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自考“英语(一)”笔记(37)

2007-04-06 16:04   【 】【我要纠错

  本课主要语言点

  1. In every cultivated language there are two great classes of words which, taken together, make up the whole vocabulary.

  class在本句中的意思是“种类”,相当于type, category.如:

  1)It is very difficult to meet the needs of various classes of readers.

  (要满足各种读者的需要十分困难)

  2)How many classes are you going to divide these books? (你打算把这些书分成几类?)

  class 还常用来表示“等级”,如:a second-class hotel (二等旅馆);

  an economy-class ticket (经济舱票);fly first class (乘头等舱航空旅行)。

  class 也可以用动词用,意思是“把 …分类;把…看作”,如:

  1)At 19 you are still classed as a teenager.(到了十九岁,你仍旧是青少年。)

  2)He was classed as a genius (他被看作为天才)

  make up 在本句中的意思是“组成、构成”,请看例句:

  1)Twenty-six boys and twenty-four girls make up the class (二十六名男生和二十四名女生组成了这个班)

  2)Twelve doctors made up the medical team (十二名医生组成医疗队)

  用被动语态时则应用be made up of,如:

  This engine is made up of 490 parts (这台发动机是由四百九十个部件装配而成的)

  taken together 过去分词短语做后置定语,对中心词做一些附加说明,相当于一个非限定性定语从句,要用逗号和中心词隔开,如:

  All the letters in the drawer, written in pencil, are from my brother.(抽屉里的这些用铅笔写的信都是我弟弟写的。)

  2. First,there are those words with which we become familiar in ordinary conversation,which we learn,that is to say,from the members of our own family and from our friends,and which we should know and use even if we could not read or write.

  句子中which引导的都是定语从句,修饰中心词words.第一个which的前面有介词with,这儿的with是familiar with中的介词前置了。Familiar with 意为“熟悉”。如:Are you familiar with the man standing over there?(站在那边的那个人你熟悉吗?)

  请注意familiar with 与familiar to 的区别,familiar with 的主语通常是人,而familiar to的主语通常是物。如:

  1)I am not familiar with this place.

  2)This place is mot familiar to me.

  that is to say 是插入语,其作用是对整个一句话进行解释,类似的插入语还有so to speak, if I may say so, if you don't mind等等,如:

  1)I'd really rather not go, if you don't mind 我确实不想去,你如果不介意的话。

  2)The new emperor was, so to speak, a puppet.新皇帝可以说是个傀儡。

  3.They concern the common things of life, and are the stock in trade of who speak the language concern 在句中的意思是“涉及,有关于”,如:

  1)Don't interfere in things that don't concern you (别干预跟你无关的事)。

  2)The energy problem concerns us all (能源问题关系到我们每个人)

  stock的意思很多,如“存货”,“股票”,“公债券”,“牲畜”等。

  1)They hold a rich stock of information (他们掌握着丰富的材料)

  2)You cannot buy it because it's out of stock (你买不成了,货品已经脱销)

  3)He used to have a stock farm (他曾经拥有一个畜牧场)

  4)The fridge was carefully stocked up with food.(冰箱里周到地放满了食品)

  stock in trade 也可以写成stock in trade,意思是“例行工作”,“常规”,如:

  1)Complaints were a stock in trade of an airport manager's job (机场经理的工作就是常常面对投诉)

  2)He was the master of black humor, it was his stock in trade (他是黑色幽默大师,黑色幽默是他的专长)

  4.Such words may be called “popular”, since they belong to the people at large and are not the possession of a limited class only.

  since 在句中引导的是一个原因状语从句,请看例句:

  1)Since it was Saturday, he got up very late (因为是周六,他起床很晚。)

  2)You can take the place of him since he is not interested (你可以取代他,因为他对这事不感兴趣)

  at large 在本句中的意思是“整个”,这个词组的意思还有很多,请看下面的句子:

  1)The people at large love peace (大多数人热爱和平)

  2)The virus is still at large (这种病毒还在蔓延)

  3)The murderer is still at large (杀人犯仍逍遥法外)

  4)He talked at large about his plans (他详尽地谈了自己的计划)

  5)They made the arrangements at large (他们随意地做了安排 )

  5. 请注意区别与possession 有关的两个词组:in possession of sth……和 in the possession of sb.

  1)He is in possession of this house (他拥有这所房子)

  2)The house is in the possession of him

  3)On the other hand, our language includes large number of words which are relatively seldom used in ordinary conversation.

  英语中有许多表示启承转合的词语,阅语中注意这些词有助于我们提高理解力,写作中注意用这些词,有助于我们把文章写得连贯、有条理。On the other hand 在本句中用来表示不同或相反的语气,在前一段中讲了popular word 这一段中作者则要讲讲learned words. 表示不同或相反语气的词还有很多,比如:Conversely, however, on the contrary, unlike, whereas, yet等等。

  前面我们提到过number可以与可数名词连用,而amount可与不可数名词连用,如:

  1)A large number of students have passed the exam (许多学生已经通过了考试)

  2)They paid a large amount of money for the house (他们付了一大笔钱买了这座房子)

  6.Their meanings are known to every educated person, but there is little occasion to use them at home

  occasion 通常可以做可数名词用,意思是“时刻、场合”;也可以做不可数名词用,意思是:“必要性、需要;机会”。如:

  1)They're met on several occasions (他们已相遇过好几次)

  2)They are occasions when you find it difficult to say “Good-bye”。(有时候你会觉得说“再见”很难。)

  3)I don't remember I had occasion to blame him (我不记得我有责备他的必要)

  7.In the latter,we are using a Latin Derivation which has exactly the same meaning

  在前一句中用了“in the first case,” 本句中的“in the latter ”是指in the latter case .对两件事分别进行表述时,可以用in the first case, in the latter case 这一类词,条理非常清楚,也可以用the former,the latter 来表述。derivation 是derive 的名词形式。Latin derivation 意思是“拉丁语词源的词”,请看例句:

  1)These words are derived from Latin (这些词由拉丁语派生而来)

  2)The derivation of words is interesting (词的派生很有意思)

  8. The terms “popular”and“learned”,as applied to words,are not absolute definitions.本句中的term意思是“术语、名称”,如:

  1)I don't know how to put this term into Chinese (我不知道如何把这一术语译成中文)

  2)Writer is hardly the term to apply to him (“作家”这一名称很难用在他身上)

  term 还有“期限;任期;学期”的意思,如:

  1)During his 4-year term of office,he did a lot of things for the common people.

  (在他四年的任职期间,他为普通百姓做了不少事。)

  2)He decided to rum for a second term (他决定竞选连任。)

  3)The autumn term is coming to an end (秋学期快要结束了。)

  apply to 在句中的意思是“用于”,如:

  1)This rule applies to upper class students only (这条规则只适用于高年级学生。)

  2)I don't think what he says applies to you (我想他的话对你不适用)

  3)They are eager to apply the theory to practice (他们急切地想把这一理论用于实践)

  apply for 则是“申请”的意思,如:

  1)How many people have applied for the job?(有多少人申请了这个工作?)

  2)They applied for permission to use the tennis court (他们申请使用网球场。)

本文转载链接:自考“英语(一)”笔记(37)

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