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04年10月欧洲文化入门串讲资料2

2005-06-10 00:00  北京自考热线·linylee 转载 【 】【我要纠错

  二、How did science develop in the 17th century?

  答:

  1、Copernicus: Helio-centric (日心说)

  2、Kepler:

  ①Kepler‘s Laws of planetary motion. (开普勒行星定律)

  ②Kepler proved Copernicus Helio-centric theory to be true.

  ③Kepler‘s Laws formed the basis of all modern planetary astronomy and led to Newton’s discovery of the laws of gravitation. (万有引力理论)

  3、Galile①He made a telescope. (望远镜)

  ②Galileo also proved Copernicus Helio-centric theory to be true.

  ③Galileo discovered the importance of acceleration in dynamics. (动力加速度)

  ④Galileo was also the first to establish the law of falling bodies. (落体理论的奠定)

  4、Newton:

  ①He invented calculus. (微积分)

  ②In optics (光学), he discovered that white light is composed (组成) of all the colour of the spectrum.(光谱)

  ③Newton established his name (声望) in the field of physics.

  ④Newton established the analytical method. (分析方法理论)

  5、Leibniz:

  ①Leibniz distinguishes three levels of understanding:

  the self-conscious (自我意识)

  the conscious and the unconscious or subconscious (无意识或下意识)

  This theory had a great influence on Freudian psychology.

  ②This theory of time and space had a great influence on einsteinian physics.

  ③He and Newton invented independently the differential (互不相关的) and intergral (整合性的) calculus.(微积分)

  三、What are the merits shared by the Great Scientists of 17th century?

  (Do you think there is something in common among the 17th century scientists? If there is, present your ideas on the statement.)

  答:

  During the 17th century, the modern Scientific method began to take shape (初见端倪)。 It emphasized (强调) observation (观察) and experimentation (实验) before formulating (表示) a final explanation or generalization (概括)。 Copernicus、Kepler、Galileo、Newton and other scientists of the time shared two merits (价值) which favoured the advance of science.(推动)

  1、First, they showed boldness (大胆性) in framing hypotheses.(假定框架)

  2、Second, they all had immense (极大的) patience (耐性) in observation.

  3、The combination (组合) of the two merits brought about fundamental (根本的) changes in man‘s scientific and philosophical thinking.

  四、What is Baconian Philosophical system?

  (What is the different between inductive method (归纳法) and deductive (演绎法) method?)

  答:

  1、 The whole basis of his philosophy was practical (实用主义哲学): to give mankind (人类) mastery (主宰) over the forces of nature by means of scientific discoveries and inventions.

  2、He held that philosophy should be kept separate from theology (神学), not intimately be blended with it as in Scholasticism.(与经院主义混为一谈)

  3、Bacon established the inductive method. Induction means reasoning (推理) from particular facts or individual cases to a general conclusion.(从特殊推一般)。 Deductive method emphasized (强调) reasoning from a known principle (原因) to the unknown and from the general to the specific.(从已知推未知,从一般推特殊)

  4、In a word, to break with the past (与过去相背离), and to restore (存储) man to his lost mastery of the natural world. This was what Bacon called the Great Instauration. (大恢复理论)

  五、What is Hobbes‘ material system?

  (What are Hobbes‘ materialist view?)

  答:

  1、Our knowledge comes from experience.(知识来源于实际)

  2、 Only material things are perceptible (可感知的), and knowable to us (为我们所知的)。 Our own experience alone is certain (个人的实践是确定无疑的)。 Men could not know anything about the existence of God. (人类无法感知上帝是否确定存在)

  3、When a thing lies (静止) still, unless something else stirs (搅动) it, it will lie still for ever.

  4、Hobbes systematized (系统化) Baconian materialism, but basically (基本上) he was a mechanical materialist.(机械唯物主义),费尔巴哈也是

  六、What is the natural state of war according to Hobbes?

  答:

  1、Equality of hope arises from the equality of ability.(欲望来自于能力的平等)

  2、If any two men desire (得到) the same thing, which nevertheless (虽然如此) they cannot both enjoy, they become enemies (敌人)。鱼和熊掌不可兼得

  3、From this, he concluded, until such time as men live under a common power (努力均衡), they are in a state of war with one another.

  七、What are the Laws of nature, according to the Hobbes?

  答:

  1、It is obviously (显然的) in man‘s interest to emerge from this natural state of war.(人的利益导致战争)

  2、 For by nature men have their passions (激情) and their reason. It is their passions which bring about the state of war (导致战争的自然状态)。

  3、Peace is necessary for survival (生存) and certain articles (条款) of peace, upon which men may be drawn to agreement (达成一致)。

  八、What is the theory of the Social Contract, according to the Hobbes?

  答:

  1、It is necessary that there should be a common power (权利的集中) or government backed by force and able to punish (处罚)。

  2、Commonwealth (英联邦), in Latin, Civitas (共有财产)。

  3、 To escape (避免) anarchy (无政府状态), men enter into a social contract, by which they submit to the sovereign (君主)。 In return for (作为回报) conferring (赠与) all their powers and strength to the sovereign, men attain (达到) peace and security (安全)。

  4、The powers of the sovereign must be absolute (绝对的), and it is only be the centralization (中央集权) of authority (权利) in one person that the evil (邪恶) can be avoided.

