您的位置:自考365 > 复习指导 > 笔记串讲 > 文学 > 欧洲文化入门复习资料第二部分

欧洲文化入门复习资料第二部分

2006-04-28 15:50  自考365社区 【 】【我要纠错

    第二章

    1、Christianity is by far the most influential in the West. 在西方最具影响力的宗教

    2、Judeo-Christian tradition constitutes one of the two major components of European culture: Judaism and Christianity.

    3、The Jewish tradition, which gave birth to Christianity. (犹太教是基督教的前身) Both originated in Palestine, which was known as Canaan.

    4、The ancestors of the Jews — the Hebrews. 犹太人的祖先是希伯来人

    5、They called “Hebrews”, which means “wanderers”。商旅

    6、About 1300 B.C., the Hebrews came to settle (定居) in Palestine.

    7、The Hebrews history was recorded in the Old Testament of the Bible.

    8、The Bible was divided into two sections: the Old Testament and the New Testament.

    9、The Old Testament is about God and the Laws of God. 上帝与上帝的教义

    10、The New Testament is about the doctrine (教义) of Jesus Christ.

    11、The New Testament is, in essence (实质上), the four accounts (四福音书), written by the four disciples.弟子

    12、The word “Testament” means “agreement”, the agreement between God and Man.

    13、Bible is representative of Christianity and 新旧约

    14、The Old Testament名词解释

    The Bible was divided into two sections: the Old Testament and the New Testament. The Old Testament is about God and the Laws of God. The word “Testament” means “agreement”, the agreement between God and Man.

    15、The New Testament名词解释

    The Bible was divided into two sections: the Old Testament and the New Testament. The New Testament is about the doctrine (教义) of Jesus Christ. The word “Testament” means “agreement”, the agreement between God and Man.

    16、The Old Testament consists of 39 books, the oldest and most important of which are the first five books, called Pentateuch.摩西五经

    17、Pentateuch名词解释

    The Old Testament consists of 39 books, the oldest and most important of which are the first five books, called Pentateuch. Pentateuch contains five books: Genesis (创世记), Exodus (出埃及记), Leviticus(教义记), Numbers (逃亡记), Deuteronomy (摩西遗言记)。

    18、Genesis名词解释

    Genesis is one of the five books in Pentateuch, it tells about a religious account (描述) of the origin of the Hebrews people, including the origin of the world and of man, the career (经历) of Issac and the life of Jacob and his son Joseph.

    19、Exodus名词解释

    Exodus is one of the five books in Pentateuch, it tells about a religious (宗教的) history of the Hebrews during their flight from Egypt, the period when they began to receive God‘s Law. Joshua brought the people safely back to canaan.

    20、The Fall of Man was recorded in Genesis, Pentateuch, the Old Testament, The Bible.

    21、Noah‘s Ark was recorded in Genesis, Pentateuch, the Old Testament, The Bible.

    22、The Historical Books was divided into seven sections:

    ①Books of Joshua ② Books of Judges ③ Books of Samuel ④ Books of Kings

    ⑤ Books of the Chronicles ⑥ Books of Ezra ⑦ Books of Nehemiah.

    23、The content of historical Books: 1200B.C. 586 B.C.

    Dealing with history of the Hebrew people from their entry into Palestine around 1200 B.C., till the fall of Palestine into hands of Assyrians and Chaldeans in 586 B.C.

    24、The History Books的内容

    ① The development of system of landed nobles.

    ② The development of monarchy. 君主专制

    ③ Establishment of the two Kingdoms. 两大王国的初步形成

    ④ (略看) The settlement in the highlands

    ⑤ (略看) Age of great prosperity under Saul, David and Solomon.

    25、Joshua brought the people safely back to Canaan.

    26、The first king to unite the Hebrews was Saul.

    27、David established religious capital, Jerusalem to Palestine.

    28、The Prophets (先知)名词解释 宣传教义并受神灵庇佑的人

    For more than a thousand years in the Middle East there had been a class of people known as “Prophets” or the spokesmen of God. Earlier prophets lived in groups as temple officials. Later on there appeared in dependent prophet. The Prophets can be grouped into the Major Prophets and Minor Prophets.(分为大小先知)

    29、The Book of Daniel名词解释

    The Book of Daniel belongs to The Old Testament of the Bible. It tells about the Hebrews being carried away into Babylon.

    30、The former body of church was known as Synagogues. 犹太教的会堂是教堂的前身

    31、The Pentateuch is the book of Daniel is also called torah. 摩西五经的别称

    32、The story about God‘s flooding to the human being and only good-virtue being saved was recorded in Genesis, Pentateuch, the Old Testament, the Bible, which was known as Noah’s Ark.

    33、By 300 A.D.each local church was called a parish and had a full time leader known as a priest.

    34、Several parishes were grouped together into a large unit called diocese, which was headed by a bishop.

