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自考英语(一)课堂笔记完整版(7)

2007-01-09 11:33   【 】【我要纠错

Unit4(第11讲—第13讲)

  Text A   Inproving Your Memory

  本课主要语言点

  1. psychological   adj. 心理学的

  Psychological factors often play an important part in winning a competition.

  (在赢得一场比赛中,心理因素常常起着重要作用。)

  Make sure all the kids are psychologically healthy.(确保孩子们心理健康。)

  (the person who studies human mind-心理学家)

  在希腊语中,psycho表示“灵魂”,“精神”,“心理”。在英语中,有不少词是用psycho做前缀构成的。除了刚才提到的psychology,psychological, psychologist以外,常见的还有:psychoanalysis(精神分析), psychotherapy(心理疗法)等。

  2. focus  v. (使)聚焦,(使)集中 ( focus on )   n. 焦点,中心

  He is focusing his eyes on a painting on the wall.(他正注视着墙上的一幅画。)

  Please focus your attention on the main problems.(请把注意力集中在主要问题上。)

  This area became the focus of the world's attention again.(这一地区再次成为世界注意的中心。)

  The 27th Olympic Games is now the focus of people's interest.(眼下第二十七届奥运会是人们兴趣的中心。)

  3. basic adj. 基本的,基础的

  They didn't make any effort to solve the basic economic problems.(他们没有做任何努力去解决基本的经济问题。)

  He even didn't have a basic aim in life.(他连生活的基本目标都没有。)

  There are certain factors that are basic to a good relationship between the two countries.(有些因素对两国之间的良好关系是很重要的。)

  It is necessary to teach them some basic mathematical skills.(教他们一些基本的数学技能是必要的。)

  4. principle   n. 原理,原则;信念  principal adj. 主要的n. 校长,负责人;委托人

  He won't give in as it is a matter of principle.(这是一个原则问题,他不会让步的。)

  The two machines work on the same principle.(这两台机器的工作原理是一样的。)

  No matter what you do, it is important that you have moral principle.(无论你做什么,道义很重要。)

  Rice is the principal food for most of the Chinese people.(米饭是大多数中国人的主食。)

  Go and ask all the principal persons concerned to come here.(去请所有有关的主要人员到这儿来。)

  She is the principal of that school. (她是那所学校的校长。)

  5. meaningfulness  n. 富有意义

  mean v. 表示…意思,意味着;打算

  meaning n. 意思,意义

  meaningful adj. 有意思的,意味深长的

  meaningless adj. 没有意思的

  Meaningfulness and organization are the two basic principles that help memory.(信息的意义和组织是有助于记忆的两个基本原则。)

  I don't know what he meant by telling me the news.(我不知道他把这个消息告诉我是什么意思。)

  Can you explain the meaning of the word to me?(你能把这个单词的意思给我解释一下吗?)

  They failed to get meaningful results from the experiment.(他们在实验中没有得到任何有意义的结果。)

  It is meaningless to argue any further.(再争辩下去没有任何意义。)

  6. organization   n. 组织;机构

  organize v. 组织

  China will surely become a member of the World Trade Organization (WTO)。(中国一定会成为世界贸易组织的一员。)

  Everything is in a mess because there is a complete lack of organization.(由于组织工作的缺乏,一切处于混乱之中。)

  He organized a strike for better working conditions.(为了争取更好的工作条件,他组织了一次罢工。)

  He thought the meeting was badly organized. (他认为会议组织得很糟糕。)

  7. association n. 联合,结合;交往;协会

  associate v. 使联合;把…联想起来;交往 ( associate with )

  associate adj. 副的

  The cultural activity was organized by the Chinese People's Association for Friendship with Foreign Countries.(这一文化活动是由中国人民对外友好协会组织的。)

  The picture reminded me of my brief association with the old lady years ago.(这幅画使我想起了多年前我与那位老太太的短暂交往。)

  Her hometown has happy associations for her.(她的家乡给了她许多美好的联想。)

  It is really difficult for me to associate the two ideas. (对我来说把这两个观点联系起来很困难。)

  He spent all his spare time associating with boys from the neighboring community.(他把所有的业余时间都花在与邻近社区男孩的交往上。)

  People always associate the name of Abraham Lincoln with the American Civil War.(人们总是把亚伯拉罕-林肯的名字与美国内战联系在一起。)

  an associate professor 副教授    an associate editor副主编

  8. visualization n. 想像,设想

  visualize v. 设想,想像

  visual adj. 视觉的;看的见的;形象化的

  Like meaningfulness and organization, visualization is also helpful to memory.(如同意义和组织,想像也有助于记忆。)

  I just cannot visualize what might become of him.(我无法想像他会变成什么样。)

