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自考英语(一)课堂笔记完整版(29)

2007-01-11 13:19   【 】【我要纠错

Unit15(第44讲—第46讲)

  Text A  How TV Violence Affects Kids

  本课主要单词

  1.violence  n. 暴力;强烈

  violent  adj. 暴力的;强烈的

  1) Preschool children suffer most from TV violence. (学龄前儿童受暴力电视节目的危害最深。)

  2) People in that country hated the king to the marrow as he ruled the country with violence.(那个国家的人民对国王恨之入骨,因为他用暴力进行统治。)

  3)He flung open the door with violence. (他用劲地猛然把门打开。)

  4)The violent blow sent him down on his knees. (那猛烈的一击使他跪倒在地。)

  5)The doctor told him not to do any violent exercise. ( 医生嘱咐他不要进行剧烈运动。)

  2.exposure  n. 暴露;揭露;曝光

  expose   v. 暴露;使曝光;使遭受;使处于…影响之下;展出

  1)Too much exposure to sunlight will burn your skin.(过度晒太阳会晒伤皮肤。)

  2)The exposure of corruption by the media caught the attention of the public.(传媒对腐败的揭露引起了公众的注意。)

  3)She concealed the secret from her parents, fearing the exposure would stun them.(她对父母隐瞒了这个秘密,担心秘密暴露会令父母震惊。)

  4)How many exposures have you made? (你拍了几张照片?)

  5)His shirt was open, exposing the tattoo on his chest. (他的衬衣敞开了,露出了刺在胸部的文身。)

  6)His fatness exposed him to a lot of joking at the office. (他长得肥胖,因此在办公室常受取笑。)

  7)He was exposed to music when he was a child. (他自幼受音乐薰陶。)

  8)Parents should expose their children to good books. (父母应让孩子们读好书。)

  9)He is going to expose all his collections at the auction. (他打算拍卖时把收藏品全部陈列出来。)

  3.allocate  v. 分配;把…拨给;把…划归

  allocation  n. 分配;划拨的款项

  1)Some doctors and teachers will be allocated to the villagers to help the people there.(一些医生和教师将被派往那些村子帮助那儿的人们。)

  2)They were dissatisfied with the way resources were allocated.(他们对资源分配的方式不满意。)

  3)One third of the money has been allocated to the public services.(三分之一的经费已拨给了公用事业。)

  4)They said the allocation of seats was unfair.(他们说席位的分配不公平。)

  5)He has a $5000 allocation to cover the expenses.(他有一笔5000美元的拨款以应付各项支出。)

  4. significantly   adv. considerably (相当数量地);meaningfully (有意义地)

  significant    adj. important,meaningful (意义重大的)

  marked,considerable (不必忽略的;相当数量的)

  significance   n. consequence (意义;影响)    implication(含义)

  1)Their opinions don't differ significantly from each other. (他们俩的看法没有明显差别。)

  2)He said to us significantly that education of the youth would be vital to the future of a country. (他意味深长地对我们说年轻人的教育对于一个国家的未来至关重要。)

  3)July 4 is a significant date for Americans. (对美国人来说七月四日是一个意义重大的日子。)

  4)There has been a significant increase in juvenule crime in recent years.(近年来,青少年犯罪活动有了相当大的增加。)

  5)This is an event of great significance. (这是一个非常重大的事件。)

  6)It is necessary to attach great significance to environmental protection.(重视环境保护是必要的。)

  5.per   prep.  每一,每

  1)He earns $3000 per month.(他每月挣3000美元。)

  2)We drove at the speed of 70miles per hour.(我们以每小时70英里的速度行驶。)

  3)Take the medicine 3times per day.(这药每日服三次。)

  4)They spent more than 20million pounds per year.(他们每年花费两千万英镑。)

  6.given  prep. considering (考虑到)

  1)Given their inexperience, they have done a good job.(考虑到他们缺乏经验,这工作他们做得不错。)

  2)Given his age, the old man is in good condition. (考虑到老人的年龄,他的身体状况很不错了。)

