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自考“英语(一)”笔记(65)

2007-04-10 09:33   【 】【我要纠错

  18.rightful adj. 合法的;正义的;正当的

  请注意区别right和rightful.Right强调同事实没有偏差,rightful指事物符合道德或法律的约束。

  1)He regained his rightful place on the English throne.(他恢复了应属于他的英国王位。)

  2)The rightful heir should obtain his rightful inheritance.(合法的继承人应获得其合法的继承权。)

  3)It is the right approach to the command of grammar.(这是掌握语法的正确途径。)

  4)I believe what he said is right.(我相信他说的是对的。)

  本课简介

  今天,地图上上为北标示在我们的眼里极其自然。很难想像出会有一幅不以上为北的地图。但是当我们试图去了解地图绘制的历史时,我们会有超乎想像的发现。

  世界上古老的地图绘于公元前3800年。几个世纪以后,是古希腊人开始用相对科学的方式来绘制地图,其最杰出的先驱是托勒密。古巴比伦人以扁平的圆盘状来展现地球,而托勒密则以球状来展现地球。鉴于当时人们的知识的状态,托勒密在绘制地图时也出了种种差错,但是他是标示地图的上方为北方的第一人。

  到了中世纪,欧洲教会严重阻碍了科学的发展。因为耶路撒冷是基督教的圣地,于是地图的上方便改换为东方。直到十四世纪,由于贸易的发展,以及人们对指南针的日益加剧的依赖,北方终又成为地图的上方。

  本课主要句型

  1. Now it is hard to visualize a map that does not feature north at the top, but this was not always so.

  本句中it做形式主语(formal subject),to visualize a map……。是真正的主语(real subject)。用it 做形式主语, 主要是因为主语较长,谓语较短,于是不定式常放在谓语的后面。例如:

  1)It is necessary to tell him the news as soon as possible.(尽快把这消息告诉他是很必要的。)

  2)It took us 30 minutes to get there by bus.(坐公共汽车到那儿花了我们30分钟时间。)

  3)It made us very angry to see him talk to the old man in such an impolite manner.(看到他以如此不礼貌的方式与那位老人谈话,我们非常气愤。)

  4)How much did it cost you to send the parcel express?(速递这个包裹花了你多少钱?)

  请翻译下列句子,注意用做形式主语:

  1)掌握一门外语不是一件容易的事。

  2)能来参加这个晚宴是我们的荣幸。

  3)我们不帮助他们是错误的。

  4)他们拒绝采纳这个建议是不明智的。

  上面的四个句子可以翻译为:

  1)It is not easy to master a foreign language.

  2)It is our honor to be present at this dinner party.

  3)It was a mistake for us not to help them.

  4)It is unwise of them to turn sown the suggestion.

  Visualize是一个动词,意思是 imagine (想像)。在词汇部分我们讲到过-ize是动词后缀。常用在形容词后面构成动词,如:localize(局部化,地方化), urbanize (城市化),nationalize (使国有化), finalize(最后定下来)visualize 这个动词,我们在第四单元中已经学过,请把下面两个句子译成英语,注意使用 visualize:

  1)我难以想像等待着我的将会是什么。

  2)一整天,他都在想像着将在教堂举行的婚礼。

  这两句话可以译为:

  1)I cannot visualize what is waiting for me.

  2)He has been visualizing the wedding ceremony to be held at the church for the whole day.

  ……this was not always so中的 so 是个代词,意思是“如此,这样”,如:

  1)――I think you made the wrong decision.

  ――Is that so? (是这样吗?)

  2)It is not necessary to find out why it is so.(去了解为什么如此是没有必要的。)

  3)I believe so.(我相信是这样。)

  2. The oldest known map in the accepted sense of the word was drawn about 3,800BC,and represents the river Euphrates flowing through northern Mesopotamia,Irag.

  本句中的known是过去分词做形容词用,意思是“已知的”,在某些语境中,known意为“著名的”。如:

  1)This is the most dangerous substance known to man.(这是人类已知的最危险的物质。)

  2)It has become a well known holiday resort.(这儿已成为著名的度假胜地。)

  in the…sense of the word 意思是“就这个词的…意义上而言”,如:

  1)It is a miracle in the true sense of the word.(这是真正的奇迹。)

  2)That is an adventure in every sense of the word.(那才叫冒险。)

  sense是个常用词,请看下面的句子,注意sense的词意。

  1)He has a great sense of humor.(他很有幽默感。)

  2)There is some common sense in what he says.(他所说的话有些道理。)

  3)What's the sense of doing that since it is already late?(既然已经晚了,做那件事还有什么意义呢?)