  Even though I was not there, I can easily visualize the scene.(尽管我不在那儿,那儿的情景我不难想像。)

  I cannot say for sure if it was your visual illusion.(我不能肯定这是不是你的视错觉。)

  The stories he wrote are extremely visual.(他写的故事非常生动。)

  9. rhyme v. 韵,押韵

  rhythm n. 节奏

  I cannot think of a rhyme for “seven”。 (我想不出一个跟“seven”同韵的词。)

  She called him Guppy, to rhyme with puppy.(她叫他Guppy,是为了跟puppy押韵。)

  The rhythm of his speech held the attention of the audience.(他讲话时语调的抑扬顿挫抓住了听众的注意力。)

  Human biological rhythms are related to the natural cycle of day and night.(人的生物节奏与昼夜的自然循环有关。)

  10. ability n. 能力,才能

  Human beings have the ability to learn and use a language.(人类有学会和使用语言的能力。)

  No matter what you do, try to do it to the best of your ability.(不管做什么,你都要尽力而为。)

  His ability to master 5 foreign languages wins him the admiration of all his classmates.(他能掌握五门外语的能力赢得了所有同学的钦佩。)

  He has good speaking ability, but his writing ability is poor.(他说的能力很好,但写的能力差。)

  He is a man of outstanding ability.(他是一个有非凡才能的人。)

  11. random adj. 胡乱的,任意的,随意的   n. 无目的或目标

  The way the books were arranged seemed completely random.(图书排列的方式似乎很随意。)

  This is just a random selection of all the complaints we have received about our after service.

  (我们只是对所收到的有关售后服务方面的投诉随意地选择了一下。)

  He opened the books at random.(他胡乱地打开了书。)

  When his wife was away, he piled the soiled dishes in the kitchen at random.(他妻子外出时,他把脏碟子乱七八糟地堆在厨房里。)

  12. categorize v. 分类

  category n. 种类;范畴;部门

  If you categorize the information you need to remember, you will find it much easier.(如果你把所需记忆的信息分类,你就会觉得记忆起来要容易得多。)

  They categorized 200 songs as folk songs.(他们把两百首歌归为民歌类歌曲。)

  These books fall into the category of reference books.(这些书属参考书类。)

  His research does not belong to the category of natural science.(他的研究不属于自然科学范畴。)

  13. following adj. 接着的,下述的  prep. 在…之后

  the following 如下

  He promised the old man that he would come and see him again the following day.(他答应老人第二天再来看他。)

  After the meeting the following teachers will stay.(会后,以下的老师请留下。)

  The following examples will prove my point.(下面的例子将证实我的观点。)

  Following the discussion a decision was made.(讨论之后便做出了决定。)

  Following the concert he went home.(音乐会后,他就回了家。)

  The following are worthy of your attention.(以下几点值得你们注意。)

  The winners of the competition are the following: …(竞赛获胜者如下:…)

  14. needless adj. 不需要的,不必要的

  Needless to say, I don't think much of the proposal he put forward at the meeting.(不用说,我觉得他在会上提的建议不怎么样。)

  You don't have to take such a needless risk.(你不用去冒这种不必要的险。)

  Don't you think it is a waste of time to give him so much needless are?(你不觉得给他这么多不必要的关心是浪费时间吗?)

  15. refer v. ( to ) 提到,涉及;参考,查阅;把…归到…上;使向…请教;有关联

  reference n. 参考;提及;关联

  The whole thing is finished now, please don't refer to it.(整个事情都结束了,不要再提了。)

  He often refers to a dictionary for the spelling and meaning of a word.(他常常翻词典查阅词的拼写和意思。)

  He referred to her former classmates for her character.(他向她以前的同学询问她的品行。)

  He referred his defeat to poor health.(他把自己的失败归因于身体不好。)

  She referred me to Prof. Wang for detailed information.(他叫我去王教授那儿询问详情。)

  The doctor referred her to a heart specialist.(医生嘱咐她转诊于一位心脏病专家。)

  These answers are for reference only.(这些答案仅供参考。)

  His play is full of references to the political events of those days.(他的剧本涉及当时的许多政治事件。)

  16. relate v. ( to ) 有关联;叙述,讲述

  related adj. 有关的,相关的

  relation n. 关系,联系

  He related the story vividly to the whole class.(他向全班同学生动地讲述了那个故事。)

  I don't understand how the result related to / with the cause.(我不理解结果和原因如何关联。)

  If you want me to do this, you have to give me all the related material.(如果你想让我做这件事,你得把所有相关的材料给我。)

  Don't worry too much about them, they have very good relations.(别太为他们担心,他们的关系很好。)

