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自考英语(一)课堂笔记完整版(10)

2007-01-09 15:26   【 】【我要纠错

Unit5(第14讲—第16讲)

  本课简介

  本课主要介绍了由古至今人们对饮食的看法。远古时候,人们认为吃什么补什么。文明社会的人们则一度认为人参的根,鸡蛋,西红柿有各自不同的神奇功用。今天,人们认为鱼有强身,健脑,壮骨,美肤等作用,还认为饮食方面有诸多禁忌。如此种种的说法是否有道理,本课课文会给你一个答案。

  本课主要语言点

  1. Many primitive people believed that by eating an animal they could get some of the good qualities of that animal for themselves.

  本句中that 引导的是一个宾语从句。宾语从句在前几个单元中我们已有了比较多的了解。掌握宾语从句并不困难。请看下面的句子:

  1) You must remember that it is never too old to learn.(你必须记住:活到老学到老。)

  2) He says that friendship is very important to him.(他说友谊对他很重要。)

  3) Don't forget what your parents said to you.(别忘了父母对你说过的话。)

  4) Can you tell me where the bookstore is?(你能告诉我书店在哪儿吗?)

  5) I don't know whether the letter is overweight.(我不知道这封信是否超重。)

  by 后面跟动词的现在分词表示某人做了某件事,并通过这件事产生了某个结果。请看下面的句子:

  1)By bribing a nurse I was able to see some files.(通过贿赂护士我才有可能看到一些卷宗。)

  2)They made a living by selling newspapers.(他们通过卖报谋生。)

  3)He tried to solve his problem by cheating me.(他通过骗我来解决自己的问题。)

  4)We learn to swim by swimming.(我们在游泳中学会游泳。)

  2. They thought that eating deer would make them run as fast as the deer.

  本句中that同样是引导一个宾语从句。在宾语从句中,动名词短语eating deer做主语。请看下面的句子:

  1) Chatting on the internet would make him forget everything.(在网上聊天会使他忘记一切。)

  2) Putting on air wouldn't do you any good.(摆架子不会对你有什么好处。)

  3) Making friends with them is no easy job.(跟他们交朋友不是一件容易的事。)

  make sb. do sth.意思是“使某人做某事”。make 后面的复合宾语中动词不定式符号to要省去,但是用被动语态时一定要用to,请看下面的句子:

  1) The boss made them work from morning till night.(老板使他们从早到晚地干活。)

  2) He made me sit here all the time.(他让我一直坐在这儿。)

  3) She was made to finish the book in two days (by her father)。(父亲让她两天把书看完。)

  4) I was made to return the money as soon as possible (by my friend)。 (朋友让我尽快还钱。)

  3. Some savage tribes believed that eating enemies that had shown bravery in battle would make them brave.

  本句中的第一个that 引导的又是一个宾语从句,而后一个that 引导的是定语从句,修饰enemies.请看下面的句子:

  1) He is a man that you can rely on.(他是一个你可以依靠的人。)

  2) She gave me some books that I am really interested in.(她给了我一些我很感兴趣的书。)

  3) I would never forget the two years that I spent in that village.(我永远也不会忘记我在那个村子里度过的两年时光。)

  本句中them brave 是make 的复合宾语,请看下面的句子:

  1) Don't wait for him. He will make us late.(别等他了,他会使我们迟到的。)

  2) He was afraid that the story would make things worse.(他担心那个故事会使事情更糟。)

  3) I didn't know that the news had been made public.(我不知道这个消息已经公开了。)

  4. It was once thought …

  Eggs were thought to make the voice pretty.

  Tomatoes were believed to have magical powers

  They were called love apples and were supposed to make people who ate them fall in love.

  上面的这些句子全部用的是被动语态。请翻译下面的句子:

  1) 孩子们受到很好的照顾。(The children are well taken care of.)

  2) 这个问题最近被谈论得很多。(This question has been much talked about recently.)

  3) 体育代表团在机场受到了热烈欢迎。(The sports delegation was given a warm welcome at the airport.)

  4) 那里讲什么语言?(What language is spoken there?)

  5) 这本书是为儿童写的。(This book is written form children.)

  6) 他被认为是这个工作的最佳人选。(He is thought to be the best candidate for the job.)

  suppose 是一个常用词,请注意掌握。

  1) I suppose it was reasonable for him to want his money back.(我看他想要回他的钱是合理的。)

  2) I suppose the answer is that he was not so hardworking.(我想答案在于他不够刻苦。)

  3) The situation was even worse than was supposed.(形势比料想的更糟糕。)

  4) Who do you suppose is the right person for the job?(你认为谁是这个工作的合适人选?)

  5) I am not supposed to talk to you about this.(我不能和你谈这个。)

  6) He was supposed to leave for Shanghai last night.(他应该昨夜动身去上海。)

  7) Suppose / Supposing something should go wrong, what would you do?(如果有了什么差错,你怎么办?)

  5. How surprised the people who thought tomatoes poisonous would be if they could know that millions of pounds of tomatoes were supplied to soldiers overseas during WWII.

  “how surprised the people would be”是主句,这是一个感叹句;who 引导的定语从句修饰people;if 引导的是条件状语从句。

  感叹句通常用what 或how 引起。what 用来修饰一个名词,how 修饰一个形容词,副词或动词。请看下面的句子:

  1) What a kind-hearted man he is!(他是一个多么好心的人啊!)

