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自考“英语(一)”笔记(73)

2007-04-11 08:34   【 】【我要纠错

  Text A    the language of uncertainty

  本课主要单词

  1. dominate v. rule, control (统治,支配,控制)

  domination n. 统治、支配、控制

  1)He felt ill at ease living in a white-dominated society. (他觉得生活在一个白人统治的社会里很不自在。)

  2)His opinion dominated the other members of the committee.

  (他的看法对委员会的其他成员起了决定性影响。)

  3)This issue dominated the discussion. (这个议题在讨论中占了首要地位。)

  4)Agriculture has lost its dominance in many countries. (农业在许多国家已失去了优势。)

  5)The domination of Europe over the rest of the world has long since declined.

  (欧洲对世界其他地区的支配作用早已衰弱。)

  2. judgment n. 判决;看法;判断

  judge v. 审判;判断;认为      n. 法官;裁判员

  1) He hoped the judgment would be in his favor. (他希望判决对他有利。)

  2) He sometimes couldn't live with himself if he made a mistake in judgment.

  (如果判断失误,他有时不能容忍自己。)

  3) In my judgment, we should do it right now. (依我看,我们应该马上做这件事。)

  4) He was brought to the judge, accused of stealing. (他被指控行窃而带到法官面前受审。)

  5) Mr. Li is going to be a judge of a beauty contest. (李先生将做选美比赛的评判员。)

  6) The young man was judged innocent. (那个年轻人被判无罪。)

  7) We cannot judge whether it is right or wrong. (我们不能判断这是对还是错。)

  8) I judge she knew what she was doing. (依我看,她当时知道她在干什么。)

  3. editorial n. 社论 adj. 编辑的

  editor n. 编辑

  edit v. 编辑;校订;修改

  1) This issue carries a weighty editorial on education. (这期登了一篇有关教育的很有分量的社论。)

  2) The editorial policies haven't changed a bit over the years. (这些年来编辑方针没有丝毫改变。)

  3) He was made assistant editor on the paper. (他被任为那报纸的助理编辑。)

  4) The chief editor was on a business trip. (主编出差了。)

  5) Scholars often edit Shakespeare's plays. (学者们常校订莎士比亚的剧本。)

  6) He is carefully editing his speed. (他正在仔细修改自己的讲稿。)

  4. wage n. 工资,报酬      v. 进行,开展

  wage(s)通常指付给从事体力劳动或技术工作的人们的报酬,也可以指按星期付给从事该类工作的人们的工资。

  1) They stopped working to press for better wages and working conditions.

  (他们停止工作,要求更高的报酬和更好的工作条件。)

  2) His wages are 200 dollars a week. (他的工资是200美元一周。)

  3) They waged a campaign against cheating on exams. (他们开展了反对考试作弊的运动。)

  4) Germany waged a war against Poland. (德国对波兰开战。)

  5. probability n. 可能性;概率

  probable adj. 可能的

  在前一单元中,我们学习了副词probably,同时也讲了名词probability和形容词probable的用法。再请看几个例句:

  1) The probability of an earthquake disturbed everybody. (地震的可能使每一个人不安。)

  2) In all probability, they could perform many different musical instruments.

  (他们很可能会演奏许多种不同的乐器。)

  3) Every event has a particular probability of occurring. (每个事件都有其特定的发生率。)

  4) This is the most probable interpretation of the situation. (这是对形势的最可能的解释。)

  5) Xiao Wang is the probable winner. (小王是颇有希望得胜的人。)

  6) It is probable that he forgot. (他或许是忘记了。)

  6. verbal adj. 言辞的;口头的;动词的

  1) This job calls for excellent verbal talent. (这份工作需要极好的口才。)

  2) The difference is merely verbal. (差别仅仅在于措辞。)

  3) “en” and “-ize” are common verbal endings. (“en” 和 “-ize”是常见的动词词尾。)

  verbal instructions (文字说明)    a verbal protest (口头抗议)

  a verbal agreement (口头协议)

  7. imprecision n. 不精确,不正确    imprecise adj. 不精确的;不正确的

  im-是一个前缀,通常加在以 “m”、 “p”、或 “b”为首的形容词、副词和名词前,构成反义词。如:immature (不成熟的),immodest (不谦虚的),immoral (不道德的);impossible (不可能的), impolite (不礼貌的),impatience (不耐心);imbalance (不平衡)等等。

  -ion是一个名词后缀,我们已经多次碰到过,如protection (保护), extension (延伸)。

  1)The imprecision of the ordinary words led to many misunderstandings.