    35、The most important bishops were called archbishops. (红衣大主教)

    36、Towards the end of the fourth century four accounts were accepted as part of the New Testament, which tells the beginning of Christianity.

    37、The Birth of Jesus was recorded in Matthew (马塞福音书)

    38、All the generations from Abraham to David are fourteen generations.为什么十四在西方吉利

    39、The Last Supper was recorded in John.

    40、The Last Supper was put into an oil painting by Da Vinci in the high renaissance in Italy.

    文艺复兴以人为本的标志——蒙娜丽莎

    41、The Last Supper adapted from St.John, the New Testament, the Bible.

    42、The story about Jesus being betrayed by Judas was known as The Last Supper.

    43、The story about Jesus being pinned (钉死) in the cross to death was known as The Last Supper.

    44、The first English version of whole Bible was translated from the Latin Vulgate in 1382 and was copied out by hand by the early group of reformers (改革者) led by John Wycliff.

    45、Wycliff 与 Tyndale 的区别是:语言来源不同

    Reformation (宗教改革) 为了 against the Latin language.

    46、William Tyndale‘s version was based on the original Hebrew and Greek sources.来源

    论述简答

    一、What difference between Christianity and the other religions?

    (What are the forceful beliefs of Christianity?)

    答:

    Christianity based itself on two forceful (强烈的) beliefs which separate it from all other religions.

    1、One is that Jesus Christ is the Son of God, and that God sent him to earth (世界) to live as humans live, suffer as humans suffer, and die to redeem mankind.(挽回人类)

    2、The other is that God gave his only begotten son (唯一的儿子), so that whosoever (whoever的强调型) believes in him should not perish, but have everlasting life. (获得永生)

    加尔文主义也有这样的观点

    二、How did Christianity originate and develop in the European continent (洲)?

    ☆ (How was Christianity spread to Europe and became the official religion? 统治性宗教)

    答:

    1、The disciples of Jesus tried to spread his gospel, first among the Jews in Palestine and then in the Mediterranean region.

    2、During a time of great unrest and upheaval动荡不安 in the European continent, the poor and humble found comfort in the Christian Gospel.福音(书)

    3、Christianity began to draw men and women from all classes in Europe. The Romans grew tired of war and feared (害怕) the collapse (崩溃) of the empire. And they admired the courage of the Christian missionaries.传教士

    4、Constantine believed that God had helped him in winning the battle (战役) and issued (发出) the Edict of Milan米兰特令 (选择) in 313. It granted (许可) religious freedom to all, and made Christianity legal.合法化

    5、In 392 A.D., Emperor Theodosius made Christianity the official religion of the empire and outlawed all other religions.其他宗教不合法

    6、Now Christianity had changed from an object of oppression (压迫) to a weapon in the hands of the ruling (管理) class to crush their opponents (粉碎对手)。 The Latin language became the official language.

    三、What are the different translation editions of the Bible?

    答:

    1、The oldest extant (现存的) Greek translation of the Old Testament is known as the Septuagint. And it is still in use in the Greek Church today. But it only translated the Old Testament.

    2、The most ancient extant Latin version of the whole Bible is the Vulgate edition, which was done in 385-405 A.D. By St. Jerome in common people‘s language. It became the official Bible of the Roman Catholic Church throughout the world.

    3、The first English version of whole Bible was translated from the Latin Vulgate in 1382 and was copied out by hand by the early group of reformers (改革者) led by John Wycliff.

    4、After John Wycliff‘s version, appeared William Tyndale’s version. It was based on the original Hebrew and Greek sources.来源

    5、The Great Bible (大圣经) ordered by Henry Ⅷ in 1539 to be placed in all the English churches was in part founded on Tyndale‘s work.

    6、The most important and influential of English Bible is the “Authorized”(官方版圣经) or “King James” version, first published in 1611. It was produced by 54 biblical scholars at the command of King James. With its simple, majestic (高雅的) Anglo-Saxon tongue, it is known as the greatest book in the English languages.

    7、The Revised Version appeared in 1885, and the standard American edition of the Revised Version in 1901. (美国英语版)

    8、The Good News Bible and the New English Bible.

    四、What is the great significance of the translations of the bible?

    (What are the great influences that the English Bible has on the American and British literature?)

    答:

    1、It is generally accepted that the English Bible and Shakespeare are two great reservoirs (水库) of Modern English.

    2、Miltion‘s Paradise Lost (失乐园), Bunyan’s Pilgrim‘s Progress, Byron’s Cain, up to the contemporary (同时期的) Hemingway‘s The Sun Also Rises, and Steinbeck’s East of Eden. They are not influenced without the effect of the Bible.

本文转载链接:欧洲文化入门复习资料第二部分

分享到:
  • 站内搜索
  • 课程搜索
  • 试题搜索

热门搜索:教材 报名 查分 免考 考试计划