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自考“英语(二)”完整讲义(90)

2007-09-07 09:25   【 】【我要纠错

  6.It is not until energies are back to normal that the real problem is recognized.

  强调句,强调时间状语。“直到…才”本句的意思是:“直到自尊心恢复正常时,真正的问题才能被认识。”

  Children need help understanding that their self-esteem and the self-esteem of those they interact with have a direct effect on each other. For example, a little girl comes home from school and says, “I need lovings‘ cause my feelings got hurt today.” The mother responds to her child’s need to be held and loved.(7)If instead the responds to her child‘s need to be held and loved. If instead the mother said she was too busy to hold the little girl the outcome would have been different.

  7.The mother responds to her child‘s need to be held and loved.

  句中to be held and loved 是不定式作need的后置定语。

  本句的意思是:“这个母亲回应了孩子对拥抱和爱抚的需要”

  The infant‘s self-esteem is totally dependent on family members, and it is not until about the time the child enters school that outside forces contribute to feelings about the self. (6)A child must also learn that a major resource for a healthy self-esteem comes from within. Some parents raise their children to depend on external rather than internal reinforcement through practices such as paying for good grades on report cards or exchanging special privileges for good behavior.(8)The child learns to rely on others to maintain a high self-esteem and is not prepared to live in a world in which desirable behavior does not automatically produce a tangible reward such as a smile, money, or special privileges.(9)

  8.Some parents raise their children to depend on external rather than internal reinforcement through practices such as paying for good grades on report cards or exchanging special privileges for good behavior.

  句中to depend on external rather than internal reinforcement是不定式作目的状语

  through …behavior 是介词短语作方式状语。

  本句的意思是:“一些家长培养孩子的自尊心不是通过实践依赖内在的强化力量,而是依赖外来因素,例如成绩单分数高时给孩子钱,或者孩子表现好时给他们好处。”

  9.The child learns to rely on others to maintain a high self-esteem and is not prepared to live in a world in which desirable behavior does not automatically produce a tangible reward such as a smile ,money, or special privileges.

  in which 引导定语从句。

  本句的意思是:“孩子就学会依赖别人来保持较强的自尊心,因而对生活在这样一个世界里缺乏准备:即好的表现不会自动带来可以看得到的回报,如微笑,金钱或好处。”

  Maintaining a healthy self-esteem is a challenge that continues throughout life. One family found that they could help each other identify positive attitudes. One evening during a electric storm the family gathered around the kitchen table, and each person wrote down two things that they liked about each family member. These pieces of paper were folded and given to the appropriate person, who one by one opened their special messages. The father later commented, “It was quite an experience, opening each little piece of paper and reading the message. The father later commented, ”It was quite an experience, opening each little piece of paper and reading the message. I still have those gifts, and when I‘ve had a really bad day, I read through them and I always come away feeling better.“(10)

  10.I still have those gifts, and when I‘ve had a really bad day, I read through them and I always come away feeling better.

  本句中come away 意为“离开”,是指作者在读完这些纸条后离开,是口语的用法。

  feeling better 是现在分词短语作伴随状语。

  本句的意思是:“我至今还保留着这些礼物,而每当我哪天运气不佳,心情不好的时候,读一遍这些条子,心情就会变得好多了。”

  The foundation of a healthy family depends on the ability of the parents to communicate messages of love, trust, and self-worth to each child. This is the basis on which self-esteem is built, and as the child grows, self-esteem changes from a collection of other‘s feelings to become personal feelings about the self. Ultimately a person’s self-esteem is reflected in the way he or she interacts with others.

  语 法 虚拟语气

  I.语 法

  虚拟语气 subjunctive mood(参看上册书 P.539 Unit 18 语法)

  英语的虚拟语气是用谓语动词的变化来表示说话人对事物的看法和态度,一般说的不是客观存在的事实,只是表示愿望、可能性、主观空想、推测、建议、要求或假设等。

  虚拟语气的基本用法有三个方面;虚拟条件句与名词从句中的用法在上册书已经讲过,下册书中是一些补充用法。

  一、非真实条件句(虚拟条件句)中,注意主句和从句的谓语动词

  的搭配,下面举例说明:

  1.If you had time, you should finish your homework.(虚拟的,说明现在你没有时间)

  2.If I were you, I would go there.

  3.If atomic bomb had not been used in World War II, Japenese would not have surrendered.

  4.If it should rain tomorrow, what could we do?

  5.If you were to come next time, I might meet you.

  三种情况的主从句的谓语动词采取的虚拟形式:

   条件从句  主句 
违背现在  过去式  should/would +动词原形 
违背过去  had+过去分词  should/would +have+过去分词 
违背未来  (1)should+动词原形
(2)were+动词不定式 
should/would+动词原形 

本文转载链接:自考“英语(二)”完整讲义(90)

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