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自考英语(一)课堂笔记完整版(5)

2007-01-09 10:57   【 】【我要纠错

Unit3(第7讲—第10讲)

  Text A  The Altoantic Ocean

  本课主要单词

  1. unwilling    adj.不情愿的,不愿意的;勉强的

  Selfish as she is, she is unwilling to share anything with others. (她很自私,不愿意与他人分享任何东西。)

  He was unwilling to give up halfway even though there might be more difficulties ahead.(尽管前面可能有许多困难,但他不愿意中途放弃。)

  They got some unwilling assistance from the local government. (地方政府勉强给了他们一些协助。)

  2. equator   n.赤道

  Ecuador is near the equator.(厄瓜多尔靠近赤道。)

  People used to believe that at the equator the ocean would be boiling hot.

  (人们过去认为,在赤道处海水是滚烫的。)

  3. bulge   n.不规则突起;鼓起之处;(突然)上涨,增多        v.使膨胀;塞满

  Between the bulge of South America and the bulge of Africa lies the narrowest place of the Atlantic Ocean. (大西洋的最狭窄处位于南美洲的突起处和非洲的突起处之间。)

  The graph shows a bulge in the birth rate in the year of dragon. (图表显示龙年出生率的暴增。)

  His schoolbag was bulging with apples when he came back from his uncle's orchard.(他从叔叔的果园回来时书包里鼓鼓囊囊装满了苹果。)

  4. unusual    adj. 少有的;不寻常的;与众不同的,独特的

  It was not unusual for him to work very late every night. (每天工作到深夜对他来说是很平常的事。)

  He has an unusual name.(他有一个不寻常的名字。)

  It is unusual to see snow in this region.(这个地区难得下雪。)

  This young man has an unusual talent for organization.(这个年轻人有非凡的组织才能)。

  5. salty    adj. 咸的,含盐的     salt n. 盐;风趣    v. 用盐调味;用盐腌;撒盐于道路上

  He didn't have much for dinner as the dishes were too salty. (他晚餐吃的不多,因为菜太咸了。)

  It might be a good idea to wash these in salty water. (把这些放在盐水里洗一洗也许是个好主意。)

  He added a bit more salt to the soup to make it tastier. (为了使汤的味道更好,他又加了一点盐。)

  His wit added salt to the discussion. (他的妙语使讨论增添了风趣。)

  Have you salted the potato?(你往土豆里加了盐了吗?)

  It took them a long time to salt the main roads. (他们花了好长时间才在主要公路上撒上盐。)

  grind salt in sb.'s wounds 在某人伤口上撒盐,使某人痛上加痛

  with a grain of salt 半信半疑地

  Salt Lake City 盐湖城(美国尤他州州府)

  salt mine 盐矿      salt shaker (瓶盖上有细孔用于匀撒的)盐瓶

  salt spreader 撒盐车   a saltwater lake 咸水湖

  saltwater fish 海产    a salted egg 咸蛋

  请注意:形容词salty是由名词 salt加形容词后缀 -y构成的。这样的形容词在英语中还有很多,如:windy,snowy,rainy,cloudy,sunny,funny,muddy,foggy…

  6. average   n. 平均数,平均   adj. 平均的;平常的,普通的   v. 平均

  The average of 5,7 and 9 is 7. (5,7,9的平均数是7.)

  He receives an average of 50 calls a day.(他平均每天接到50个电话。)

  Mr. Brown could hardly believe that his son's work at school is below the average.(布朗先生几乎无法相信他儿子的学习成绩低于一般水平。)

  The average temperature yesterday was below zero.(昨天的平均气温在零度以下。)

  He is an average student in his class.(他是班上的一般学生。)

  A man of average height came to see you today.(今天有一位中等身材的人来看你。)

  He averages one pack of cigarettes a day.(他平均每天抽一包香烟。)

  The annual rainfall here averages 700mm.(这里的年降雨量平均为700毫米。)

  7. spot   n.地点,处所;点,斑点  v. 点缀;认出;准确定位  adj. 当场作出的;现付的

  She toured many scenic spots during the holiday.(假日里她游览了许多风景胜地。)

  She told us the exact spot where the accident happened. (她把事故发生的准确地点告诉了我们。)

  She decided on a blue tie with white spot for her husband. (她给丈夫选了一条蓝底白点的领带。)

