8. We have been trying to pin down by experiments what people mean by these expressions in specific contexts，…
pin作名词用时指“别针，大头针”，如a safety pin （安全别针）；作动词用时指“别住”；“使不能行动”，pin down的意思是“准确说明”，“牵制”。如：
1） He pinned a badge on his jacket. （他在外套上别了一枚徽章。）
2） She pinned the papers together before giving them to the manager. （把文件给经理前，她用针把它们别好。）
3） They pinned him down to a promise. （他们迫使他履行诺言。）
4） We are trying to pin down his speech. （我们正努力准确说明他的讲话。）
1） What do you mean by that？ （你这样讲是什么意思？）
2） He put the young man in an awkward situation by asking him some personal questions.
9. …we find that the number depends of course on the items involved.
…the size of the population of items influences the value assigned to an expression.
上面两句中的过去分词involved和assigned其前都省去了that （which） are （is），做定语修饰items和value.
1. be made up of
2. in part
3. be likely to
4. be left with
5. allow sb. to do sth.
6. out of the question
7. not so much…as…
8. be reduced to
9. pin down
10. compare with
11. be certain to
12. in place of
Text B it never rains but it pours！
1. There is no smoke without fire.
2. Don't wash your dirty linen in the public.
3. It's no use crying over spilt milk.
4. Make the best out of a bad job.
5. It never rains but it pours.
6. Every dog is allowed one bite.
7. One man's meat is another man’s poison.
8. Let sleeping dogs lie.
9. He who rides a tiger is afraid to dismount.
10. A friend in need is a friend indeed.
11. There is no such thing as a free lunch.
1. relevance to / be relevant to
What he said had no relevance to the present question.
They could not forward any relevant proof.
2. believe in
I believe him but I don't believe in him.
He believes in Christianity.
3. pass on to
Would you please pass this message on to Xiao Li？
Thank you for passing the news on to me.
4. in the form of
He showed his appreciation to her in the form of a letter of hanks.
They gave the children a lot of help in the form of books.
5. a reminder of
This proverb can be used as a reminder of the correct way to behave.
This picture is a reminder of my past.
6. in times of
They are said to be more intelligent in times of difficulties.
This could be a comfort in times of trouble.
7. be native to
Rice is believed to be native to China.
This saying is native to the American Indians.
8. go wrong
When anything goes wrong with his car he will hasten to his auto repairman.
I don't know what has gone wrong with my computer.
9. be based on
His comments are based on facts.
This film is based on the life story of a general.
10. date back to
This invention can be dated back to the Han Dynasty.
This old law dated back to the 17th century.
11. pay compensation to
The insurance company would pay compensation to the victims.
The supermarket refused to pay any compensation to the customer.
12. be harmful to
Excessive smoking is harmful to your health.
TV violence is harmful to children.
13. come into contact with
China came into more contact with the outside world in the late 1980s.
We learned more as we came into contact with them.
14. borrow from
He borrowed a lot of money from his friends.
Some of the English words are borrowed from other languages.
15. start on
He started on his journey last week.
You have to get well prepared if you want to start on a dangerous enterprise.
16. in return
They gave you so much help， what are you going to do in return？
I didn't expect any favor from you in return.
17. be reluctant to
He is reluctant to make any comment on this issue.
The boy was reluctant to tell his father the truth.