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自考英语(一)课堂笔记完整版(32)

2007-01-11 13:30   【 】【我要纠错

Unit16(第47讲—第49讲)

  本课简介

  心脏病在西方国家已成了健康的头号杀手,仅在英国,每天就有约400人死于心脏病。于是人们投入大量的人力、物力施行心脏手术。心脏手术无疑使无数患者受益,但是过分强调对心脏病进行手术治疗则带来了三个弊端。其一是对心脏病的预防不加重视;其二是医疗费用攀升;其三是由于有现成的设备和技术,医生们往往会给不需要动手术的病人做手术。近期的医学研究强调,人们必须对引发心脏病的因素,如压力、抽烟、缺少体育运动等加以重视。生活方式与心脏病之间是有联系的,因此,人们意识到自己必须为自身的健康负责,改变饮食习惯,减轻生活压力,减少抽烟,多多运动都是预防心脏病的有效方式。预防心脏病比治疗心脏病更重要。

  本课语言点

  1. One of the greatest killers in the Western World is heart disease.

  请注意主谓一致的问题

  A: one of +复数名词做主语时,后面的谓语用单数形式:

  1)One of the longest rivers in the world is in China. (世界上最长的河流之一在中国。)

  2)One of the most famous circuses in East Europe is coming to China. (东欧最有名的马戏团之一将来中国。)

  3)One of the most expensive cars in the parking lot belongs to Mr. Watson.(停车场里最昂贵的汽车之一是华生先生的。)

  B:one of +复数名词+定语从句时,定语从句一般被看作修饰复数名词,因此从句中的谓语要用复数形式。例如:

  1)This is one of  the best films that have released this year. (这是今年发行的最佳影片之一。)

  2)Mr. Wang is one of those people who are hard to deal with. (王先生属于那种很难打交道的人。)

  3)He is one of those persons who always think they are right. (他属于那些总认为自己正确的人。)

  2. The death rate from the disease has been increasing at an alarming speed for the past thirty years.

  本句中的时态是现在完成进行时,由has (have) been加现在分词构成,主要表现以前这一段时间里一直在进行的一个动作,这个动作也可能仍然在进行,如:

  1)What book have you been reading recently? (你最近在看什么书?)

  2)How have you been getting on with your work? (工作进行得怎么样?)

  3)All these years they have been contributing articles to our newspaper. (这些年来他们一直为我们报纸写稿。)

  at an alarming speed的意思是“以惊人的速度”

  1)We are driving at the speed of 60 miles an hour. (我们正以每小时60英里的速度行驶。)

  2)He is running at top speed. (他正以最快速度奔跑。)

  3)Tom is working at it at full speed. (汤姆正在拼命地干。)

  4)He found the small town changing at an astonishing speed. (他发现那个小城正以惊人的速度变化着。)

  3. Today in Britain, for example, about four hundred people a day die of heart disease.

  在英语中die of和die from都表示“死于”,这两者之间的区别在于:

  die of 通常指因疾病、情感而死。如:

  1) The lady died of grief after the death of her husband. (丈夫去世后,这位女士也因哀伤而死。)

  2) In that country many children died of malnutrition. (在那个国家,许多孩子死于营养不良。)

  3) I'm dying of boredom. (我烦死了。)

  4) Many sheep died of starvation in the thick snow.(许多绵羊在厚厚的积雪中饿死。)

  die from 通常指死于意外的原因及不正常的原因。如:

  1) My grandfather died from a heart attack.(我爷爷死于心脏病。)

  2) She died from a traffic accident.(她死于一场交通事故。)

  3) He is said to have died from working too hard till late every night.(据说他因每晚熬夜而劳累致死。)

  4) The workman died from the explosion.(那位工人因发生爆炸而死。)

  4. Western health-care systems are spending huge sums of money on the surgical treatment of the disease.

  首先我们看一下,spend…on 和spend … in 的区别。它们共同的意思是“把…发费在…上”。

  当spend 的宾语是金钱时,spend on 后面接名词,spend in 后面接动名词,in 有时可省略。

  当spend 的宾语是时间时, spend on 和 spend in 后都可接名词或动名词,接名词时意思相同;接动名词时 spend on 的含意是“把时间花在…上”, spend in 的含意是“在…上花了时间”。如:

  1)He spends nearly one third of his monthly income (in) buying books.(他把每月收入的三分之一用来买书。)

  2)She spent a great deal of money on the new car.(她花了许多钱买这辆新车。)

  3)He doesn't spend much time on his homework.(他花在做作业上的时间不多。)

  4)She spent three hours (in )watching TV.(她看电视耗掉了三个小时。)

  我们再来看一下cost,spend,pay,take的区别。

  spend和pay的主语只能是人;cost的主语是物。take在接时间主语也可以是人。take和cost还可以用动词不定式或动词不定式短语作真实主语,而it作形式主语。

  pay的搭配范围较窄,多接金钱;cost的搭配范围很宽,除了金钱和时间外还可以接劳力、精力、财富、健康甚至生命等。

  spend 可接动名词,而cost,pay,take只接动词不定式。

  spend,take,pay可用于被动结构;而cost不能用于被动结构。

  1)That bike cost me 350 yuan. (那辆自行车花了我350元。)

  2)The work cost me a lot of time and effort.(这项工作花了我大量的时间和精力。)

  3)Careless driving cost him his life.(粗心驾车使他丧了命。)

  4)I paid him 200yuan for this painting.(我付他200元买了这幅画。)

  5)They refused to pay us the money.(他们拒绝给我们付钱。)

  6)They spend all his earrings. (他挣多少花多少。)

  7)They spend a lot of money on advertising.(他们花大笔的钱做广告。)

  8)Two hours a day were spent in practising.(每天花两个小时进行训练。)

  9)The work took us a week to finish.(我们花了一星期的时间完成这项工作。)

  10)It takes him an hour to finish his homework every day.(他每天要用一小时完成作业。)

  5. This emphasis on treatment is clearly associated with the technological advances that have taken place in the past 10 to 15 years.