  5、As to the form of government, Hobbes preferred monarchy.(主张君主制)

  6、Government was not created by God, but by men themselves.

  九、What are John Locke material view?

  答:

  1、 All our ideas are ultimately (最后) derived (来自) from sensation (感受) or from reflection (反思) and these two make up (组成) experience and all our knowledge springs from experience as well.

  2、Neither principles nor ideas are innate.(规律与人的思维都并非天生的)

  3、Sensation and reflection are the fountains of knowledge.(两大源泉)

  十、What is Locke‘s Political Philosophy?(政治哲学)

  答:

  1、Locke flatly rejected the theory of divine right of kings.(排除了君权神授的思想)

  2、 He ridiculed (嘲笑) the theory of transmission of royal authority (王权的世袭制) by saying that there was no evidence (证据) that Adam possessed (控制) a divinely (像神一样的) granted royal authority (授予王权), nor is there any evidence that his heirs (继承人) had it.

  3、Locke put forward the idea of the state of nature.(提出自然状态的观点)

  4、 For Locke, Nature Law, therefore, means a universally (普遍) obligatory (强制性的) moral law (道德法则) promulgated (发布) by the human reason. Whereas (然而) for Hobbes it means the law of power, force and fraud (欺骗)。

  5、Locke firmly believed in natural rights (天赋人权)。 The natural right is the right of private property (财产)。

  十一、What is the difference between Hobbes and Locke in terms of nature Law?

  答:

  For Locke, Nature Law, therefore, means a universally (普遍) obligatory (强制性的) moral law (道德法则) promulgated (发布) by the human reason. Whereas (然而) for Hobbes it means the law of power, force and fraud (欺骗)。

  十二、What is John Locke‘s Social Contract?

  答:

  1、Society is out of necessity, convenience and man‘s own interest, and therefore, society is natural to man.

  2、 The institution (制度) of political society and government must proceed (进行) from the consent (赞同) of those who are incorporated into (与…融为一体) political society and subject themselves to government.(人要完全屈服于政府的统治)

  3、 Locke emphasized (强调) that the social contract must be understood as involving the individual‘s consent (同意) to submit (服从) to the will of the majority (大多数人的意志) and that the will of the majority must prevail (流行)。

  4、Locke also believed that the ruler of government is one partner of the social contract.(是社会契约的签约方), If he violates (违反) the social contract, then government is effectively dissolved.(有效地取消), This idea was welcomed (采用) by the Americans during the American Revolution and the bourgeoisie revolution in England.(北美独立战争和英国资产阶级革命)

  十三、What is the different between Tomas Hobbes and John Locke in terms of Social Contract?

  答:

  1、Tomas Hobbes:

  ① It is necessary that there should be a common power (权利的集中) or government backed by force and able to punish (处罚)。

  ② Commonwealth (英联邦), in Latin, Civitas (共有财产)。

  ③ To escape (避免) anarchy (无政府状态), men enter into a social contract, by which they submit to the sovereign (君主)。 In return for (作为回报) conferring (赠与) all their powers and strength to the sovereign, men attain (达到) peace and security (安全)。

  ④ The powers of the sovereign must be absolute, and it is only be the centralization (中央集权) of authority (权利) in one person that the evil (邪恶) can be avoided.

  ⑤ As to the form of government, Hobbes preferred monarchy.(主张君主制)

  ⑥ Government was not created by God, but by men themselves.

  2、John Locke:

  ① Society is out of necessity, convenience and man‘s own interest, and therefore, society is natural to man.

  ② The institution (制度) of political society and government must proceed (进行) from the consent (赞同) of those who are incorporated into (与…融为一体) political society and subject themselves to government.(人要完全屈服于政府的统治)

  ③ Locke emphasized (强调) that the social contract must be understood as involving the individual‘s consent (同意) to submit (服从) to the will of the majority (大多数人的意志) and that the will of the majority must prevail (流行)。

  ④ Locke also believed that the ruler of government is one partner of the social contract.(是社会契约的签约方), If he violates (违反) the social contract, then government is effectively dissolved.(有效地取消), This idea was welcomed (采用) by the Americans during the American Revolution and the bourgeoisie revolution in England.(北美独立战争和英国资产阶级革命)

  3、Although both Tomas Hobbes and John Locke used the term “social contract”, they differed fundamentally.(根本上的不同)

  ① First, Hobbes argued men enter a social contract to escape the state of war, for, in his view, men are enemies and at war with each other. Locke argued men are equal and that they enter a social contract by reason.

  ② Secondly, Hobbes argued that individuals surrender (放弃) their rights to one man, the sovereign whose power is absolute. Locke argued that the individuals surrender their rights to the community as a whole (少数服从多数)。 According to him, by majority vote a representative is chosen, but his power not absolute. If he fails to implement (履行) the people‘s will, the people have the right to overthrow (推翻) him.

  十四、What are the courses of the English Revolution?

  答:

  1、The growth of capitalism (资产阶级的出现)

  2、The break-up of serfdom (农奴制被打破)

  3、The Puritan movement (清教徒运动)

  十五、How many stages has the English Revolution undergone (经历)?

  答:

  1、The war between Parliament and the King: It was ended with the victory of the king.