  There is a spot of ink on the white wall.(白墙上有墨水渍。)

  He didn't want to leave a spot on his reputation.(他不想在名誉上留下污点。)

  The night sky is spotted with twinkling stars.(闪烁的星星点缀着夜空。)

  His shoes are spotted with mud.(他的鞋子上有泥渍。)

  She is so special, you can spot her in the crowd easily. (她很特别,你在人群中能一眼认出她来。)

  He was sent to spot the battery position of the enemy.(他被派去测定敌炮阵地。)

  She was urged to make a spot decision.(她被催促当场做决定。)

  on the spot 当场,在现场   in a spot 在困境中,在窘境中

  put sb. on the spot 使某人处于难堪地位

  put one's finger on sb.'s weak spot 指出某人性格上的弱点

  spot check 抽样检查   spot survey 抽样调查

  spotlight 聚光灯;汽车上的反光灯;公众注意中心

  spot news 现场报道的新闻   spot price 现货价

  8. range   n. 山脉;幅度,范围       v.(在某范围内)变动,变化;把…排列成行

  One of the longest mountain ranges of the world rises from the floor of the Atlantic.(世界最长的山脉从大西洋洋底耸起。)

  The age range is from 45 to 65.(年龄幅度在45岁至65岁之间。)

  He is not very clear about his range of responsibility.(他对自己的责任范围并不清楚。)

  The question you asked is out of my range.(你问的问题我不懂。)

  Prices of gasoline range from one dollar to one dollar and twenty a gallon.(汽油的价格从1美元至1美元20美分1加仑不等。)

  The tiger-sharks range in length from nine feet to fourteen feet. (虎鲸的体长从9英尺到14英尺不等。)

  The puddings are neatly ranged on the shelf.(布丁整齐地排列在架子上。)

  medium-range missile 中程导弹   wide range of interests 兴趣广泛

  at close range 接近地   in/within range 在射程内

  9. peak   n. 山峰;顶点

  The mountain peak is covered with snow all the year.(山峰终年积雪。)

  His career is at its peak now, no wonder he will make greater achievement.(他的事业正处于鼎盛时期,毫无疑问,他会取得更大的成就。)

  10. vessel   n. 船,舰;容器,器皿

  an ocean-going vessel 远洋轮  an escort vessel 护卫舰

  a fishing vessel 渔船      a drinking vessel 饮具

  11. crew   n. 全体船员,全体机务人员

  The crew was (were) annoyed at the captain's decision.(船员们对船长的决定感到恼火。)

  The aircraft has a crew of 6.(这架飞机有6名机组人员。)

  All 312 passengers and 6 crew members died in the plane crash.(312名乘客和6名机组人员在飞机失事中丧生。)

  12. becalm   v.(常用被动语态)(指帆船)因无风而停止前进

  In the days of sailing vessels the crew were afraid they would be becalmed on the ocean.(在使用帆船的时代,船员们担心他们会因为无风而无法在海洋上航行。)

  He was becalmed for a whole week north of the island. (他在海岛北面因无风而停泊了整整一周。)

  13. gulf   n. 海湾;隔阂;鸿沟

  Can you tell me for sure who was the real winner of the Gulf War?(你能确定地告诉我谁是海湾战争的真正赢家吗?)

  The quarrel left a gulf between the two close friends. (那场争吵在两位好友间造成了隔阂。)

  the Persian Gulf 波斯湾   the Gulf of Mexico 墨西哥湾

  Gulf Stream 湾流,墨西哥湾流

  14. stream   n. 小河,溪流    v. 流,涌

  They had a walk along the bank of the stream.(他们沿着河岸散步。)

  Lots of tree leaves are floating along with the stream.(许多树叶正随着水流漂浮。)

  Tourists came into the cave in a steady stream.(游客们源源不断地进入山洞。)

  Tears streamed down her cheeks when she heard the news.(当她听到那个消息时,泪水顺着脸颊流了下来。)

  He didn't even frown when blood streamed from his wound. (血从伤口涌出时,他连眉头都没皱一下。)

  a stream of cold air 一股冷空气   a stream of people 一股人流

  a stream of lies 一串谎言      a stream of good ideas 一系列好主意

  a stream of light 一道光线     stream of consciousness 意识流

  go against the stream 逆潮流而动   go with the stream 随波逐流

  stream-lined cars 流线型汽车

  15. current   n. (空气,水等的)流,潮流;电流;倾向   adj. 当前的,通行的

  The child had been swept away by the current.(孩子被水流卷走了。)