  The two countries have established trade relations.(两国建立了贸易关系。)

  17. accurately adv. 准确地,精确地

  accurate adj. 准确的,精确的

  accuracy n. 准确,精确

  Remember that you have to do this work carefully and accurately.(记住,这项工作得做得细心而准确。)

  Right now I cannot give you a very accurate estimate.(现在我不能给你一个非常准确的估计。)

  He required that the typing should be done with great accuracy.(他要求打字必须十分准确。)

  18. memorize v. 熟记,记住

  Our English teacher asked us to memorize the words we learned today.(我们英语老师要求我们熟记今天所学的英语单词。)

  It is no easy thing for me to memorize all these telephone numbers.(熟记这些电话号码对我来说真不是一件容易的事情。)

  19. repeat v. 重复  repetition n. 重复

  I didn't quite catch what you said just now. Will you please repeat it?(我没有听清你刚才说的话,请你重复一遍,好吗?)

  We cannot repeat our mistakes.(我们不能重复自己的错误。)

  Repetition is necessary in language teaching and learning.(重复在语言教学中是必要的。)

  He memorized his lines after many repetitions.(经过多次重复他终于熟记了台词。)

  20. preserve v. 保护,维持;保存

  You will soon be near-sighted if you don't preserve your eyesight from now.(如果你不从现在起保护视力,你很快会近视的。)

  What do you think the United Nations can do in preserving world peace?(你觉得联合国能为维护世界和平做些什么?)

  Deep freezing is the simplest way of preserving food.(深冻是保藏食品最简便的方法。)

  词缀法

  1. 名词后缀 -ation; tion; sion

  organization,visualization,information,preservation,integration,

  relation,association,repetition,separation,addition

  2. 动词后缀 -ize

  organize,memorize,visualize,categorize,familiarize

  3. 名词后缀 -ence

  reference,difference

  4. 名词后缀 -ity

  similarity,familairity

  本课简介

  本课介绍了在如何增强记忆方面心理学所做的研究。信息的意义,组织,联想和想像是有助于记忆的几个基本原则。如何运用这些基本原则呢?课文对此一一作了介绍,条理十分清楚。学了本课,相信会有收获。

  本课语言点

  1. Psychological research has focused on a number of basic principles that helps memory.

  research 在本句中做名词,这个词也可以做动词用。请看下面的例句,注意research的词类和用法:

  1) An excellent piece of research won him the international prize.(一项出色的研究使他获得了国际大奖。)

  2) Research shows that the potential of man's brain is limitless.(研究表明人脑的潜力是无限的。)

  3) Much research has been done on / into diseases of blood.(在血液病方面人们做了很多的研究。)

  4) Scientists have been researching on / into the causes of brain damage.(科学家们一直对脑损伤的起因进行研究。)

  5) They felt very much disappointed as they had been researching for three years but with no result.(做了三年的研究而没有任何结果,他们感到很失望。)

  focus on 是一个常用词组,意思是“集中”,在生词部分已作了较为详细的讲解,在此,请翻译几个句子:

  1) 他今天准是累了,他无法把注意力集中在工作上。(He must be very tired today, he just couldn't focus his attention to his work.)

  2) 她觉得很不自在,因为所有的目光都注视着她。(She felt very uneasy as all eyes were focused on her.)

  3) 这本书着重谈了中东的形势。(This book focuses on the situation in the Middle East.)

  a number of 的意思是“许多”。请看下面的例句,注意a number of 和the number of 的区别:

  1) A number of factories have been shut down because of pollution problems.(由于污染问题许多工厂被关闭了。)

  2) A number of students have handed in their application forms.(许多学生都递交了申请表。)

  3) The number of students in our school increases every year.(我们学校的学生人数每年都在增加。)

  4) The number of passengers who were injured in the accident is still unknown.(在事故中受伤的乘客人数还不知道。)

  2. It is useful to know how these principles work.

  it 在句中做形式主语,真正的主语to know how these principles work,此类结构我们在第一和第二单元已有了解。请看下面的句子:

  1) It is necessary to learn how to use the computer.(学会如何使用计算机很有必要。)

  2) It is important to find out why the forest fire broke out.(找出森林大火的原因很重要。)

  3) It is difficult to know what he is thinking about.(要想知道他在想什么很困难。)

  work 在本句中的意思是“起作用;产生影响”,请翻译下面的句子:

  1) The doctor said that the medicine would work.(医生说药会起作用的。)

  2) They didn't think his plan would work.(他们认为他的计划行不通。)

  3) They didn't expect that the teacher's encouragement would work such a change in him.(他们没有料到老师的鼓励会使他产生如此变化。)

本文转载链接:自考英语(一)课堂笔记完整版(7)

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