  2、The first civil war from 1642 to 1646.

  3、The second civil war in 1648: It was ended with the victory of the Parliament.

  4、The establishment of the Republic by Oliver Cromwell in 1649: CharlesⅠwas be headed.

  5、The Restoration (复辟) of the stuart dynasty (斯图亚特王朝): in 1660.

  6、The Glorious Revolution (光荣革命) in 1688: Mary and William.

  十六、What is the great significant of the English Revolution?

  答:

  1、It was the first time that capitalism has defeated (击败) absolute monarchy (君主专制) in history.

  2、The English Revolution marked that the modern times are approaching (接近)。

  3、 After the English Revolution the constitutional monarchy (君主立宪制) has come into being as well as the Bill of Rights. The Bill of Right established the supremacy (至高无上的权利) of the Parliament and put an end to divine monarchy in England. The Bill of Rights limited the Sovereign‘s power (王权) in certain important directions.(方向)

  十七、What are the characteristics of French classicism?

  (How does French classicism differ from the other classicism?)

  答:

  1、 In the French classical literature, man was viewed (认为) as a social being consciously (有意识的) and willingly (自动的) subject (主体) to discipline (纪律)。社会自然人

  2、Rationalism (理性主义) was believed to be able to discover the best principles (原则) of human conduct (行为) and the universal (通用的) principles of natural laws. Here Descartes provided (提供的) the philosophical foundation for the French neoclassicism.(新古典主义)

  3、French classicism was fond of using (善于使用) classical forms, classical themes (思想) and values (价值观念)。

  第六章1、Enlightenment名词解释 简答:启蒙运动

  Enlightement was an intellectual (知识分子) movement originating in France, which attracted (吸引) widespread (普遍的) support (支持) among the ruling (统治阶级) and intellectural classes of Europe and North America in the second half of the 18th century. It characterizes the efforts (作用) by certain European writers to use critical reason (批评推理) to free minds from prejudice (偏见), unexamined authority (权威) and oppression (压迫) by Church or State (国家政权)。 Therefore the Enlightenment is sometimes called the Age of Reason (理智的年代)。

  (Why do we say the 17th century provides the intellectual origin for the Enlightement?)

  2、启蒙运动的先行者:John Locke and Isaac Newton

  3、 Newton‘s theory of gravitation (万有引力理论) further demonstrated (进一步证实) to the world that the universe is governed (控制) by laws that could be understood by the human mind.(可以为人所知)

  4、The major force of the Enlightenment was the French philosophes, such as Montesquieu, Voltaire (伏尔泰) and Rousseau (卢梭)。 Diederot, who edited the famous Encyclopédie (百科全书)。

  5、Diederot —→ Encyclopédie (百科全书)。

  6、Montesquieu—→ was the first of the great French men of letters associated with the Enlightenment

  (第一个加入到启蒙运动的法国人)

                      —→ Persian Letters (波斯人的信札)

                      —→ The spirit of the Laws (论法的精神)

  7、It is an investigation (研究) of the environmental and social relationships that lie behind the laws of civilized society.

  8、The definition of law by Montesquieu.

  9、“must be adapted to each people” 是Montesquieu 在 The Spirit of the Laws 中提到

  10、 The theory of the separation of powers (三权分立理论) was put forward by Montesquieu in his work The Spirit of the Laws. He believed that the legislative (立法), executive (行政) and judicial (司法) powers must be confided (托付) to different individuals, acting independently. (独立的行为)

  11、The theory of the separation of powers was accepted by the U.S. Constitution.

  (三权分立的思想被美国宪法所接受)

  12、Voltaire (伏尔泰) —→ His works are an outstanding embodiment (杰出的体现) of the principles (原则性的) of the French Enlightenment.

                                     —→ Letters Anglaise (Letters philosophiques) 哲学信件

                                     —→ Candide (名字)

  13、Rousseau (卢梭)

  The greatest figures of the French Enlightenment (对浪漫主义文学思潮产生影响的法国哲学家是卢梭) he glorified human nature and attacked social inequality. (赞扬人的本质反对社会不平等)

  —→ The Origin of Human Inequality (论人类平等的根源)

  “man is born free, and everywhere he is in chains.”

  —→ The Social Contract (社会契约论) social democracy 呼唤社会的民主

  14、Rousseau 之所以比 Hobbes 和 Locke 更高级是因为他提出了 social democracy. P233

  15、Daniel Defoe —→ Robinson Crusoe (鲁滨逊漂流记)

  —→ One of the greatest fiction writers (小说作家) of 18th century England.