  A steady current of heated air rose from the mountain top. (一股热气从山顶源源不断升起。)

  There was a powerful electric current running through the wires. (一股强大的电流流过电线。)

  Mass media influence the current of public opinion.(大众传媒影响舆论的倾向。)

  Give me a current issue of Reader's Digest.(给我一本最近一期的读者文摘。)

  A long time ago, it was a current belief that the earth was flat. (很久以前,人们普遍相信地球是扁平。)

  the main current 主流      a warm current 暖流

  an alternating current 交流电   a direct current 直流电

  current events 时事       current situation 当前形势

  16. affect   v. 影响;打动;(疾病)侵袭    effect    n. 效果;作用,影响;

  His mood was greatly affected by the sad news.  (那个悲痛的消息使他的心绪大受影响。)

  Computers affect our life in many ways.(计算机在许多方面影响我们的生活。)

  Reading in dim light constantly will surely affect the eyes.(经常在昏暗的光线下看书肯定会对眼睛有影响。)

  The child was affected with high fever.(孩子发高烧了。)

  The color gives the effect of being warm.(这颜色给人以暖感。)

  The wonderful sky effect on the festival night impressed everybody.

  (绚丽的节日夜空给每一个人都留下了深刻印象。)

  I just hope this medicine won't have serious side-effect. (我只希望这种药没有严重的副作用。)

  sound effect 音响效果   three-dimensional effect 立体感

  lighting effect 灯光效果   cause and effect 因果

  no effects 无存款(银行在空头支票上的批语)

  be of no effect无效     bring sth. to effect 实行,实施

  in effect实际上       take effect 见效;生效

  17. climate    n. 气候

  The change in climate might be one of the causes for the extinction of dinosaurs.

  (气候的变化也许是恐龙灭绝的一个原因。)

  In cold climates, some of the livestock have to be kept indoors all winter.

  (在寒冷的气候区,一些牲畜得在室内一冬。)

  In the present economic climate we can make greater achievement.

  (在目前的经济气候下,我们能够取得更大的成就。)

  weather   n. 天气

  The football match had to be put off because of bad weather. (由于天气不好,足球比赛被推迟了。)

  What's the weather like in Hangzhou? I hope it is not as hot there.(杭州的天气怎么样?希望那儿不那么热。)

  18. flow    n. 流     v. 流动

  Heavy rains brought mud flows down the mountain. (暴雨把泥流冲下了山。)

  The doctor stopped the flow of blood. (医生把血止住了。)

  The river flows east into the sea. (这条河向东流入大海。)

  19. furnish   v. 供应,提供;装备,(用家具)布置

  The school has decided to furnish the library with some new books. (学校决定给图书馆提供一些新书。)

  They furnished all the passengers with life jackets. (他们为所有的乘客提供救生衣。)

  She wants to furnish her new house with modern furniture.(她想用时新家具布置新家。)

  20. highway   n. 公路;  (水陆)交通干线

  The canal was the only highway for commerce.(这条远河是唯一的商业路线。)

  You can find many motels along the highways.(在高速公路沿线你会看到许多汽车旅馆。)

  21. float   v.(使)漂浮

  Colorful flags are floating in the morning breeze.(彩旗在晨风中飘荡。)

  When winter comes yellow leaves float down.(冬天到来时,黄叶飘落。)

  It will be much easier for you to float the logs down the river.(你们把木材顺流下漂将会容易得多。)

  本课主要构词法

  Affixation  (词缀法)

  1. 反意词前缀un-     unusual,unwilling

  2. 形容词后缀-y       salty

  3. 名词后缀-or        sailor

  Compounding   (合词法)

  1. 复合名词         highway,steamship,airplane

  2. 复合形容词       mid-Atlantic,eastward

  本课简介

  The Atlantic Ocean向读者介绍了有关大西洋的情况。我们可以了解航行大西洋的过去和现在,也可以了解大西洋“制造”出来的世界之最。

  本课主要语言点

  1. The Atlantic Ocean is one of the oceans that separate the Old World from the New.

  在表示河流,海洋,群岛,沙漠等地理名称的名词前,以及以复数形式出现的国名前要用定冠词,例如:the Yellow River(黄河),the Pacific Ocean(太平洋),the British Isles   (不列颠群岛),the Sahara(撒哈拉沙漠),the Alps(阿尔卑斯山脉),  the Philippines (菲列宾)