  3)Given my interest in oil painting, this is the best place to study.(考虑到我对油画的兴趣,这是学习的最好地方。)

  4)It seems unreasonable to send him away, given that he is doing quite well.(考虑到他的工作干得很不错,把他解雇是不合理的。)

  7.adopt   v. take up (采取); accept (收养); officially pass (正式通过)

  1)I don't know if I should adopt a positive attitude towards the whole happening.(我不知道我是否应该对整个事件采取积极态度。)

  2)Their country adopted press censorship. (他们国家采取了新闻检查制度。)

  3)They adopted an orphan as they had no child of their own.(他们自己没孩子,所以收养了一个孤儿。)

  4)The boy was happy as anything when his parents decided to adopt a puppy.(当爸爸妈妈决定收养一条小狗时,那个男孩高兴极了。)

  5)Congress adopted the new measures. (国会通过了新措施。)

  6)The National Congress adopted the government report.(全国人大通过了政府工作报告。)

  请注意区别adopt和adapt

  adapt  vi. adjust (调节;改变…以适应)

  vt. revise(校准;调整;改编)

  1)He had to adapt himself to the new condition.(他不得不使自己适应新的情况。)

  2)Mr. Wang could not adapt himself to the new climate. (王先生不能适应新的气候。)

  3)He is adapting the novel for television.(他正把那部小说改编为电视剧。)

  8.distinguish   v. separate (区别,辨别);  identify (认出)

  1)You have to distinguish facts from rumours if you want to form a correct opinion.(如果想有一个正确的观点,你得分辨事实和传闻。)

  2)He was distinguished from other boys by his height.(他的身高显出他与其它男孩的不同。)

  3)Some children were unable to distinguish between the letters b and  p. (有些孩子不能分辨字母b和p.)

  9.fantasy   n. 想像;幻想

  1)He is always having fantasies about becoming rich.(他总是抱着发财的幻想。)

  2)To a small child, fantasy and reality are very close to each other .(对幼儿来说,幻想和现实靠得很近。)

  请注意区别fancy,fantasy,imagination

  fancy和fantasy多指无事实依据的凭空想像。Fancy的内容多是虚构的,幻想的;fantasy的内容更是荒诞古怪的。

  Imagination的想像多依据所见所闻或现实内容一般是合理的。

  1)She went wherever the fancy took her. (她随兴致所至想去哪里就去哪里。)

  2)These fantasies are sometimes very dangerous to school children. (对学龄儿童来说这些古怪念头是很危险的。)

  3)Poets, artists and inventors need imagination. (诗人,艺术家和发明家都需要想像力。)

  10.underlying   adj. 在下面的;根本的;潜在的

  1)There are underlying similarities between all human beings. (人与人之间有着潜在的相似之处。)

  2)The underlying theme of the novel is very serious. (这本小说的潜在主题是极其严肃的。)

  3)Can you understand the underlying meaning of what he said? (你能理解他所说的话的含义吗?)

  4)The underlying structure of this building is no doubt very firm. (这座楼的底层结构无疑是牢固的。)

  11.motive n. reason, purpose (动机,目的)

  1)Greed was his only motive for receiving bribery. (贪婪是他受贿的唯一原因。)

  2)His motive in coming was a wish to achieve mutual understanding. (他来的动机是想达成相互理解。)

  3)The little boy opened his sister's mail through motives of curiosity. (那个小男孩出于好奇打开了姐姐的邮件。)

  4)You should question his motive before you approve his conduct. (在你赞同他的所作所为之前应该先质询他的动机。)

  12.subtlety n. delicacy;sensitivity 微妙之处,细微之处;敏锐

  subtle adj. 隐约的;微妙的

  1)Nobody noticed the subtlety of his remarks. (没有人听出他话中的微妙含义。)

  2)They can sense each other's intentions with great subtlety. (他们能敏锐地感觉到彼此的意图。)

  3)It is difficult for people from other cultures to master the subtleties of the American joke. (对于来自其他文化的人来说掌握美国笑话的微妙之处是困难的。)