  4)She came to her senses after a blood transfusion. (输血之后,他苏醒过来。)

  5)In a sense what he said is true.(在某种意义上说,他说的话是正确的。)

  6)Her explanation doesn't make any sense.(她的解释讲不通。)

  7)I cannot make sense of what has written.(她写的东西我弄不懂。)

  3. This and others that followed it, were little more than rough sketches of localized features; it was not until many centuries later that the ancient Greeks placed the science of map-making on a sound-footing.

  本句中的前一个it是代指上句中的the oldest known map. Little more than 的意思是 almost no more than(只不过是)。请注意下列句子中的little的意思:

  1)He is little better than a bookworm. (他简直跟书呆子差不多。)

  2)That is little short of open scorn.(那简直就是公然藐视。)

  It was not until…that…。是一个常见的强调句型,意思是“直到…才”。如:

  1)It was not until the cat emerged from behind the bushes that I noticed it.(直到猫从灌木后面出来,我才注意到它。)

  2)It was not until he called me that I realized there was a meeting in the afternoon.(直到他给我打电话我才想起下午有个会。)

  3)It was not until several weeks later that the stolen car was found.(几个星期以后那辆失窃的汽车才被找到。)

  请翻译下列句子,注意使用上述句型。

  1)直到20世纪60年代人类才实现登上月球的梦想。

  2)直到昨天他才被告知真相。

  3)直到妈妈来幼儿园接他,那孩子才停止哭泣。

  这三个句子可以翻译为:

  1)It was not until the 1960S that man realized the dream of landing on the moon.

  2)It was not until yesterday that he was told the truth.

  3)It was not until mother came to the kinder-garter to collect him that the boy stopped crying.

  place sth. on a sound footing 意思是“把…置于坚实的基础上”。

  4. The last great scientist of the classical period,he was the first to draw a map that was based on all available knowledge,rather than guess or imagination.

  The last great scientist of the classical period, 在本句中做同位语,对主语he作进一步的补充说明。

  Be based on 意思是“以……为基础”。

  Guess在句中做名词用,意思是“推测,猜想”。

  Rather than在本句中的意思相当于instead of “而不是”。

  1)I have used some simple words rather than the difficult ones.(我用了一些简单词汇而不是难词。)

  2)He bought two books rather than one.(他买了两本书而不是一本。)

  3)Rather than go back on his word, he kept his promise.(他没有食言,而是言而有信。)

  5. Given the state of knowledge of those times, he got things wrong, ……

  在第十五单元中,我们学过given这个介词,意思是“考虑到”,在本句中given仍是这个意思,请再看两个例句:

  1)Given the poor working condition, you cannot expect the workers to be very efficient.(考虑到工作条件差,你不能指望工人们的效率很高。

  2)Given the bad weather, we have to change our plan.(基于天气不好,我们得改变计划。)

  Times在本句中的意思是“时代”,如:

  1)The times are different,women are now equal to man.(时代不同了,现在男女平等了。)

  2)In modern times,the development of science and technology is accelerating.(近代科学技术在加速发展。)

  3)In the difficult times,many people died of hunger.(在那限难时世,许多人因饥饿而死。)

  6. …since Ptolemy had calculated wrongly the size of the Atlantic and was unaware that the pacific ocean existed.

  本句中的since引导的是一个原因状语从句,如:

  1)Since so many people are absent,we'd better put off the meeting.(既然如此多的人缺席,我们最好将此会延期。)

  2)I won't blame you since you know nothing about it.(既然你对此一无所知,我就不会怪你。)

  Unaware与aware一样是形容词,其用法也与aware相同,be unaware of…,be unaware that…。

  1)I was unaware of his presence.(我没注意到他在场。)

  2)He was unaware that he had been followed.(他不知道他被跟踪了。)

本文转载链接:自考“英语(一)”笔记(65)

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