  (日常用词意义的含混引起了许多误解。)

  2) The imprecision of the ruler gave him a lot of trouble. (尺子的不精确给他带来了很多麻烦。)

  3) My ideas about it were imprecise. (我对这个问题的看法不准确。)

  4) The terms he used were imprecise. (他用的术语不确切。)

  8. denote v. indicate, show (指示;代表;是…的标记)

  1) Dark clouds denote rain. (乌云是下雨的预兆。)

  2) Red flares denote danger. (红色火焰是危险的标记。)

  3) My identity was denoted by a plastic label on my wrist. (我手腕上的塑料标签表明了我的身份。)

  9. subjective adj. 主观的

  subject n. 主观;题目;学科;臣民;主语      adj. 受支配的;易受…的

  1) It is only my subjective impression. (这仅是我的主观印象。)

  2) How can you fully believe his subjective judgement? (你怎能完全相信他的主观判断?)

  3) What's the subject for today’s debate? (今天辩论的题目是什么?)

  4) I am taking four subjects this semester. (本学期我选四门课。)

  5) He is a British subject. (他是英国臣民。)

  6) India is no longer subject to British rule. (印度不再受英国统治了。)

  7) This area is subject to seasonal winds. (这个地区常遭受季风的袭击。)

  10. potentially adv. 可能地,潜在地

  potential adj. 潜在的,可能的       n. 潜力,可能性

  1) Electricity is potentially dangerous. (电是潜力的危险。)

  2) The dispute has scared away potential investors. (这场争论吓跑了可能的投资者。)

  3) The hole in the road is a potential danger. (路上的那个坑是个潜在的危险。)

  4) The system gives everyone a chance to tap one's potential to the full.

  (这种体制给了每个人充分发挥潜能的机会。)

  11. prediction n. 预言;预报

  predict v. 预言,预报

  pre-是一个前缀,表示before, 如:prehistoric (史前的),preschool (学前)。

  dict是个词根,意思是to say, 如:contradict (矛盾;否定),dictator (独裁者;口授者)

  1) Have you listened to the weather prediction for the day? (你听了当天的天气预报了吗?)

  2) They made prediction about possible price increase. (他们对物价上涨的可能性进行预测。)

  3) The weather scientists predicted a light rain and temperature drop. (气象专家们预测有小雨,气温将下降。)

  4) I cannot predict what will happen. (我无法预料将会发生什么事情。)

  12. signify v. 表示…的意思;表明;意味着

  signification n. 意义;表示

  我们讲到过-fy是个动词后缀,意思是make,如identify, beautify, purify等等。

  sign是词根,意思是mark,如:signature (签字,记号),design (设计,意图)

  1) “MD” signifies “Doctor of Medicine”。 (“MD”意为“医学博士”。)

  2) He signifies consent with a smile. (他微笑表示同意。)

  3) The clouds signified the coming storm. (乌云预示着即将有暴风雨。)

  4) Signification relies largely upon words and gestures. (表示意思主要靠言词和示意动作。)

  13. secondly adv. 第二,其次

  1) He was first of all a dishonesty chap, secondly he was irresponsible.

  (首先他是个不诚实的家伙,其次他没有责任心。)

  2) I don't like this pair of shoes. Firstly the color is awful; secondly it is too expensive.

  (我不喜欢这双鞋。首先颜色很糟糕,其次价格太贵。)

  14. assign v. 分配;指派;指定;布置

  assignment n. 任务;作业;分配

  1) They assigned me a small room. (他们分给我一个小房间。)

  2) I was assigned to the mountain village. (我被派到那个山村工作。)

  3) Have you assigned a day for the meeting? (你们指定了开会日期吗?)

  4) He finished all the homework assignments in two hours. (他用两小时完成了全部的家庭作业。)

  5) My first major assignment as a reporter was to cover a large scale riot.

  (我做记者的首次重要任务是采访一个大规模暴动。)

  15. marked adj. 明显的;显著的

  1) The patient showed a marked improvement. (病人的病情显著好转。)

  2) A market police car sped past just now. (刚才一辆有标记的警车急驶而过。)

  3) The boy showed marked improvements in spelling and reading. (那个男孩在拼写和阅读方面有了显著提高。)

  16. widen v. 加宽,放宽扩大

  我们在前面讲到过-en可以做动词后缀,用在名词或形容词后面构成动词,如:lengthen, heighten, shorten, brighten等等。

  1) The river widens where it meets the sea. (那条河在入海口处变宽了。)

  2) The road finally widened and we didn't have to worry about traffic blocks any more.

  (那条路终于拓宽了,我们不用再担心交通堵塞了。)

  3) The misunderstanding widened the gulf between the two sides. (误解加深了双方的隔阂。)

  4) His arguments widened my ideas. (他的论点开阔了我的思路。)

  5) He stared at me, his eyes widening. (他逼视着我,眼睛睁得大大的。)

本文转载链接:自考“英语(一)”笔记(73)

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