  在启蒙运动中英国有一部触及现实主义的作品和人是:Daniel Defoe

  16、ft —→ Satirist (讽刺大师) in the English language

           —→ A modest Proposal (温和的建议)

           —→ Gulliver‘s Travels (格列佛游记)

  17、Fielding —→ Father of the English novel (英国现代小说之父) 第一个写小说的是乔叟

                    —→ 小说类型为:Modern novel

                    —→ The History of Tom Jones, a Foundling (一个弃儿的历史)

  18、He was also the first person to approach the genre (类型) with a fully worked-out theory of the novel. (用小说理论进行创作的第一人)

  19、Goethe (歌德) —→ 德国文学第一人

                                   —→ The Sorrows of Young Werther (少年维特的烦恼) 郭沫若翻译

                                  —→ Faust (浮士德)

                                 —→ Poetry and Truth (诗和真理) Autobiography (自传体)

  20、Schiller (席勒) —→ He was a founder of modern German literature. 多产的作家

  Schiller and Goethe are the chief representatives of German classicism

  —→ The Robber (抢劫者)

  —→ Cabal and Love (阴谋与爱情)

  —→ Wilhelm Tell (威廉如是说)

  21、Kant (康德) —→ Waterhead of modern philosophy (当代哲学的源头)

  nebular hypothesis (那不勒假说 or 星云假说)

  —→ General History of Nature and Theory of the Heavens

  (自然发展史和天体理论) nebular hypothesis在这部作品中提出

  —→ Critique of Pure Reason (论纯粹的推理)

  rationalism with empiricism (把理论主义与经验主义融为一体)在上书中

  human knowledge is limited to the phenomenal world. 局限于外部世界

  22、The Musical Enlightenment (音乐启蒙运动)名词解释

  By the beginning of the 18th century the art of creating music had become almost entirely (完全) rationalized (理性化)。 It came to its richest fruition (高潮) in the works of Bach (巴赫) and Handel (亨德尔)。 Bach and Handel represented a trend (趋势) towards greater regularity (规律性) of style in the clearly defined types and forms, in a series (系列) of standardized formulas (公式)。

  23、Bach (巴赫)

  —Bach created a synthetic art (人为艺术) which summarized (总结) all the developments of the Baroque era.

  —为 Haydn (海顿), Mozart, and Beethoven 打下基础的人是Bach

  —Schumann said, “Music owes as much to Bach as Christianity does to its Founder.”

  (欧洲现代主义音乐的创始人)

  24、Handel (亨德尔)

  —combination (结合) of the Italian traditions of solo (独奏为主) and instrumental style, the English choral (合唱) tradition.

  —→ Messiah (米赛亚)轻歌剧教会音乐 ☆

  25、The Baroque Period was followed by the Classical Period, roughly between 1750 and 1820.

  26、Classical Period 三大代表:Haydn (海顿), Mozart, and Beethoven.

  27、以上三位代表为:Viennese School (维也纳流派)

  28、Haydn (海顿) —→ Austrian

  —→ London symphonies (伦敦交响乐) 以交响乐为主

  29、Mozart (莫扎特) 歌剧成就最高 英年早逝(文学上为:Keats)

  —→ Operas (歌剧)

  —→ Don Giovanni (唐璜)

  —→ The Marriage of Figaro (费加罗的婚礼)

  论述简答一、What is the historical context for the Enlightenment to develop?

  答:

  1、The American War of Independence (美国独立战争) of 1776 ended British colonial (殖民) rule over that country and got victory in 1783.

  ☆ The Declaration of Independence (独立宣言)

  2、The French Revolution broke out in 1789. The seizure (占领) of the Bastille (巴士底狱)。 The first French Republic was born in 1792.

  ☆ Declaration of the Rights of Man (人权宣言)

  3、 The Industrial Revolution (工业革命) the 1760‘s — the 1830’s, beginning with the invention of the steam engine, rapidly (迅速的) changed the face of the world (世界的面貌), and ushered in a completely new age. (开创了一个崭新的时代)

  二、What is the great significant of the Industrial Revolution? (只要问到工业革命就答这个)

  答:

  1、The introdution引入 of machines which reduced the need for hand labour in making goods.

  2、The substitution (替代) of steam power for water, wind, and animal power.

  3、The change from manufacturing (手工作坊) in the home to the factory system.

  4、New and faster method of transportation (交通方式) on land and on water.

  5、The growth of modern capitalism and the working class. (两大阶级的对立)

  第七章1、Romanticism名词解释Romanticism was a movement in literature, philosophy, music and art which developed in Europe in the late 18th and early 19th centuries. Starting from the ideas of Rousseau in France and from the Storm and Stress movement (狂飙运动) in Germany. Romanticism emphasized individual values and aspirations (灵感) above those of society. As a reaction (反应) to the industrial revolution (工业革命), it looked to (承上启下) the Middle Ages and to direct contact with nature (与大自然的直接接触) for inspiration (灵感)。 Romanticism gave impetus (动力支持) to the national liberation movement (民族解放运动) in 19th century Europe.

  2、The literary and philosophical trend (倾向) in the Romantic philosophy was represented by Transcendentalism.(先验论)

  3、the theoretical (理论上的) groundwork (基础) for capitalism was Adam Smith‘s the wealth of Nations.

  4、Brotherhood最早由犬儒派提出,惠特曼的草叶集也提到5、French revolution with its slogans (口号) of liberty (自由), equality and universal brotherhood.

  6、Blake —→ Songs of Innocence (清白之歌) happy world

               —→ Songs of Experience (经验之歌) bitter world (苦涩)

  7、The Laker poets (The Lakers)

  ① Wordsworth —→ Lyrical Ballads (抒情民谣) 与 Coleridge 合写

                        —→ The Prelude (序曲)

  ② Coleridge —→ Kubla Khan (忽必烈汗) exotic culture (外来文化)

                    —→ The Rime of the ancient Mariner (古舟船泳)

  8、Lyrical Ballads marked the beginning of the Romantic literature.