  2) What good news it is!(多好的消息啊!)

  3) What a beautiful city!(多美的城市啊!)

  4) How lovely the children are!(多可爱的孩子啊!)

  5) How well she writes.(她写得多好啊!)

  6) How I hated all this.(我多恨这一切啊!)

  6. One such idea is that fish is the best brain food.

  本句中that 引导的是一个表语从句。请看下面的句子:

  1) My suggestion is that we should leave right now.(我的建议是我们现在就离开。)

  2) What is troubling me is that I don't have much experience in teaching.(使我苦恼的是我在教学方面的经验不多。)

  3) My idea is that we offer them more help.(我的意思是我们给他们提供更多的帮助。)

  4) The fact is that we don't have enough hands.(事实是我们人手不够。)

  7. Washing food down with water as a substitute for chewing is not a good idea.

  substitute for 是一个常用词组,意思是“代替,代用品”;substitute也可以做动词用,意思是“替代”。请看例句:

  1) Don't you think it a good idea to use plastic as a substitute for wood?(你觉得用塑料做木材的代用品是个好主意吗?)

  2) Daydreaming cannot substitute for hard work.(白日梦不能取代辛勤的努力。)

  3) A middle-aged woman substituted for the English teacher during her absence.(英语老师不在时,由一位中年妇女代替。)

  8. Many people think of bread as a carbohydrate food.

  think of … as是一个习惯用法,意思是“把…看作是…”,“认为…是…”。请看下面的句子:

  1) People think of him as a hero.(人们把他看作英雄。)

  2) He thinks of himself as the most important member of the family.(他认为自己是最重要的家庭成员。)

  3) The Yellow River is thought of as the cradle of the Chinese nation.(黄河被看作是中华民族的摇篮。)

  与think of …as 意思相近的习惯用法还有regard …as;consider…as;look upon…as;view…as;see …as 等等。

  本课主要词组

  1. be eager to         2. be supposed to

  3. fall in love          4. grow up

  5. be supplied to        6. substitute for

  7. have sth. to do with      8. at the meal

  9. as a matter of fact       10. think of …as…

  11. in the same way

  本课主要句型

  宾语从句

  1. Many people believe that by eating an animal they could get some of the good qualities of that animal for themselves.

  2. They thought eating deer would make them run as fast as the deer.

  3. Some savage tribes believe that eating enemies that had shown bravery in battle would make them brave.

  表语从句

  1. One idea was that fish is the best brain food.

  2. Another idea is that you should not drink water with meals.

  3. The reason was that the acid in the orange juice would make the milk curdle and become indigestible.

  4. A similar wrong idea is that fish and ice cream …for a poisonous combination.

  5. Still another idea is that proteins and carbohydrates should never be eaten at the same meal.

  感叹句

  1. How surprised that people…would be …。

  形容词,副词的比较级和最高级

  1. They thought eating deer would make them run as fast as deer.

  2. Man-eating may have started because people were eager to become as strong and brave as their enemies.

  3. One such idea is that fish is the best brain food.

  4. Fish is good brain food just as it is good muscle food and skin and bone food.

  5. But no one has been able to prove that fish is any better for the brain than many other kinds of food.

  6. It is just as foolish to say that one should never eat meat and potatoes together as it is to say that one should never eat bread or drink milk.

  Text B  Do Animals Think?

  短语表达

  1. a great deal

  There is a great deal of concern about energy shortage.

  We learned a great deal from her.

  2. be like

  Look at the little boy, he is so much like his father.

  War is not like what he described in his novel.

  3. have time for

  I don't know why he didn't have time for breakfast.

  Don't worry, we will have enough time for discussion.

  4. engage in

  He is trying very hard to engage the woman in further conversation.

  It is not appropriate for a former president to engage in commerce.

  5. take care of

  The old people are well taken care of in the nursing homes.

  She took care of her little brother while mother was away.

  6. in some / many respects

  in one / this respect

  He is different from the people around him in many respects.

  We are lagging behind at least in one respect.

  7. except

  I knew nothing about Jane except what I had heard at the party.

  There was nothing we could do except wait and pray.

  All the boys except Tom went camping last week.

  In the evening she never went anywhere except to the nearest coffee house.

  8. connect with

  There is no evidence to connect the young man with the theft.

  Good health is connected with diet.

  There are serious questions connected with the radioactive waste disposal (放射性废料的处理)。

  9. make improvement in

  The company made great improvement in the wages and working conditions of the employees.

  Animals do not make any real improvement in their ways of doing things.

  10. by instinct

  She knew by instinct that he wouldn't be back.

  Birds build their nests by instinct.

  11. speak of

  Professor Blackwell always speaks highly of his assistant.

  Did he speak of the serious earthquake that struck Taiwan last week?

  12. let out

  “Let me out,” the boy shouted,but nobody came.

  The prisoners were let out of their cells.

  13. as if

  He looked at me as if I were mad.

  She opened her eyes as if conscious of my gaze.

  He works so hard as if he never knew fatigue.

  14. have one's wits about one〔机警,保持警觉〕

  In this part of the city you have to have your wits about you all the time.

  He felt it unnecessary to have his wits about him on such a friendly occasion.

  15. a variety of

  Don't bother him, he has a variety of duties to perform.

  The college library has a wide variety of books.

  16. difference between

  Will you please tell me the difference between the two countries?

  I cannot see any difference between the two oil paintings.

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