  4)His whole attitude has undergone a subtle change. (他的整个态度已经有了微妙的变化。)

  5)He dwelt on the subtle distinction between the two words.(他详述两个词词义的细微差别。)

  13.moral adj. 有道德的      n. 道德;寓意

  1)He complained that he had witnessed a fall in moral standards.(他抱怨说他目睹了道德标准的衰落。)

  2)Parents are responsible for the children's moral welfare.(父母应对孩子道德上的健康成长负责。)

  3)The moral of the story was “A friend in need is a friend indeed ”。(这个故事的教益是“患难之交见真情。”)

  4)I don't know what moral to draw from all this. (我不知道从所有这一切中应得出何种教训。)

  5)He has no morals and will do anything for money. (他毫无道德,为了钱什么都干得出来。)

  14.recovery n. 康复;收回

  recover v. 恢复;收复;挽回

  1)He is recovered from his illness. (他已恢复了健康。)

  2)She recovered her strength after two days'rest. (经过两天的休息,她恢复了力气。)

  3)The police recovered the stolen watch. (警察追回了失窃的手表。)

  4)He said he had to work hard to recover the lost time. (他说他得努力工作,把失去的时间补回来。)

  5)Mr. Wang insisted that the economic recovery was still slow. (王先生坚持认为经济复苏还太缓慢。)

  6)She made a remarkable recovery from the illness. (她令人惊异地从那场疾病中康复了。)

  7)The recovery of the lost wallet thrilled the whole family. (失落钱包的复得使全家人兴奋不已。)

  15.unrealistic adj. impractical (不切实际的)

  1)It is unrealistic to expect better conditions in the near future.(在不远的将来指望有更好的形势是不现实的。)

  2)This demand proved unrealistic and unworkable. (这个要求证明是不切实际且不可行的。)

  3)You have unrealistic expectations. (你的期望不切实际。)

  16.imitate v. 模仿

  imitation n. 模仿

  imitative adj. 模仿的;仿制的

  1)Many writers imitate the language of Shakespeare. (许多作家模仿莎士比亚的语言。)

  2)His handwriting is difficult to imitate. (他的笔迹很难模仿。)

  3)Children learn many things by imitation. (儿童通过模仿学会许多东西。)

  4)Acting is an imitative art. (表演是一种模仿性艺术。)

  5)Monkeys are imitative (猴儿爱模仿。)

  17.undermine vt. weaken (侵蚀…基础;暗中破坏;逐渐损害)

  1)Many severe colds undermined the old man's health.(多次严重的感冒损害了老人的健康。)

  2)Failures undermined her confidence. (一再的失败使她渐渐丧失了信心。)

  3)The foundations of the house have been undermined by groundwater.(地下水侵蚀了这座房屋的地基。)

  18.jeopardize vt. threaten endanger (使处于危险境地;危及,损害)

  1)He jeopardized his life to save the drowning child. (他冒着生命危害救护那个溺水儿童。)

  2)He jeopardized his fortune by making bad investments.(他由于投资不当而危及自己的财产。)

  3)I didn't want to jeopardize my relationship with my new friend. (我不想损害我和新朋友的关系。)

  19.interpret vt. 解释;口译

  interpretation n. 解释;口译

  interpreter n. 口译者

  1)Literature helps to interpret life. (文学有助于阐明人生的意义。)

  2)His silence was interpreted as consent. (他的沉默被认为是同意。)

  3)People often give different interpretations of the past. (人们往往对过去作出不同的解释。)

  4)He is talking to the foreign guest through an interpreter. (他正通过译员与外国客人交谈。)

  20.monitor n. 监视器;监控器;监听员;班长       v. 监听;监视;监控

  1)The patient was connected to the monitor. (一台监控器连接到病人身上。)

  2)He is the monitor of our class. (他是我们班班长。)

  3)The police monitored all the phone calls of the suspect. (警察监听了疑犯的所有电话通话。)

  4)Water flow will be monitored by computer. (水流将由计算机来监测。)

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