  9、Coleridge‘s works possessed the characteristic of exotic culture. (外来文化)

  10、Byron —→ Isles of Greece (希腊诸岛)

                 —→ Don Juan (唐璜) 莫扎特改编成歌剧 (选择)

  ⊙Byron 是浪漫主义时期中国最熟悉的

  ⊙两个战役 hence (战役) the mention (提到的) of Marathon (马拉松) and Thermopylae

  ⊙Byronic hero 对中国影响最深的是鲁迅

  11、Byron created a typical hero which is call The Byronic hero.

  12、Byron mentioned two important wars of Marathon and Thermopylae in Isles of Greece.

  13、Byronic hero名词解释

  Byronic hero was created by Byron in the Romantic period of the English literature. The Byronic hero is characterized by bravery and hard working spirit, such as Don Juan as the best representative of the Byronic hero.

  14、Shelly —→ Ode to the West Wind (西风颂) (If Winter comes, can Spring be far behind?)

                   —→ Prometheus Unbound The Lyrical drama 抒情戏剧

  15、“If Winter comes, can Spring be far behind?” was written in Ode to the West Wind by Shelly.

  16、Shelly wrote a Lyrical drama Prometheus Unbound which is a parody Prometheus bound written by Aeschylus

  17、Keats —→ Ode to a Nightingale (夜莺赋)

                  —→ Ode on a Grecian Urn (希腊古瓮颂) Beauty is truth, truth beauty.

                  —→ sonnets (伤籁 十四行诗) 只有真理才是永恒的美

  18、“Beauty is truth, truth beauty,”was written in Ode on a Grecian Urn by Keats.

  19、(略)Scott —→ The Heart of Mid-lothian (密德罗安市的监狱)

                            —→ Ivanhoe (撒克逊劫后英雄传)

  20、The death of Scott marked the end of Romanticism in England. 他的死标志着浪漫主义结束

  21、Victor Hugo —→ Cromwell (介于浪漫主义与古典主义之间)

                           —→ Notre Dame de Paris (巴黎圣母院)

                            —→ Les Miserables (悲惨世界) 主人公:Jean Valjean

  22、Victor Hugo was a best representative writer of Romanticism in France.

  23、George Sand —→ Indiana (印第安纳州) misunderstook woman没受到公正待遇的女性

  24、Russian Romantic literature was against The Tzarist rule.(沙皇统治)

  25、The representative writers of Russia Romanticism were Pushkin and Lermontov.

  26、Pushkin —→ Ruslan and Liudmila (罗斯兰与雷尔达米拉) 与 leaves of grass 相似

                    —→ Boris Godunov (布达耶夫)

  It is people, not the Tzar that could change history.不是沙皇改变了历史而是人

   —→ Eugene Onegin (奥涅金) based on Byron‘s model Don Juan.

  ⊙Pushkin was himself a “Byronic hero”

  27、Lermontov (雷蒙托夫) —→ The death of a Poet 主人公 (poet) 是: Pushkin

                                                 —→ A Hero of Our Time (时代英雄)

  28、Romantic Music名词解释 承前启后的年代音乐家是重点

  The Romantic Movement in music dominated (统治) the period about 1830 to about 1900. It was merely part of a general movement, which, all over Europe, especially in Germany and France, affected (感染着) all arts. The Romantic Music is divided into two periods: The early Romantic Music represented by Beethoven, Schubert, Chopin, Schumann, and the later Romantic Music represented by Brahms and Tchaikovsky.

  29、Beethoven —→ Fate (命运交响曲)

  German —→ Pastoral (田园交响曲)

  30、 Beethoven‘s most important contributions to the musical world were in those musical forms associated with (伴随着) the growth of the sonata.(把奏鸣曲放入钢琴去中)

  31、His treatment of the piano.

  32、Schubert —→ Lied (art song) 艺术歌曲是由 Schubert创的 Austrian (奥地利)

  Music came to him as naturally as breathing. (像呼吸一样顺畅) 是形容Schubert的

  33、Chopin (肖邦) Polish (波兰)

  ⊙ piano music的奠基者

  ⊙ He stood in the same relation to piano music that handle did to the oratorio (清唱剧), Mozart to the concerto (协奏曲) and opera, Beethoven to the symphony (交响乐), and Schubert to the lied (艺术歌曲)。

  34、Schumann German

  ⊙ His works were full of imagination. (充满幻想力)

  ⊙ He went a good deal further than most towards individualization (个性化) and program music (标题音乐)。

  35、Mendelssohn (门德尔松) —→ Fingal‘s Cave (圣格尔的洞穴) German

  ⊙ He was also a master in painting landscapes in music. (像描述风景一样)

  36、Belioz —→ Fantastic Symphony (交响乐狂想曲)

  37、Brahms浪漫主义与古典主义的完美结合—→German cerebral composer (理智的作曲家)

  38、Three B‘s refers to Bach, Brahms, Beethoven.

  39、Tchaikovsky (Russian) —→ Ballet (芭蕾舞) —→ Swan Lake (天鹅湖)

  His music mirrored the deep, emotional character of his people. (National emotion)民族情节

  论述简答一、What is the historical background for Romanticism to develop?

  (What gave a push for Romanticism?)

