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自考“英语(一)”笔记(25)

2007-04-06 15:45   【 】【我要纠错

  3. Diamonds are made from carbon.

  由……制成,可以用be made from和be made of两个词组来表达。但是be made from通常指制成品已看不出原材料是什么,而be made of可以看出该物品由什么材料制成的。如:

  1) Paper is made from some plants. (纸是由某些植物制成的。)

  2) This beer is made from grain. (这种啤酒是用粮食酿制的。)

  3) The houses were made of brick. (这些房屋是砖造的。)

  4) This toy is made of cotton. (这个玩具是布做的。)

  4. Scientists know that the combination of extreme heat and pressure changes carbon into diamonds.

  extreme在句中做形容词用,意思是“极度的”,如:

  1) Extreme cold can wake a hibernating animal. (极度的寒冷能使正在冬眠的动物苏醒。)

  2) They will have to endure extreme discomfort in winter. (冬天时,他们将不得不忍受极度的不适。)

  change…into意思是“把…转变为…”,如:

  1) Water changes into vapour when heated. (水加热后转变为蒸气。)

  2) Go to the bank and you can easily change these dollars into RMB. (你去银行就能很容易地把这些美元换成人民币。)

  5. Such heat and pressure exist only in the hot, liquid mass of molten rock deep inside the earth.

  请注意such与so之间的不同用法。such后面接名词,而so后面接形容词或副词。如:

  1) I don't believe he could make such a mistake. (我相信他不会犯这样的错误的。)

  2) How can you go out on such a rainy day? (在这样的雨天里,你怎么能出门?)

  3) He spoke so fast that I couldn't follow. (他说话太快,我听不懂。)

  4) I'm so glad you could come. (你能来我真高兴。)

  mass在本句中的意思是“(聚成一体的)团、块”,比如:

  1) a mass of hot air(一团热气)

  2) a mass of sand(一堆沙)

  3) Rain occurs when a mass of warm air is laden with water. (一团云聚集大量的水蒸气就形成了雨。)

  Mass也可以做形容词用,意思是“群众的”、“大量的”,如:

  1) a mass meeting (群众大会)

  2) mass education (大众教育)

  3) mass media (大众传媒)

  4) Mass production could very well cut the cost. (大规模生产可以降低成本。)

  6. It is thought that millions of years ago this liquid mass pushed upward through cracks in the earth's crust.

  It is thought that…是一个很常用的句型,类似的句型在英语中很多,比如:

  1) It is / was, has been…, reported that…

  2) It is / was, has been…, stated that…

  3) It is / was, has been…, pointed out that…

  4) It is / was, has been…, mentioned that…

  5) It is / was, has been…, believed that…

  7. A. There are only four areas where very many diamonds have been formed.

  B. The first known area was in India, where diamonds were found thousands of years ago.

  定语从句可分为限定性定语从句和非限定性定语从句。A句是限定性定语从句,B句是非限定性定语从句。A、B两句中都是用关系副词where来引导定语从句,修饰表示地点的名词。请看下面的句子,注意限定性定语从句一般不用逗号隔开:

  1) Is there a shop around where we can get some fruit? (附近有什么商店可以买到水果吗?)

  2) This is the place where we met yesterday. (这是我们昨天碰头的地方。)

  3) The small town, where he once worked, has turned to be a modern city. (他曾经工作过的那座小城,已经变成现代化的城市了。)

  8. In the 1600's…(十七世纪)

  In the 1720's…(十八世纪二十年代)

  In the 1800's…(十九世纪)

  请注意年代的表达方法,以上的年代也可以表达为in the 1600s; in the 1720s; in the 1800s.如果我们要表达“在十七世纪初(中、末)期”,则可以说in the early(mid, late) 1600's/1600s.

  9. Diamonds became very popular with the kings and queens of Europe.

  become / be popular with / among是一个常用词组,意思是“受…欢迎”,请看下面的句子:

  1) These Chinese handicrafts are very popular with foreign friends. (这些中国工艺品很受外国朋友的喜爱。)

  2) His novels are popular among young people. (他的小说很受年轻人的喜爱。)

  3) Classical music is popular among more and more people. (古典音乐受到越来越多的人的喜爱。)

  10. India's supply of diamonds was finally running out after 2,500 yeas of mining the stones.

  Supply在句子中做名词用,意思是“供应”。Supply常常可以做动词用,意思是“供给,提供”。请看下面的句子:

  1) Economic stability can be reached if demand and supply are in balance. (如果供求关系平衡的话,就能实现经济的稳定。)

  2) Many materials are in short supply. (许多材料供应不足。)

  3) The increasing world population will put a strain on food supply. (不断增长的世界人口将对粮食供应带来重负。)

  4) You have to supply him with an answer. (你得给他提供一个答案。)

  5) Most towns are supplied with tap-water and electricity. (大多数城镇都有自来水和电力供应。)

  run out是一个常用词组,意思是“用完,用尽”。请看例句:

  1) Time is running out. We have to hurry. (时间快到了,我们得快点。)

  2) My patience is running out. (我快要耐不住了。)

  3) His luck seemed to have run out. (他的好运似乎结束了。)

  我们也可以用run out来表达类似的意思,但run out of的主语应该是“某人”。如:

  1) They have run out of money, so they have to find a job. (他们钱用完了,所以得找一份工作。)

  2) I have run out of ink. (我的墨水用完了。)

  11. People would pick up handfuls of gravel from the bottom of the streams and sort out the diamonds.

  -ful通常加在名词后面,构成形容词,如care-careful,help-helpful.而本句中的handful是一个名词,意思是“一把”,在单词部分,我们已经提到过,英语中有不少这样的词,如:

  1) He gave me a basketful of beaches. (他给了我满满一篮子桃子。)

  2) She put a spoonful of salt in the soup. (她往汤里撒了满满一勺盐。)

  3) Tom is carrying an armful of books. (汤姆抱着一捆书。)

  sort out是一个常用词组,意思是“整理,分类”,如:

  1) Sort out those of bigger size and put them in a box. (把大点的整理出来,放在盒子里。)

  2) It took quite a while to sort out all our luggage. (把我们所有的行李整理好花了不少时间。)

  bottom在句子中做名词用,意思是“底部”。bottom还有“尽头、末端”的意思。请看例句:

  1) There is some deposit in the bottom of the teapot. (茶壶底部有些沉淀物。)

  2) At the bottom of the mountain, there is a beautiful village. (在山脚下有个美丽的村子。)

  3) I felt grateful to you from the bottom of my heart. (我衷心地感谢你。)

  4) Bottoms up. (干杯。)

  12. These diamonds were probably carried from where they were formed to India by great sheets of moving ice that covered parts of the earth 20,000 years ago.

  where they were formed是where引出的名词性从句,作介词from的宾语。请看下面的句子:

  1) He didn't say anything about where the accident took place. (他对事故在哪儿发生的只字未提。)

  2) She hasn't made up her mind as to where she should go for the holiday. (她还没有决定到哪儿去度假。)

本文转载链接:自考“英语(一)”笔记(25)

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