Whenever art has function， the function influences and often determines the form. This is just another way of stating the obvious fact that if an object is made for a certain function it should be made in such a way that it can perform that function. As the function changes， the form changes， and if there are many function there will be man forms. Take an object of every day use such as a spoon. There are spoons for babies and spoons for adults， spoons for cooking， spoons for eating， spoons for serving， deep spoons and shallow spoons， spoons with long handles and spoons with short handles. Even a rather small household will have a variety of spoons because there are a variety of functions to be served by them.
Door keys offer another interesting example. Keys are now carried by many individuals， and one person often has to carry more than one； accordingly keys are small. But when gates and doors were in the charge of special persons whose responsibility was to watch or guard them， keys were large and massive； they were in fact a visible symbol of the power and importance of the place to the locked.
1） If an object is made for a certain function， （ ）。
A. it should have a suitable form B. it should have a variety of forms
C. its form should not be defined D. its form should have nothing to do with function
2） Because people carry more than one key， （ ）。
A. form becomes important B. size becomes important
C. function becomes important D. quality becomes important
3） The author refers to spoons and keys because he wants （ ）。
A. to show that they are not art B. to tell us how to use them properly
C. to give us examples of exceptions D. to illustrate his discussion
4） In the past large keys were made so that they could （ ）。
A. not fit into all locks B. not easily be lost C. look more artificial D. symbolize some authority
Generations of North Americans have been brought up to believe that a good breakfast is one of life‘s essentials. Having breakfast at the start of the day， they have all been told，is as necessary as refueling（加油） the family car before starting a trip.
But for many people the thought of taking breakfast in the morning is by no means a pleasure. So in spite of all the efforts， they still have no breakfast. Between 1987 and 1993， the latest years for which figures are available，the number of people who didn‘t have breakfast increased by 33 percent from 8.8 million to 11.7 million according to the Chicago-based Market Research Center of America.
For those who feel guilty， about no having breakfast， there is some good news. Several studies in the past few years indicate that， for adults especially， there might be nothing wrong with omitting breakfast. “Going without breakfast does not negatively affect performance，” said Arnold Bender of Queen Elizabeth College in London， “neither does having breakfast improve performance；”
Scientific evidence connecting breakfast to better health or better performance is surprisingly inadequate， and most of the research work that has been done recently involves children， not adults. “The literature is poor，” says one of the researchers.
5） Many North Americans do not have breakfast （ ）。
A. because they believe that breakfast was not important
B. though they think of breakfast as important
C. unless they can afford the time and the money
D. because they did not get up early enough to do so
6） The passage suggests that there might be nothing to worry about if （ ）。
A. adults do not have breakfast
B. children do not have breakfast
C. North Americans have changed their attitudes towards breakfast
D. North Americans continue to think breakfast is important
7） We can infer from the passage that the author （ ）。
A. thinks it necessary to do more research work no adults
B. thinks it necessary to do more research work on children
C. believes that it makes no difference whether people have breakfast or not
D. believes that North Americans should change their attitudes to breakfast
Of all the patients who are at risk of dying， some 20 percent present difficult choices – whether to keep frying to save the life or to pull back and left the patients die.
Even the definition of death had been changed. Now that the heart-lung machine can take over the function of breathing and pumping the blood， death no longer always comes when the patient breathes his last or when the heart stops beating. Thirty-one states and Washington D.C. have passed brain-death laws that identify death as when the whole brain ceases to function.
More than a dozen states recognize “living wills” in which the patients leave instructions to doctors not to try to prolong their lives by any methods if their illness becomes hopeless. Twenty to thirty percent of California doctors follow the instructions of such wills. In the meantime， the movement which places emphasis on providing comfort-not-cure to the dying patient had gained strength in many areas.
In spite of progress in society‘s understanding of death and dying， problems remain.
On the other hand， doctors say that patients， just because they are old and disabled， should not be denied lifesaving efforts. People also fear that under the guise of （假借……的名义）medical decisions not to treat certain patients， death may become too easy.
8） Those patients （ ） are now generally regarded as dead in the U.S.
A. whose heart has stopped functioning
B. whose lungs have stopped functioning
C. whose brain has stopped functioning
D. whose heart and lungs have stopped functioning
9） If the patients leave “living wills”to doctors，the doctors（ ）。
A. will let them die
B. have to follow them
C. may or may not follow their instructions
D. will continue to try to cure them
10） We can infer from the passage that （ ）。
A. people understand death differently
B. people fully understand death
C. people are no longer afraid of death
D. people are afraid of death
本文谈到spoons时，作者说Take an object of every day use…，这里take作“以……为例”解；谈到keys时，作者又说door keys offer an other interesting example.可见作者是拿它们作为例子来印证自己的观点的。
本文中最后一句……they were in fact a visible symbol of the power and importance of the place to be locked.