  启蒙运动的三个背景的后两个为浪漫主义的背景答:

  1、The Enlightenment brought about two revolutions and they caused Romanticism to rise.

  2、 First, the French revolution which broke out in 1789, established bourgeois democracy with its slogans (口号) of liberty (自由), equality and universal brotherhood (博爱)。 Individualism prevailed (个人主义流行)。

  3、 Second, the Industrial Revolution, made possible by technological advances such as James Watt‘s (瓦特) invention of the steam engine in 1764, brought unforeseen (无法预料的) changes to each individual and society as a whole. Man’s thinking was fundamentally affected (发生了根本性的变化)。 New economic ideas were put forward by Adam Smith in his book The Wealth of Nations laid the theoretical (理论上的) groundwork (基础) for capitalism.

  第八章1、The Manifesto of the Communist Party (共产党宣言) 马恩合作

  2、Darwin‘s theory of evolution (进化)名词解释

  Darwin‘s theory of evolution contains four major arguments:

  ①new species appear (新物种的发现)。

  ②those new species have evolved (进化) from older species.

  ③The evolution of species is result (导致) of natural selection.

  ④The natural selection depends on variations (变异) and the maintenance (保护) of variations in spite of (不管) the tendency (趋势) of natural selection to eliminate (消除) unfit (不适当的) variants. Natural selection名词解释

  3、Social Darwinism名词解释

  For the term “natural selection” Spencer substituted (替代) the survival of the fittest. (适者生存)

  4、The term the survival of the fittest by Darwin. (错)

  5、For the term “natural selection” Spencer substitute the “survival of the fittest”

  6、Darwin 发现了人类社会发展的规律和资本主义的生产模式

  论述简答一、What are the three sources (来源) of Marxism?

  答:

  1、German Classical Philosophy and Marxist Philosophy:

  Hegelian dialectics and Feuerbach‘s materialism (黑格尔辩证法和费尔巴哈唯物主义)

  2、English Classical Political Economy and Marxist Political Economy

  3、Utopian Socialism and Scientific Socialism (空想社会主义和科学社会主义)

  Utopian was representative by Owen, Saint-Simon (圣西门), and Fourier (傅立叶)。

  二、What are the three components (成分) of Marxism?

  答:

  1、Marxist Philosophy: Hobbes

  ①Marx rejected (排斥) Hegel‘s idealist (唯心) views on universe and the metaphysical (形而上学) part of Feuerbach’s philosophy.

  ②Marx put forward historical materialism. (历史唯物主义)

  2、Marxist Political Economy:

  Marx established the theory of surplus value (剩余价值) in “Capital”。

  3、Scientific Socialism:

  Marx and Engels developed utopian socialism to scientific socialism. They declared (表明) that socialism (社会主义) would be realized (实现) through class struggle, and that only the proletariat (无产阶级) was a really revolutionary class.

  三、In what historical background did Marxism rise?

  答:

  1、 The Industrial Revolution beginning in the 18th century in Britain resulted in the rapid development of modern capitalism as well as the growth of the working class as a powerful independent (独立的) political force.

  2、The first economic crisis (危机) occurred (发生) in the 1820s, intensifying (加深) class conflict (冲突)。

  3、 The working class movement developed from the early stage of destroying machines to mass strikes (罢工), political demonstrations (游行) and armed uprising (武装起义)。

  四、What is Darwin‘s evidence (证据) for evolution by natural selection?

  答:

  1、Selection was related to adaptation. (选择与适应是相联系的)

  2、Problems of hybridization (杂交) and infertility (不育)。

  五、How does natural selection become a mechanism (机制) for evolutionary change?

  答:

  1、 According to Darwin, natural selection is a process: each generation of organisms (有机体) is subject (使服从) to the selective impact of its environment and some of its members perish (消失) or fail to reproduce.

  2、Natural selection and adaptation (适应) are two sides of the same coin. (双重法)

  3、Natural selection is clearly understood to be a process that operates on a population of organisms.

  六、What is the great significance of Darwinism? ☆

  答:

  1、 On Biology (生物学): Darwin‘s influence on the development of biology has been immeasurable (不可测量的)。 The immediate (立即的) effect of the publication (发表) of On the Origin of Species was to stimulate (刺激) research in different branches of knowledge……

  Thomas Huxley (赫胥黎)

  2、On Theology (对神学): Darwinism had a great impact on European Christian theologians (神学家)。

  Evolution and Ethics (进化论和伦理学) was translated in Chinese by Yan Fu and published under the title 《天演论》

  3、On Social Science: Herbert Spencer

  For the term “natural selection” Spencer substituted (替代) the survival of the fittest. (适者生存)

  ───────────────────────────────────────1、 Individual members of any species (物种) vary (改变)somewhat (有点) one from another in manifold characteristics (各样的特征), both structural and behavioural.

  2、Individual variation (个体的变体) is to some degree hereditary (遗传基因)。

  3、 The Malthusian principle (马尔萨斯人口论) that organisms multiply (有机体繁衍) exceeds the environment to carry them, with the consequence (结果) that many must die.

