Text A Why Are Maps Drawn with North at the Top？
1. Little more than 仅仅是
2. Place sth. on a sound footing 把什么建立在可靠的基础上
3. Be known to sb./sth. 为某人或某事所知
4. Base on 建立在什么基础之上
5. Rather than 而不是
6. Attempt to 试图做某事
7. In the form of 以某种形式
8. Be unaware that+从句 没有意识到
9. The reason for sth. 什么的原因
10. Interfere with 干涉
11. In accordance with 根据
12. With the spread of sth. 随着什么的扩展
13. Increasing reliance on sb./sth. 越来越依赖
1. It was not until many centuries later that the ancient Greeks placed the science of map-making on a sound footing. 这是一个典型的强调句型，not until many centuries later是被强调的成分。
2. Flattened 平面的
3. Given（考虑到） the state of knowledge of those times， he got things wrong.
4. His estimate of China and the Atlantic Ocean was far from being accurate.（动名词作介词宾语，表示一点不准确）
6. Assume 假定
Text B You Have a Choice
1. Travel side by side 并列行驶
2. Be certain of 对什么很确定
3. Bring about 引起
4. Account for 解释
5. Lead to the same result 导致同一结果
6. Choose one over another 选择一个而不选择另一个
7. Deal with 处理；解决
1. We are seated in one of the trains， and with us we have a special speedometer that measures their relative speed.
2. Furthermore，regardless of which explanation we choose，the end result will be the same.
4. At the train station we cannot tell whether it was our train or not.
5. Only after the other train pulled out of the station could we see that it，and not our train，was moving.本句话为倒装句，由only+状语从句构成+助动词+主语+动词的适当形式+其他