3.Given the amount of time that children watch television，it has become one of the most powerful models they want to follow.
given在本句中用作介词，意思是considering， taking into account（考虑到），在词汇部分我们已作了比较详细的讲解，再请看两个例句：
1）Given they are fresh from university，they've done a great job.（考虑到他们刚走出大学校园，他们干得不错。）
2）Given that he has always been dreaming of visiting the great wall， it seems cruel not to take him to Beijing.（他一直梦想游长城，不带他去北京似乎太残酷了。）
The work must be done within the given time. （工作必须在规定时间内完成。）
Given the chance， she could have done as well as you have.（如果给他这个机会，她会干得跟你一样好。）
4.Children naturally often want the toys shown on and advertised during these programs.
Shown on and advertised during these programs 在本句中的作用是分词短语作定语，相当于被动语态的定语从句，修饰toys.
1）Last night， we saw a documentary dubbed in English.（昨晚，我们看了一部用英文译制的记录片。）
2）The play put on by the first-year students was very good.（一年级学生演出的剧目很好。）
3）The letters written in pencil are from my brother.（那些用铅笔写的信是我弟弟带来的。）
These programs 是 shown on 和advertised during 这两个词组中的介词的共用宾语。如：
He doesn't care about and has no interest in other people’s opinion.（对别人的观点他不在乎也没兴趣。）
5.With these toys， their play tends to be more imitative than imaginative.
1）He is in bed with flu.（他因患流感卧病在床。）
2）Her eyes were dim with tears.（她的双眼因泪水而模糊。）
3）The boy's face was white with nervousness.（那个男孩的脸因紧张而发白。）
1）Plants tend to die in hot weather if you don't water them.（植物在炎热天气如不浇水容易枯死。）
2）He tends to get impatient if you ask him more than two questions.（如果你问他两个以上的问题，他往往会不耐烦。）
6.The narrow range of most violence-related toys advertised on television jeopardizes the role of play in helping children make better sense of their own feelings and interpret their world.
1）His reading is of very wide range.（他的阅读面很广。）
2）Over the long range， the most important step will be a general tax reform.（从长远看，最重要的步骤是全面实行税制改革。）
Make sense of 意思是“了解；弄明白”。如：
1）I can not make any sense of what he says.（他的话我弄不懂。）
2）His lecture helped me make better sense of the poem.（他的讲解帮助我更好地理解这首诗。）
3）I could make no sense of his carelessly written letter.（我看不懂他马马虎虎写的那封信。）
7.Many preschool teachers do not like to have commercially made toy weapons brought into the classroom and welcome hearing your concerns about this matter.
have…toy weapons brought into the classroom（把玩具武器带进教室。）have sth. done 是极为常见的用法，如：
1）I need to have my bike repaired.（我需要把自行车修一下。）
2）He had his files destroyed before he left.（在离开前，他把文件都毁了。）
3）She wanted to have the rooms repainted before moving in.（她想在搬入前把房间重新粉刷一遍。）
1）He ran to the door to welcome his friends. （他向门口跑去，欢迎他的朋友。）
2）Welcome to Beijing.（欢迎到北京来。）
3）Her marriage was not welcomed by the family.（她的婚姻不被家人接受。）
4）They gave her a warm welcome.（他们给她以热烈欢迎。）
5）He received a hero's welcome at the airport.（他在机场受到英雄般的欢迎。）
6）You are welcome to use my bike.（我的自行车你尽管用。）
7）He is a welcome guest.（他是个受欢迎的客人。）
concern about sth. 意思是“对…的关心”，在第九单元中，我们学过be concerned about. 如：
1）We are all concerned about his education.（我们都关心他的教育。）
2）His parents are very much concerned about his health.（他的父母非常关心他的健康。）
3）My concern about the matter is known to all.（人人知道我对这件事的关心。）
1. a quarter of 2. expose to
3. have an effect on 4. allocate…to
5. point out 6. distinguish from
7. tend to 8. make sense of
9. apply…to 10. be crazy about
11. put together 12. ask sb. about sth.
13. have sth. done 14. concern about
15. an alternative to sth. 16. look for
Text B Why don't girls think like boys？
1. do well
Many people believe that boys do well in science.
Mr. Smith didn't expect that he could do so well in industrial engineering.
2. in one's opinion
In my opinion， what he said could be true.
Parents should be friendly with their children in his opinion.
3. be good at
He is good at English， but he is better at computer.
She is good at imitating other people's way of talking.
4. according to
According to some doctors， only 1 out of 20 patients who had lung cancer could survive.
According to the text， aggression in boys is caused by mothers.
5. on the average
On the average， girls score higher on tests that measure vocabulary， spelling， and memory.
We made 65 miles an hour on the average.
6. be determined by
People's abilities are not determined by sex.
The rise and fall of the prices is determined by supply and demand.
7. be headed by
One of the scientific research teams was headed by Mr. Watson.
This company is headed by John's twin brother.
8. be ready to
He is always ready to help people in need.
She is not ready to take on that kind of responsibility.
9. take notes
He is amazed to see that students take notes on what he says in class.
He decided to take notes of the development of the political events.
10. lean against/on
She felt weak， so leaned against the wall.
He leaned the bike against a tree.
11. insist upon/on
He insisted on paying the meal.
Most companies insist upon having an interview before they accept an employee.