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2002年高中起点升本、专科英语考试大纲

2005-08-02 00:00   【 】【我要纠错

    英语复习考试范围包括语音、词汇、语法、日常交际用语和阅读五个方面,其中以测试基础语言知识和基于这些知识的基本语言应用能力为重点。
  
  英语复习考试在记忆、理解和综合应用这三个层次上检测考生掌握英语的水平:记忆:能记住本大纲规定的语音、语法知识;能记住单词的拼写、读音、基本词义及主要用法;能记住本大纲规定的短语和习惯用语的意思和主要用法。理解:能正确使用语言、语法和日常交际用语知识;能够恰当理解使用中的各种语言现象;能够读懂英语的连贯表达。综合应用:能够使用本大纲规定的各类语言知识,整体理解不同形式的语篇;能够在特定的语境中比较得体地表达自己的连贯意思;能够有效地识别语篇中的明显失误。
  
  一、复习考试内容

  语音 熟悉英语音素的发音,知道英语字母及常用字母紫河车在单词中的读音。了解英语的基本语调以及使用语调的规则,并能在实践中运用这些规则。能在简单的日常会话使用比较自然的语音语调。
  
  词汇 掌握2000个左右常用英语单词和一定数量的短语和习惯用语,对单词能认,会读、知道词义及其在语句中的作用。对在一般交际中使用频率高的单词和短语,会拼写、能正确使用,知道一些常用词的近义词和反义词。能够根据上下文或利用基本的构词法和知识判断语篇中生词的含义。
  
  语法 较熟练地掌握下列各项语法知识并了在语言运用中借助这些知识进行语言交际。
  
  (一)语法

  1、名词的种类、数和所有格;名词分普通名词和专有名词。名词复数形式和构成(book——books, bus——buses , radio——radios , tomato——tomatoes , story——stories, knife——knives, man——men , sheep——sheep等)专有名词(John ,the United States ,Young Pioneer等)名词的所有格(Tom‘s father ,students’dedroom, a map of the world等)不可数名词(water , tea , paper等)不可数名词量化表示法(a piece of paper , a bottle of ink等)
  
  2、冠词(a/an , the )的基本用法;
  
  3、代词的用法;人称代词的主格和宾格(we , she ;us, her等)形容词性物主代词(my , your ,her ,hie等)名词性物主代词(mine, yours , theirs等)指示代词(this , that ,these , those等)不定代词(some, any等)疑问代词(what , who ,whose , which等)关系代词(who, whom ,whose , which, that , as等)
  
  4、“it”作引导词,非人称代词和强调句型中的用法;
  
  5、数词的基本用法;
  
  基数词的构成及其基本用法序数词的构成及其基本用法加、减、乘、除运算表示法时间、年代、年龄表示法
  
  6、形容词和副词的用法;形容词和副词比较级和最高级的构成(+er, +est ;more , the most以及特殊的形式)基本句型:——as +原级形式+as——not as /so+原级形式+as——比较级形式+than——the比较级形式,the比较级形式No sooner——than——the+最高级形式+——in/of——形容词的基本用法(作定语、表语、补足语等)副词的基本用法(表示时间、地点、方式、程度和频度)
  
  7、动词的种类、时态、语态和非谓语动词;
  
  1)动词的种类(1)行为动词或实义动词(2)连系动词( be , look , turn , get , become, etc)(3)助动词(be , do , have , shall , will , etc )(4)情态动词(can , may , must , need , etc )
  
  2)时态(1)一般现在时He gets up at six o‘clock in the mornign.She doesn’t speak Chinese.The earth gound the sun.
  
  (2)一般过去时He was in Grade Two last year.She got up five yesterday morning.
  
  (3)一般将来时Shall we go to your school tomorrow?They xill be free next weekShe is going to do her homework this evening.
  
  (4)现在进行时He is doing his homework mowWe are playing football on the playground now
  
  (5)过去进行时They were singing when I came hereThey have lived there for five years.
  
  (6)现在完成时He has already finished his homework.They have lived there for five years.
  
  (7)过去完成时We had learned 1000 words by the end of last year.When I got there she had gone already.
  
  (8)过去将来时She said she would go to Beijing the next day.Tom said he was going to see his unchle.
  
  3)被动语态(1)一般现在时的被动语态English is taught in that school.(2)一般过去时的被动语态The song was was written by that singer.(3)一般将来时的被动语态The work has beed done already .(4)带有情态动词的被动语态She must be sent to hospital at once.
  
  4)非谓语动词的基本用法(1)动词不定式的用法
  
  ①作主语
  
  To learn a foreign language is not easy.
  
  It is not easy to learn a foreign l anguage.
  
  ②作宾语
  
  They began to read.
  
  ③作宾语补足语
  
  Jim asked me to help him with his lessons.
  