  在表示某一座山,岛屿或某一个湖时不用定冠词,例如:Yellow Mountain(黄山),Lake Erie(伊利湖),Hainan Island(海南岛)

  one of +复数名词是英语中常见的用法,请翻译下面的句子:

  She is one of the most hardworking students in our class. (她是我们班学习最刻苦的学生之一。)

  Shanghai is one of the biggest cities in the world.(上海是世界最大的城市之一。)

  印度是世界上人口最多的国家之一。 (India is one of the countries with the largest population in the world.)

  尼罗河是世界上最长的河流之一。(Nile is one of the longest rivers in the world.)

  在one of +复数名词+定语从句的结构中,定语从句一般被看作修饰复数名词,因此该从句中的谓语要用复数形式。例如:

  This is one of the best novels that have been published this year. (这是今年出版的最佳小说之一。)

  Mr. Smith is one of those men who always think they are right.(史密斯先生属于那些总是认为自己正确的人。)

  He is not one of those who bow before difficulties.(他不是那种在困难面前低头的人。)

  但是在the only one of +复数名词+定语从句的结构中,定语从句应该被看成修饰单数名词。例如:

  He was the only one of the boys who was praised by the teacher. (他是男孩中唯一受到老师表扬的。)

  Helen is the only one of those girls who doesn't wear make-up. (海伦是那些女孩中唯一不化妆的。)

  separate from是常用词组,在句子中的意思是“(使)分离,(使)分开”,请翻译下面的句子:

  1)英吉利海峡把英法两国隔开。(The English Channel separates England from France.)

  2)理论不应该脱离实际。(Theory should not be separated from practice.)

  the Old world指欧,亚,非三洲,有时仅指欧洲。the New (World) 指哥伦布发现的美洲大陆。

  2. For centuries it kept the Americas from being discovered by the people of Europe.

  for centuries 意为“许多世纪”。在英语中用介词for加表示时间的复数名词的表达形式很常见。请翻译下面的句子:

  1)I haven't seen you for days. How is everything?(多日不见,一切都好吗?)

  2)I haven't seen him for years, I am sure he has changed a lot. (我多年没见到他了,他一定变了不少。)

  3)It seems I have been waiting for you for centuries. Where have you been?(我似乎等了你几个世纪了,你去哪儿了?)

  keep… from doing 是习惯用法,意思是“使…不…”。

  例如:It is really not easy to keep Father from smoking.(要使父亲不抽烟真不容易。)

  请翻译下面的句子:

  1)Heavy fog kept the ships from being discovered by the enemy. (大雾使得船只未被敌人发现。)

  2)We had no way to keep him from getting involved in the matter. (我们没有办法使他不卷入那事件中去。)

  3)那种药使他的咳嗽不再加剧。 (The medicine keeps his cough from getting more serious.)

  4)当地人的保守思想使得那个地方不能快速发展。

  (The local people's conservative mind keeps that place from developing rapidly.)

  3. Many wrong ideas about the Atlantic made early sailors unwilling to sail far out into it.

  make sb. unwilling to do sth. 意为“使得某人不愿做某事”。例如:His indifference to work made everybody unwilling to cooperate with him.(他对工作的冷漠态度使得所有的人都不愿与他合作。)

  主语+动词+宾语+补语(SVOC)的句型在课本第二单元的语法中已有较详细的论述。请翻译下面的句子:

  1)His behavior at the dinner party made the host annoyed. (他在晚宴上的行为使主人很恼火。)

  2)That film made him famous.(那部影片使他出了名。)

  3)他刚才的一番话使玛丽很伤心。(What he said just now made Mary very sad.)

  4)老师对他作文的评价令他失望。 (The teacher's comment on his composition made him disappointed.)

  5)What he had done made his friends hesitant to accept the invitation.(他的所为使得他的朋友们对接受邀请犹豫不决。)

  6)他的挥霍浪费使得他的父母不愿意再给他钱。(His unthriftiness made his parents unwilling to give him any more money.)

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