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自考“英语(二)”完整讲义(78)

2007-09-07 08:43   【 】【我要纠错

  9.“which is four hours different”是定语从句修饰zone. “ which are normally set together” 和 “ which have been reset a few hour apart” 是两个定语从句修饰 clocks.

  此句意思:然而如果你把整个身体移到一个时差4个小时的时区,两个时钟就不再同步,正像两个闹钟通常被一起定时,但现在定时相差几个小时。

  10.whereas连接让步状语从句,意为“尽管,虽然”全句的大意是:尽管两个闹钟通常同时报时,但现在则在不同时间报时。

  In time the physiological system will reset itself, but it does take time.⑾ One easily monitored rhythm is palm sweating. A man flown to a time zone different by 10 hours will take eight days to readjust his palm sweat. Blood pressure, which is also rhythmical, takes four days to readjust.(12)

  11.In time the physiological system will reset itself, but it does take time.

  it does take time 是强调谓语动词。经过一段时间后,生理系统将会自我调整过来,但这需要时间。

  12.which 引导非限制性定语从句, 修饰blood pressure.

  此句意思:血压也是有节奏性的,需要4天才能调整过来。

  One reason for this discrepancy is that different bodily events are controlled by different factors. (13) The hormone cortisol, which controls salt and water excretion, is made in the morning, wherever the body is. But the growth hormone is released during sleep, whenever in the day that sleep occurs. (14 ) Normally these two hormones are separated by seven or eight hours, but if the body arrives at a destination in the early morning (local) and goes to sleep as soon as possible, the two hormones will be released simultaneously.

  13.此句是一个表语从句,that 引导一个从句作表语。此句意思:出现这种差异的一个原因是人体的不同活动受到不同因素的支配。

  14.whenever 引导时间状语从句。Whenever in the day 意为“不管在一天中的什么时候”;that sleep 是从句的主语,that 是指示代词修饰sleep.

  全句意思:但生长激素在睡眠时才分泌,而不论一天中什么时候睡觉。

  What can we do about it? It is not feasible to wait four days until the body is used to the new time zone. Fortunately there is a short cut. It relies on two things - the power of the stomach to regulate the timing of other events, and the pharmacological actions of coffee.

  The basic assumptions are:

  Coffee delays the body clock in the morning, and advances it at night. Coffee at mid-afternoon is neutral. (15)

  15.该句中neutral 意为“中性的”,在这里是与上文的delay 和advance 相对,表示“既不推迟,也不提前” 译为:下午三点左右喝咖啡对人体时钟不起作用。

  Protein in meals stimulates wakefulness, while carbohydrates promote sleep.

  Putting food into an empty stomach helps synchronize the body clock.

  Text B Controlling your concentration

  New Words

  1.span n. 1.指距,一拃宽;2.跨距;3.一段时间

  2.fluctuate vi. 1.波动,起伏;2.动摇,不定;vt. 使波动,使起伏

  3.fluctuation n. 波动,起伏

  4.tick n.(钟表的)滴答声;vi.(钟表的)滴答响

  5.fade vi. 1.凋谢,枯萎;2.(颜色)褪去;

  3.(声音等)衰弱下去;vt.使褪色

  6.illusion n. 错觉;幻觉

  7.duration n. 持续;持续时间

  8.infrequent a. 很少发生的

  9.illustration n.1.说明;2.例证,插图

  10.moderate a.1.中等的,适度的;2.温和的,有节制的

  11.distraction n.1.精神涣散,精神不集中;2.消遣,娱乐

  12.distractor n. 分散注意力的东西

  13.focal a.焦点的

  14.remedy n. 1.治疗;2.补救(法);vt. 1.治疗;2.补救,纠正

  15.fearful a. 1.可怕的,吓人的;2.害怕的,胆怯的

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