本文第1段说好几代美国人从小就受到教育认为早餐是必不可少的，第3段开头又说For those who feel guilty
about not having breakfast…，说明那些人明知早餐的重要，并为不吃早餐而内心感到不安。
见第3段第2句，这里特别提到for adults especially.
见最后一段，本段提到most of the research work that has been done recently involves children，not adults，最后
又提到一个研究人员抱怨：“The literature is poor（文献资料太少）”。可知文章认为还应多研究一下早餐对成年人健康的影响。
见本文第2段最后一句：Thirty-one states and Washington D.C.have passed brain-death laws that…
Because of the energy crisis， scientists in the oil-consuming nations have become increasingly interested in the potential of solar energy. Some experts estimate that the present supply of fuel will not last until the middle of the next century. The problem that solar energy researchers face is how to harness the sun‘s energy effectively and inexpensively. One of the most popular methods currently being tested uses roof-top solar collectors and underground storage tanks. An advantage of properly working system of this type is that it will not create any environmental pollution. Another advantage of using solar energy is that the cost of the fuel， the sun’s rays， is zero.
1） The main topic of this passage is（ ）。
A. the shortage of fossil fuel
B. the problems that energy researchers face
C. an environmental pollution problem
D. an inexpensive energy source
Which of the following describes an advantage of using solar energy？
A. There is little or no environmental pollution.
B. Solar energy can easily be stored.
C. Fossil fuels will become more plentiful.
D. The oil-consuming nations will not have to import
3） The cost of using the sun‘s rays for heating is（ ）。
A. about the same as the cost of fossil fuels
B. several hundred dollars per year
C. negligible compared with other energy sources
D. determined by the severity of the winter
Cars of the twenty-first century will travel the nation‘s highways in never-before-dreamed-of safety， comfort， and convenience. These cars will float along never touching the ground， and therefore will have no need for wheels.
Annoying highways vibrations， caused by rotations of the disc-and-tire wheels， will be things of the past. The coming highway passenger cars will literally fly above the road， supported on columns of air compressed by turbine-driven（涡轮驱动的） fans.
The car without wheels has been called a “flying car”， and， in a sense， that‘s just what it is； however， it will not back out of the family garage， start down the street， and then suddenly go quickly upward heading for distant point. On the contrary， to avoid problems in aerial navigation， the wheelless vehicle probably will travel no more than three inches above road surface. It will travel over fairly rough road and even over smooth water！
The inevitable problems of maritime（水上的） regulations， severe weather conditions， and running out of fuel in remote areas all will require new concept of operation， servicing， and vehicle regulation.
4） The author believes that cars of the future（ ）。
A. will be replaced by airplanes
B. will have wheel unlike those of today
C. will use columns of air instead of wheels
D. will use wheels without tires
5） The car without wheels has been called a “flying car” because（ ）。
A. it travels a few inches above the ground
B. it can fly as n plane does
C. it can travel at a very high speed
D. it can travel over smooth water
6） The author believes that wheelless cars will（ ）。
A. eliminate all traffic problems
B. eliminate parking problems
C. create new traffic problems
D. Both B and C
Ask three people to look out the same window at a busy street corner and tell you what they see. Chances are that you will receive three different answers. Each person sees the same scene， but each perceives something different about it.
Perceiving goes on in our minds. Of the three people who look out the window， one may say that he sees a policeman giving a motorist a ticket. Another may say that he sees a rush-hour traffic jam at the intersection（十字路口）。 The third may tell you that he sees a woman trying to cross the street with four children in tow. For perception is the mind‘s interpretation of what the senses - in this case our eyes - tell us.
Many psychologists today are working to try to determine just how n person experiences or perceives the world around him. Using a scientific approach， these psychologists set up experiments in which they can control all of the factors. By measuring and charting the results of many experiments， they are trying to find out what makes different people perceive totally different things about the same scene.
7） Seeing and perceiving are（ ）。
A. the same action
B. two actions carried on entirely by the eyes
C. two separate actions
D. actions that take place at different times
8） Perceiving is an action that takes place（ ）。
A. in our eyes
B. only when we think very hard about something
C. under the directions of a psychologist
D. in every person‘s mind
9） Perception involves what（ ）。
A. our senses tell us
B. our minds interpret
C. we see with our eyes only
D. Both A and B.
10） Psychologists study perception by（ ）。
A. setting up many experiments
B. looking out of windows
C. asking each other what they see
D. studying people‘s eyes
A moment‘s drilling by the dentist may make us nervous and upset. Many of us cannot stand pain. To avoid the pain of a drilling that may last perhaps a minute or two， we demand the “needle” that deadens the nerves around the tooth.
Now it‘s true that the human body has developed its millions of nerves and our brain， which is a bundle of nerves， we wouldn’t know what‘s happening. But we pay for our sensitivity. We can feel pain when the slightest thing is wrong with any part of our body. The history of torture is based on the human body being open to pain.