  Try to make him stay with us.
  
  ④作定语
  
  I have an important meeting to attend.
  
  ⑤作表语
  
  She went to see her grandma yeatrday.
  
  ⑥作表语
  
  She went to see her her grandma yesterday.
  
  ⑦用在how,when , where ,what , which等之后
  
  I doh‘t know how to us a compuer.
  
  Do you know when to start?
  
  He didn‘t know what to do next.
  
  (2)动名词的用法
  
  ①作主语
  
  Seeing is belienving.
  
  It is useless arguing adout it.
  
  ②作表语
  
  Her job is looking after children
  
  ③作宾语
  
  I like sining.
  
  He suggested having a party at the weekend.
  
  ④作定语
  
  There is swimming pool in our sohool.
  
  This is a sleeping car.
  
  (3)分词的用法
  
  ①作表语
  
  The situation is encourahing
  
  The boy was greatly encouraged.
  
  ②作定语
  
  Our country is a developing country.
  
  The car ran along the school gate.
  
  ③作宾语补足语
  
  I saw them waiting at the school gate.
  
  I saw the door cloed.
  
  ④作状语
  
  Hearing the noise,they immediately stopped talking.
  
  Seen from a distance, the mountain looked like an elepant.
  
  8、常用介词和连词掌握词汇表中所列介词和连词的用法。(二)句法1、句子种类1)陈述句(肯定式与否定式)They go to school at seven in the morning.Shr isn‘s a worker.2)疑问句(1)一般疑问句Are you a teacher?Does she speak English?
  
  (2)特殊疑问句When were you born?Why do you study English?
  
  (3)反意疑问句He comes here one or that one ?Does she life maths lr Chinese ?
  
  (4)选择疑问句Do you want this one or that one ?Does she like maths or Chinese?
  
  3)祈使句Come here ,please!Don‘t do anything like that!
  
  4)感叹句What a fine day it is today!How fine it is today!
  
  5)并列句I turned on the TV and we sat down and watched it .
  
  6)复合句(1)名词性从句:主语从句:What he said is rihdt.Whether she will come or not is still a quesrion.宾语从句:I don‘t know why he left without saying a word .He said(that)he would come.表语从句:That is where he was born.That is why he hasn’s come yet.同位语从句:Do you know the news that my father will come back from America?That is the reason why he hasn‘t come yet.
  
  (2)定语从句:The man who is reading the newspaper is Mr Li.A chemist‘s shop is shop which selle msdicine.This is the room in which we lived last year.I still remember the day when I first come to Eeijing.The hospital where my mother works is in the north of the city.Huang Hong , whose father is a doctor , studies computer sricnce in the U. S. .
  
  (3)状语从句:时间状语从句:When Tom returns , I‘ll give him the key .地点状语从句:He works where he studied and lived.方式状语从句:He didn’t do it as I had told him.条件状语从句:We‘ll go to Great Wall if it is fine tomorrow.目的状语从句:We cilimbed high so that we might get a better view.结果状语从句:A TV set can be made so srmall that it may be easily placed in a watch .原因状语从句:Since it has st opped rlanned, the game will be held as planned.让步状语从句:He passed the exam although he has been ill for some time.
  
  2、句子主语、谓语、表语、宾语、定语、状语、补足语、直接宾语和间接宾语。
  
  3、倒装结构Hardly had I opened the door when when he rushed in.
  
  4、五种基本句型主语+连系动词+表语(S+Link-V+P)The bike is new.主语+及物动词+宾语(S+VT+O)Children often sing this song .主语+不及物动词(S+TV)He sings well.主语+及物动词+间接宾语+直接宾语(S+TV+IO+DO)Shr shwed her friends her pictures.主语+及物动词+宾语+宾补(S+TV+O+C)We keep our classroom clean and tidy.
  
  5、主谓的一致关系Jim and Mike have seen the film.There is a desk and two chairs in the room.Two and there is (are )five.Her famil is large.The family are sitting at the supper table.
  
  日常交际用语

  1、问候GreetingsGood morning/afternoon/evening.Hello/Hi.How are you?Fine , thank you , and you?Very well , thank you.
  
  2、介绍Intrductiongsa.This is Mr/Mrs /Miss /Ms /Comrade——
  
  I'd like you to meen——b.How do you do ?
  
  Nice/Glad /Pleased to see /meet you.c.My name is——
  
  I'm a (student/teacher , erc . )d.I’m Chinese.3、告别Farewellsa.I‘m afraid I must be leaving now.I think it’s time for us to leave now.b.Good-bye!(Bye-bye!Bye!)See you later/tomorrow.(See you)Good night.
  