  第九章1、Realism名词解释In art and literature the term realism is used to identify (区分) a literary movement in Europe and the United States (选) in the last half of the 19th century and the early years of the 20th century. But the practice (应用) of realism is very old and can be traced back to ancient times. This is fundamentally (根本的) the difference between romanticism and realism. In Europe, the Realist movement arose (起源于) in the 50s of the 19th century and had its origin in France. It centred in the novel (侧重于小说的创作) and lay emphasis on fidelity (准确的)to actual experience. (用现实主义创作现实)

  2、Realism is a literary movement In Europe. (错) and also in United States

  3、The spirit of realism lies in (在于) the literary area.

  4、The realist literary focus on (侧重于) novel writing.

  5、The character realistic Stendhal (司汤达) of the method used by the realists.

  6、“A novel is a mirror walking along the road”said Stendhal.(司汤达) 小说是映射现实的镜子

  7、By the 1850s the term realism was applied to the art of Gustave Courbet. (哥斯塔王)

  8、现实主义与浪漫主义的区别realism can be track back to the ancient times, but romanticism can not. And the realist‘s language was usually simple, clear and direct.

  9、The European Communist (共产主义) movement, armed (武装) with Marxist thought in realism.

  10、Germany and Italy, achieved their unification (完成统一) in realism.

  11、Stendhal —→ Armance

  French —→ The Red and the Black

             —→ The Charterhouse of Parma (帕尔玛大教堂)

  12、Balzac —→ The Human Comedy (人间喜剧)

                  —→ Divine comedy (神曲) 受但丁神曲影响

                 —→ Eugenie Grandet (葛朗台)

                 —→ Le Père Goriot (高老头)

                 —→ La Cousine Bette (贝蒂姨妈)

  13、The novels contented in the Human Comedy mark the beginnings of French realism. (标志着法国现实主义的开端)

  14、Balzac has been called “the French Dickens” as Dickens has been called “the English Balzac”

  15、Flaubert —→ Madame Bovary (包法利夫人)

  ⊙ 写作特点:the right word or phrase (用词恰如其分)

  ⊙ Flaubert is called “the first French realist” (法国现实主义第一人)

  ⊙ a model not only to French authors, among them Maupassant and Zola, but to Americans and Russians as well, notably (值得一提的是) Henry James and Turgenev.

  16、Zola —→ Les Rougen-Macquarts (罗根。马塔里)

  ⊙ Zola was the founder of the naturalist school. (自然主义流派的创始人)

  17、自然主义的特点:

  ⊙ the naturalistic novel is not only a record (记录) of men and manners (行为)。

  ⊙ to the naturalists the novel is a demonstration of social law. (社会法则的显示与说明)

  ⊙ the language used by naturalists must be the actual language used by people.

  18、Maupassant —→ The Necklace (项链)

                          —→ The Piece of String (红丝带)

                          —→ The Umbrella (雨伞)

  ⊙ Norman people (纯正法国后裔) Franco-Prussian War (普法战争)

  19、In the French realism, Maupassant was the only short story teller.

  20、The literary school in Russia realism was dangerous men.

  21、 The beginnings of modern Russian literature are to be traced to the Napoleonic wars. (拿破仑战争) Later the Russians participated in the battle of Waterloo. (滑铁卢战役)

  22、Gogol (果戈尔) —→ The Inspector General (钦差大臣)

  Russia —→ Dead Souls (死魂灵) 主人公是:Chichikov

  23、Turgenev —→ A Hunter‘s Sketches (猎人日记)

  on the abolition (废除) of serfdom

  —→ Rudin

  —→ A Nest of Gentlefolk (富人的巢穴)

  —→ Fathers and Sons

  24、Dostoyevsky (托斯妥耶夫斯基) —→ The House of Death (死亡之屋)?

  a record of life in Sibria (西伯利亚)

  —→ Crime and Punishment (罪与罚)

  criminal psychology (第一次研究犯罪心理学)

  —→ The Brothers Karamazov (~家族的三兄弟)

  never completed

  25、 The first novel on the study of criminal psychology in the European literature is Crime and Punishment written by Dostoyevsky.

  26、Leo Tolstoy (列夫。托尔斯泰) —→ War and Peace (战争与和平)

                                                             —→ Anna Karenina (安娜卡列尼那)

                                                            —→ Resurrection (复活)

  27、 With Dostoyevsky, Tolstoy made the Russian realistic novel a literary genre (类型) that ranks in importance with (与…并驾齐驱) classical Greek tragedy (悲剧) and Elizabethan drama. (莎士比亚的戏剧为主)

  28、He is especially known as an early champion of the non-violence protest. (非暴力运动先驱)

  29、He preached (倡导) a primitive Christianity. (基督教最初的教义)

  30、He denounced art for art‘s sake. (反对为艺术而艺术)

  31、Chekhov (契诃夫) —→ The Seagull (海鸥)

                                         —→ Uncle Vanya (万亚叔叔)

                                         —→ The Three Sisters (三姐妹)

                                         —→ The Cherry Orchard (樱桃园)

                                        —→ The Man in the Shell (套中人)

  32、His work is of smaller scope. (文学领域很狭窄)

  33、Chekhov is the only short story teller of the Russia realist literature.