But there is a way to handle pain. Look at the Indian fakir （苦行僧） who sits on a bed of nails. Fakirs can put a needle right through an arm， and feel no pain. This ability that some humans have developed to handle pain should give us ideas about how the mind can deal with pain.
The big thing in withstanding pain is our attitude toward it. If the dentist says， “This will hurt a little， ”it helps us to accept the pain. By staying relaxed， and by treating the pain as an interesting sensation， we can handle the pain without falling apart. After all， although pain is an unpleasant sensation， it is still a sensation， and sensations are the stuff of life.
1） The purpose of this passage is mainly to tell us（ ）。
A. that pain is good for us
B. to stop taking the “needle” at the dentist‘s
C. how to handle pain
D. how to avoid torture
2） The purpose of pain is to（ ）。
A. let us know what‘s going on
B. make us open to torture
C. make us pay for our sensitivity
D. help us get more sensations
3） The most important thing in handling pain is to（ ）。
A. do what the Indian fakirs do
B. welcome it
C. know about it in advance
D. treat it as an interesting sensation
There is a myth around that says， “You had better not admit that you are vulnerable or lonely， or you will look weak.” The myth is back to front. Others know when we are being open and sincere and they love us for it. It is only when we pretend that nothing happens that we get into trouble.
It is ironic that those of us who are the most desperate for affection， do the most pretending that we don‘t need it. When we are really soft and lonely inside， we then have to do an extra good job of letting the world know that everything is fine.
Love is respect， for ourselves and others. It is all about allowing people to be where they are and loving them anyway. The moment we say， you do this and then I will love you， that isn‘t love-it is manipulation.
Love is about looking for the good in people， and if we can do that， and do it consistently， then our own happiness is guaranteed. As our life is a reflection of ourselves， the more love and beauty that we perceive， the more we are growing and the more we are becoming， and so for all of us， love is everything.
4）。 The main topic of this passage is（ ）。
A. love B. respect C. happiness D. honest
5） What do people who pretend that they don‘t need love feel？
A. cheerful B. lonely C. unhappy D. pleasant
6） Which of the following we should do to guarantee our happiness？
A. Doing things consistently.
B. Allowing people to act their own way
C. Loving people the way you choose
D. Looking for the good in people.
It reflects badly on the order of priorities in our society that school children can tell you the make of many cars on the road but cannot identify any but the most familiar trees and wildflowers. This is because， generally speaking， the educational system of the United States is squeezed indoors to a degree that stifles（抑制） young minds. Few schools take advantage of the vast classroom of the outdoors to teach the things that really matter the basics of life on a threatened planet. Children study insects in paper cups inside a classroom instead of having their knowledge filled out by examining the complex environment in which these creatures actually live.
This is a pity， because a child is normally nature‘s most avid student. Every parent knows that small children tend to bring home caterpillars （毛虫）， grasshoppers， toads， and other small living things. But parents rarely encourage this instinctive attraction by separating a knowledge of nature to their children. Too often， the interest of children in the natural world is turned aside by the example of their elders into a concentration on the inanimate （无生命） objects that money will buy.
7） It can be inferred from the passage that the author thinks the educational system of the United States is too（ ）。
A. strict B. defensive C. limited D. experimental
8） Which of the following sentences best summarizes the author‘s main point？
A. Children should learn to follow the example of their elders.
B. Children should learn about financial responsibility by saving for the future.
C. Children should study individual organisms in school laboratories that are better equipped.
D. Children should be taken outside the classroom to study the natural sciences.
9） Why does the author mention cats in paragraph 1？
A. To provide an example of the typical means of transportation for schoolchildren.
B. To emphasize the variety of automobiles available today.
C. To compare children‘s knowledge of the automobile with their knowledge of nature.
D. To criticize the automobile as a major source of pollution of the natural environment.
10） The author indicates that children imitate their parents‘（ ）。
A. pity for helpless creatures B. choice of professions
C. love of knowledge D. interest in material possessions
1） C 从全文可以看出，整篇文章谈论的是人类对疼痛的反应以及如何对付疼痛。
2） A 见文章第二段倒数第二、三句。
3） D 见文章最后一段第三句。
4） A 这篇文章讲述的是怎样爱别人和如何赢得爱。
5） B 见第二段，文中讲假装不需要爱的人往往是内心最孤独的人。
6） D 见最后一段第一句。
7） C 见文章第一段。作者指出美国的教育体制把学生关闭在教室里，限制了他们的活跃思维，使他们不能真正认识活生生的自然界。
8） D 文章主要观点是，应该让孩子们走出教室，学习生活中真正重要的东西。
9） C 见文章第—段第一句。
10） D 见文章第二段最后一句：孩子模仿父母，只注意物质追求。