  4、感谢和应答Thanks and responsesa.Thank you (very much).Thank a lot.Many thks.Thanks for——b. It‘s very kind of you to——Not at all.It’s /That‘s all right.You’re welcome
  
  5、祝愿、祝贺和应答Good wishse , congratlations&responsesa.Good luck!Best wishes to you!I wish you good luck/success!Have a nice /good time.b.Thank you .The same to you.c.Happy New Year!Merry Christmas!Harry birthday to you.
  
  6、道歉、遗憾和应答Apoiogies, rgrets,sympathies&responsesa.Sorry/Pardon.I‘m sorry.I’m sorry for/about——I'msorry to hest——b.Excuse me (for——)I’m afraid of——What a pity/shame!c.That‘s all right.It doesn’t matter.That‘s nothing.
  
  7、邀请和应答Invitations and responsesa. Will you come to——?Would you like to——?I‘d like to inviteyou to——b.Yes,I’d love to(——).Yes, it‘s very kind /nice of you.c.I’d love to ,but——
  
  8、提供(帮助等)和应答Offers and responsesa.Can/Could/Shall I help you?Is there anything (erlse)I can do for you?Do you want me to——?What can I do for you ?Let me do/carry /help——(for you ).Would you like some——?b.Thanks. That would be nice/ fine .That‘s very kind of you.Thank you your help.Yes, plsase,Here, take this /my ——c.No, thanks/thank you.Thank you all the same .That’s very kind of you , but——

  9、约会Making appointmentsa.Are you/ will you be free this afternoon/tomorrow?How about tomorrow morning/afernoon/eveving?Shall we meet at 4:30 at——?b.Yes,that‘s all right.Yes,I’ll be free then.c. No,I won‘t be free then .But I’ll be free——d.All right .See you then.
  
  10、意愿和希望Imtentions and wishesa.I‘m going to——I will——I’d like to——I(do not)want/hope to——b.I want/hope/mish to——
  
  11、请求、允许和应答Asking for permission and responsesa. May I——?Can/Could I——?b.Yes /Sure /Certainly.Yes,(do)please.Of course(you may).Go ahsad,please.That‘s OK/all right.Not at all.c.I’m sorry you can‘t.I’m sorry,but——You‘d better not.
  
  12、同意和不同意Agreement and disagreementa. Certainly/ Sure /Of course.No problem.Yes,please .Yes,I think so.That‘s true.All right/OK.That’s a good idea——I/We agree(with you)b.No,I don‘t think so.I’m afraid motI‘m afraid I(really)con’t agree with you.
  
  13、喜好和厌恶Likes and dislikesa.I like/love——(very much).I like /love to——b. Idon‘t like to(to)——I hate(to)——
  
  14、决断和坚持Determination,decision and insistenceI will——I have decided to/ that——
  
  15、判断和意见Judgement and opiniona. Well done /Good work!b.In my opinion——It seems——
  
  16、能力AbilityI can——He is able to——
  
  17、肯定和不肯定Certainty and uncertaintya.I‘m sure(of that).I’m sure(that)——b.I‘m not sure(of thar).I’m not sure whether/ if——c. Perhaps/Maybe.
  
  18、禁止和警告Prohibition and warningsa. You can‘t/mustn’t——If you——,you‘ll——You;d better not do it .Don’t smoke!Don‘t be late!b.Look out!Take care!Be coareful!
  
  19、可能和不可能Possibility and impossibitya.He can / may——It is possible that——
  
  20、预见、猜测和相信Prediction conjecture and beliefa.He will——b. It seems(that)——c. I believe that he is right.
  
  21、请求Reqyestea. Can will /Couuld/ Would you——for me?Willk/ Can/Ccould /Would you jplease——?May I have——?b. Please give / Pass me——Please wait(here /a mooment).Please wait(for)your turn .Please stand in line/ line up.Please hurry.c. Don‘t rush(hurry)/ corowd.No noise,pleasse.No smoking,please.
  
  22、劝告和建议许诺Advice and suggestionsa. You‘d better(not)——You should/ought to——You need(to)——b. Shall we——?Let’s——What /How adout——?Why nou——?Why don‘t you——?
  
  23、许诺PromisesI promise——I will give——to you .
  
  24、表示焦虑Expressing anxietyWhat‘s wrong?What’s the matter(with you)?I‘m / He’s / She‘s worried .Oh,what shall I / we do?
  
  25、表示惊奇Expressing surpriseReally?Oh dear!Is that so?Good heavens!
  
  26、表示喜悦Expressing pleasureI‘m glad/ pleased / happy to——That’s nice/ wonderful / grear.
  
  27、谈论天气Talking adout the weathera. What‘s the weather like today?How’s the weather in——?b. It‘t fine / cloudy / windy / rainy——It’t gettign cold / warm——It‘s rather warm / cold / hot——today,isn;t it?It’s a beautiful day today.
  