  34、He avoided (没有使用) the “big scene” (大场面) and ignored the “heroic hero”。

  35、Stanislavsky (可能是主人公)

  36、Ibsen (挪威-易普生) —→ A Doll‘s House (玩偶之家)

  Norwegian —→ Ghosts (魂灵)

                  —→ An Enemy of the People (人民公敌)

                  —→ The Wild Duck (野鸭传)

                  —→ Hedda Gabler (海达。盖勒普)

  37、Ibsen looked to ordinary (平常的) social and domestic relationships (国内关系) and situations for the subject-matter of his plays.

  38、His work is sharply (锐利的) critical of the hypocrisy (伪善) and seamy (丑恶的) politics of Norwegian provincial (地方性的) life.

  39、Ibsen‘s plays are viewed as the fountainhead of much modern drama. (当代戏剧的源头)

  40、Realism in England is Victoria‘s period. The climax of Capitalism. (资本主义全盛时期)

  41、Dickens (狄更斯) —→ Pickwick Papers (皮克。威克外传)

                                        —→ A tale of Two Cities (双城记)

                                       —→ Oliver Twist (雾都孤儿)

                                       —→ A Christmas Carol (圣诞欢歌)

                                      —→ Hard Times (艰难时刻) 描写了资本主义扩张时期

                                      —→ Bleak House (荒凉山庄)

                                      —→ David Copperfield (大卫。科波菲尔)

  42、Dickens reflects the history of the French Revolution.

  43、George Eliot (乔治。艾略特) —→ Middlemarch (米德马其)

                                                         —→ The Mill on the Floss (福罗斯和尚的睡房)

  based on his own experience

  —→ Adam Bede (亚当拜德)

  —→ Silas Marner (织工马南)

  44、George Eliot belongs to the second generation of the critical realism. (加了心里活动和自然主义的笔调)

  45、Thomas Hardy (托马斯。哈代) —→ Far from the Madding Crowd (远离尘嚣)

                                                            —→ The Return of the Native (还乡)

  以Wes***为源泉 —→ The Mayor of Casterbridge (卡斯特拉桥市长)

                            —→ Tess of the d‘Urberyvilles (苔丝)

                            —→ Jude the Obscure (无名的求得)

  46、Thomas Hardy is of local colorism. (地方色彩主义)

  47、Bernard Shaw (萧伯纳) —→ Heartbreak House (心碎之屋) 一战前的社会

                                                 —→ St. Joan (圣女贞德)

                                                 —→ Man and superman (人与超人) 哲学

                                                —→ The Doctor‘s Dilemma (医生的抉择) 悲剧

                                                —→ The Apple Cart (苹果车) examination of monarchy

                                                 —→ Major Barbara (巴巴拉上校) 喜剧

                                                —→ Pygmalion (茶花女) 喜剧

  48、Stowe (斯陀) —→ Uncle Tom‘s Cabin (汤姆叔叔的小屋) 废除奴隶制

  49、Walt Whitman (惠特曼) —→ Leaves of Grass (草叶集)

                                        —→ When Lilacs Last in the Dooryard Bloom‘d (当花园里的紫丁香开放的时候)

  悼念林肯50、Whitman is the best representative of free verse. (自由体诗歌)

  51、Whitman is the first American modern poet.

  52、Whitman is put forward the idea of universal brotherhood.

  53、Whitman used the common people‘s language or the humble speech. (卑下的发音)

  54、Whitman used long, sweeping lines. (拖沓冗长的诗)

  55、Mark Twain —→ Life on the Mississippi (密西西比河上的生活)

                          —→ Jumping Frog (跳蛙) 成名之作

                         —→ The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn (哈克贝恩历险记)

  美国第一部现代小说—→ The Gilded Age (镀金时代)

                                 —→ The Adventures of Tom Sawyer (汤姆索亚历险记)

                                 —→ The Prince and the Pauper (王子与贫儿)

  56、Mark Twain is of local colorism, based on the Mississippi.

  57、Mark Twain is called “the Lincoln of American literature”and “Father of the American Novel”

  58、开创了美国当代小说,美国的民族文学是从马克吐温开始的。海明威说的59、Henry James —→ The Portrait of a Lady (贵妇人的画像)

  —→ Daisy Miller (米勒)

  —→ The Golden Bowl (金杯)

  60、“the Master beyond all masters” refers to Henry James.

  61、Impressionism (艺术的表现形式)名词解释

  Impressionism was a form of artistic expression in the 19th century. It was most pervasive (普及) in painting, but it was also found in literature and art. (在文学与艺术中也可发现他的踪影) The term “impressionism”first appeared in 1874 in a newspaper review of an exhibition held in the studio (工作室) by a group of young painters. It was taken directly from the title of Monet‘s (莫纳) Impression: Sunrise. (日出印象)

  62、Post-Impressionism (后印象主义)名词解释

  During the 2nd half of the 19th century, French impressionism created a dramatic break with the art of the past, and created a form of art that was to affect (影响) nearly every ambitious (有雄心的) artist in the Western world. Van Gogh reacted against impressionism by using colour to suggest his own emotion and temperament (气质)。

  63、Van Gogh —→ Starry Night (夜空) 后印象主义的代表是凡高

                       —→ Sunflower (向日葵)

                       —→ The Night Café (夜间咖啡屋)

  64、Dvorak (德望侠克) —→ From the New World (新世界的交响)

            

本文转载链接:04年10月欧洲文化入门串讲资料2

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