  在emphasis的后面通常接介词on,常用于搭配使用的动词有place,put,lay等 ,如:

  He places (puts,lays) great emphasis on education.  他特别强调教育的重要。)

  associate with 意思是“使…联系在一起”,“交往”。

  1)We naturally associate the name of Darwin with the doctrine of evolution.(我们很自然地把达尔文的名字和进化论联系在一起。)

  2)They were closely associated with each other during the war.(战争期间,他们之间关系密切。)

  3)Rain fall is associated with humidity.(下雨与湿度有关。)

  4)They prefer to associate with young people.(他们更喜欢与年轻人交往。)

  6. …modern technology has enabled doctors to develop new surgical techniques and procedures.

  请注意本句中的enable 是动词,其用法是 enable sb. to do sth. 在词汇部分我们已有详细讲解,再请看两个例句:

  1) His patience enabled him to make the child tell him the truth. (他的耐心使他能让那孩子对他说实话。)

  2) His efficiency enabled him to finish the work a head of schedule. (他的高效率使他能提前完成这项工作。)

  7.…it causes the costs of general hospital care to rise.

  本句中cause用作动词,cause sb. to do sth. (使某人做某事),cause sth. to happen (使某事发生),如:

  1) What caused you to change your mind?(什么使你改变了主意?)

  2) What caused the boat of turn over? (是什么致使翻船?)

  1) His laziness caused him to fall behind others.(他的懒惰使他落在了别人后面。)

  句中的cost 不是动词,而是个名词,意思是“费用、开销”。

  1) The price is high because production costs are very great. (价格昂贵,因为生产成本极大。)

  2) There is no way to reduce the living cost.(没有办法降低生活费用。)

  8. After hospitals buy the expensive equipment that is necessary for modern heart surgery, they must try to recover the money they have spent.

  本句中的equipment 是不可数名词,不能在后面加s.equipment后面的谓语动词也用单数形式。

  1) The modern equipment enables them to double their production.(现代化的设备使他们能把产量翻倍。)

  2) They decided to buy some new equipment.(他们决定购买新设备。)

  3) Advanced equipment is necessary for this work.(干这个活需要先进的设备。)

  还请注意,recover 在本句中的意思是get back(回收)。

  1) We must try to recover lost time.(我们必须设法弥补失去的时间。)

  2) They recovered increased costs through higher prices.(他们通过提高价格来补偿上涨的成本。)

  9. In the past, people tended to think that it was sufficient for good health to have a good doctor who could be relied on to know exactly what to do when they became ill.

  That引导的是一个宾语从句。在这个宾语从句中,it 做形式主语,真正的主语是to have a good doctor.  Who引导的是一个定语从句,修饰doctor.what to do 做know的宾语。这句话的意思是,“过去,人们往往认为有个可以信赖的好医生就足以使他们有好身体,因为这个医生知道在他们生病时究竟该做什么。”

  本课主要词组

  1. at an alarming speed

  2. die of

  3. spend money on

  4. emphasis on

  5. associate with

  6. take place

  7. enable sb. to do sth.

  8. increase in

  9. benefit from

  10. point out

  11. cause…to…

  12. be encouraged to do sth.

  13. not at all

  14. pay attention to

  15. as a result

  16. rely on

  17. take responsibility for

  18. succeed in

  19. take up

  20. be aware of

  21. instead of

  22. decrease in

  Text B   Dieting Your Way to Health

  短语表达

  1. consider doing sth.

  He is considering changing his present job.

  Have you ever considered moving to the suburb?

  2. go on a diet

  She decided to go on a diet to keep her weight down.

  The doctor suggested that he should go on a diet to lose some weight.

  3. sometime

  I remember meeting him sometime two years ago.

  I believe we will meet again sometime in the future.

  4. regardless of

  He went to see the old lady every week regardless of wind or rain.

  These pineapples are sold for the same price regardless of their size.

  5. have…in common

  The twin brothers had no interests in common.

  6. do harm to

  Excessive drinking and smoking will do harm to your health.

  His lies will surely do harm to his integrity.

  7. slow down

  It is dangerous for you to drive so fast. Please slow down.

  I have to persuade my father to slow down a bit. He has been too busy recently.

  8. convert to

  The food we eat is converted into energy.

  After Einstein finished using the tube of shaving cream, he reverted to using plain water.

  9. lose interest in

  If you don't encourage him he will soon lose interest in this project.

  He said he had long lost interest in playing video games.

  10. go on

  He was not aware of what was going on around him.

  It is so noisy outside. What is going on?

  11. resistance to

  The doctor did not expect he would have resistance to this antibiotic.

  This child's resistance to illness is too low.

  12. be essential

  English is essential for his diplomatic work.

  Regular exercise is essential for his recovery.

  13. have difficulty doing sth.

  He had difficulty making himself understood.

  The young man had difficulty in reading these technical drawings.

  14. suffer from

  Some people suffer from heart illness at an early age.

  He is suffering from breath difficulty.

  15. take the place of

  Who is going to take the place of Miss Li when she is away?

  Artificial sweeteners are recommended to take the place of sugar and other natural sweeteners.

  16. lead to

  His explanation led to great confusion.

  17. result in

  The workers' strike resulted in the management yielding to their demand.

  His lack of business sense resulted in his bankruptcy.

  18. provide sb. with sth.

  They will be provided with all the daily necessities.

  Nature provides the wild animals with the necessary safeguards.

  19. substitute for

  There is no substitute for good food and exercise.

  He substituted for the worker who was ill.

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