  28、购物Shoopinga. What can I do for you?May / Can I help you?b. I want / I‘d like——How much is it?That’s too expensive,I‘m afraid.That’s fine . I‘ll take it .Let me have——c. How many / much do you want?What colour / size / kind do you want?d.Do you have any other kind / size / colour,etc.?
  
  29、问路和应答Asking the wqy and respoesesa. Excuse me .Where‘s the men’s / ladies‘room?Excuse me . Can you tell me the way to——?How can I get to——?I don’t know the way .b. Go down this street.Turn right / left at the first / second crossing.It‘s about——metres from here.Go straight ahead till you see——
  
  30、问时间、日期和应答Asking the time,date and responsesa. What day is(it)today?What‘s the date today?Excuse me .What time is it by your watch?What’s the time,please?b. It‘s Monday / Tuesday——It’s January 10th.It‘s five o’clock / five thiry(half past five)/ a quatter past(to)six.It‘s time for / to——
  
  31、就餐Taking mealsa. What would you like(to have)?Would you like somehing(to eat / drink)?b. I‘d like——Cok / Two eggs——,please.c. Would you like some——?Help yourself to some——d.Thank you . I’ve had enough.I‘m full,thank you .Just a little,p lease.32、打电话Making phone calls
  
  a. Hollo!Is(Tom)in?May / Could I speak to——?Is that——(speaking)?b. Hold on,please.Hello,who is it?He / She isn‘t here right now.Can I take a m essage for you?c. Hello,thie is——speaking .I called to tell / ask you——33、传递信息Passing on a messagea. Will you please give this note / message to——?b.——asked me to give you this note .c. Thanks for the messge.34、看病Seeing the doctora. There’s something wrong with——I‘ve got a headache and a cough.I feel terridle(bed).I doh’t feel well.b. Take this medicine three times a day .Drink plenty of water and have a good reat .It‘s nothing serious .You’ll be all right / well soon.35、求救Calling for helpa. Help!Thief!b. What‘s the matter?36、语言困难Languge difficultiesPardon?Would you please say that again / more slowly?What do you mean by——?I’m sorry I can‘t follow you .I’m sorry I know only a little English.  
  
  二、考试形式及试卷结构

  考试方法和时间闭卷。笔答。考试时间为100分钟。试卷满分为150分。试题内容比例及题型一、语音知识约5%二、词汇与语法知识约25%三、完形填空约20%四、阅读理解约30%五、短文识错约10%六、补全对话约10%
  
  语音知识题型为选择题,包括若干小题。每小题列出四个单词,每个但单词中均有划线标明的一个字母或字母组合。要求考生辨别划线部分的读音,找出那个读音不同于组内其他划线部分读音的单词。
  
  词汇与语法知识题型为选择题,包括若干小题。
  
  每小题是一个留有空白的不完整的英语句子。要求考生在小题下面的四个选择项中,选出可以填入句中空白处的正确或最佳的一项。
  
  阅读理解题型为选择题。本题向考生提供二至四段短文,总阅读量不少于1000个词。短文题材包括日常生活、史地、文化、科技常识、人物传记等。体裁有记叙文、说明文和应用文等。每篇短文后有数量不等的关于短文内容的问题或不完整的句子。要求考生在仔细阅读短文以后,从每个问题或不完整的句子下面的四个选择项中,选出可以用来回答问题或补全句子的正确或最佳的一项。考生应能通过阅读掌握每篇短文的主旨大意、主要事实、有关细节以及上下文的逻辑关系等;既能看懂短文的字面意思,又能推论出短文的隐含意思;既能回答就文章局部细节提出的问题,又能回答有关文章总体内容的问题。
  
  完形填空题型为选择题。本题向考生提供一篇约300个词的短文。文中留出20处空白,文后为每个空白提供四个选择项,要求考生在通读全文领会大意的基础上,根据已经掌握的词汇、语法知识并结合自己的常识分析判断,从选择项中为每个空白选出正确最佳的一项,使全篇成为内容连贯、没有语法错误的通顺文章。短文识错题型为选择题。本题向考生提供一篇100词左右的短文,其中10行内各有4处划线部分,并标有A、B、C、D,每行有一处错误。要求考生在领会全文的基础上指出每行中的错误项。
  
  补全对话题型为自由应答题。本题向考生提供一段不完整的对话,对话中只有一个人的讲话而缺少另一个人的讲话的全部或一部分。要求考生根据试题说明中交待的背景和情节,把缺少的部分补写出来。考生除应掌握必要的词汇、语法知识外,还要熟悉英语中有关日常生活的某些表达方式,例如:问候、告别、介绍、感谢、道歉、邀请、提议、命令、请求、愿意不愿意、同意不同意等。
  
  试题难易比例较容易题约30%中等难度题约50%较难题约20%

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