of the play.

  would not have missed

  If it hadn't been for your help,we _____(be) in real trouble.

  would have been

  B.在表示建议、命令、要求以及表示“重要性”和“紧迫性”等含义的主语从句、宾语从句、表语从句和同位语从句中,谓语动词常用虚拟语气,由“动词原形”或“should + 动词原形”构成。 should 常常省略

  I would recommend that you _______(think) about doing something similar for yourself. (should) think

  It was imperative that students ______(finish) their papers before July 1st.

  (should) finish

  C.动词wish 、would rather (sooner)、if only、as if 后的虚拟语气。

  I would rather he _____(buy) the house next year.

  bought ( 表示从句中动作尚未发生)

  She treats me as if I ______ (be) a stranger. were

  The manager told us to be friendly to the visitors as if we _____( meet) them before.

  had met

  If only we ______(have) a phone! I'm tired of waiting outside the public phone box.

  D.in case , for fear that , lest 等词后从句的谓语动词为(should) + 原形。

  He took his umbrella with him lest it _______ (rain.)

  (should) rain

  E.在It is (high) time that 从句中谓语动词一般用过去时动词。

  It's high time that we _______(take) firm measures to protect our environment. took

  F.时间错综条件句,动词的形式要根据表示的时间调整。

  如果我们早动身,现在就不会在雨中走了。

  If we had set out earlier,we wouldn't be walking in the rain.

  (从句中动作发生在过去,主句中动作发生在现在。)

  4)动词的非谓语动词形式:

  A.动词不定式:主要考查动词不定式作定语、宾语、宾语或主语补足语等的用法。还要注意动词不定式的被动式与完成式。

  不定式作定语:If there is no choice,there is no decision ______(make) to be made

  不定式作宾语: Robots , already taking over human tasks in the automotive field, are beginning ________(see) . to be seen

  不定式作宾补 I notice him _______( leave ) the classroom. leave (可省略to)

  不定式作主补:They were often compelled ______(work) twelve or fourteen hours a day.

  to work( 不可省略to)

  We make them (to) work day and night. 不定式作宾语补语,在有些动词后可以省略TO

  They are made to work day and night. 不定式作主语补语时,不可省略TO

  B.分词:主要考查分词作定语、状语、宾语补足语的用法。注意现在分词与过去分词的区别。 另外,还有现在分词的被动式与完成式的形式。

  分词作定语:Anyone ______(want) to understand the industry of the future will have to know about robotics. wanting

  As research techniques become more advanced,the number of animals _____(use) in experiments may decrease. used

  分词作状语: When ______(present) with a common case,sales managers tend to see sales problems and production managers see production problems. presented

  ________ (tell) that some guests were coming ,she shopped all morning in the supermarket. Having been told

  Her body, with hands and feet _______(bind), was discovered by a traveler early in the morning. bound

  分词做宾补: They may have their passports ______(remove),making leaving or "escaping"actually impossible. removed

  动名词作宾语:If you cannot understand , ask: "Would you mind ______(rephrase) the question , please ?" rephrasing

  If we don't start out now, we must risk ______(miss) the train.

  missing

  形容词副词:

  The more time you waste, the _____(easy) it is to continue wasting time.easier

  As Jane was the _____(old), she looked after the other children in the family. eldest

  词性转换:

  The explorers were puzzled over what to do next because they were in a _____(trick)situation .

  trick是名词或动词,应把它变为形容词tricky

  These electric appliances are all similar in construction but each one is _____(specialize) in its function.

  specialize 是动词,应把它变为形容词 specific或 special

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