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自学高教自考英语翻译技巧5

2005-06-10 00:00  自考365.COM社区 【 】【我要纠错

  关于加词、减词等在翻译时应注意的问题。

  所谓加词就是根据原文的思想内涵透过文字表达上的表面现象,充分照顾到另一种语言的文法特征、描述规律,在将其翻译成另一种语言时该加词的地方加词,该减词的地方减词,千万不可以为了可以追求所谓的“精练、简洁”而随随便便地减词;也不可以离开原文,凭空腻测,随随便便加词。具体地说:

  加词:

  I.由于词汇方面的原因而引起的加词现象:1.加动词由于英语是一门“静止”的语言,在所有的词汇当中,用名词的居多;而相比较而言,汉语则无此限制,不管有多少动词都可以并排使用。因此,许多英语的名词翻译成汉语时都要加上一些动词,否则,意思则很不完整,例如:a. But by 1981 he had to have further surgery on his hand. And a month later, he suffered as stroke. (到了1981年,他的手不得不又做了一次手术。一个月以后,他又中风了。)

  b. His speech in at the meeting turned out exert an stimulating effect on the mind of the people present that day. (他那天在会上所做的报告使所有在场的人深受鼓舞。)

  c. He maintain that only hard work and unswerving perseverance can lead to improved performance.(他坚持认为,只有通过勤奋工作加上不懈的努力才会取得好的成绩。)

  d. The lives claimed by shoddy construction projects should be enough to put governments at all levels on the alert. (伪劣建筑夺取了很多人的生命,这一点足以使我们的各级部门提高警惕。)

  e. Efforts must be made to improve service for more than 1 million domestic and overseas tourists. (为了一百万的国内外旅客的利益,我们一定为改善服务质量而进行努力。)

  f. You ought to know better than to go swimming straight after a meal.(你不应该一吃过饭,马上就去游泳,这是很不明智的。)

  2.加名词:在汉语中,及物和不及物动词的区别不是很明显,有时所谓及物动词后面的宾语如果上下文中能够看的出,往往可以省略不说;而英语则不然。由于英语对及物动词和不及物动词的区别很明显,因此翻译成汉语时则很麻烦。特别是一些不及物动词必须带上它后面的宾语句子意思才能显得完整。因此,我们在翻译时往往就需要增补。

  a. Make a schedule or chart of you time and fill in committed time such as eating ,playing , meetings , classes, etc. (作一个时间表,然后,将吃饭、睡觉、开会、上课等等的时间填上。)

  b. It was two hours before the old couple mustered up enough courage to get up and called the police and they explained that they‘d done that after much deliberation.(直到两个小时以后,那对老夫妻才有勇气敢从床上爬起来给警察打电话,并解释说那也是经过仔细考虑才敢作的。)

  c.这见事据说是一个组织严密团伙干的。

  (The operation is believed to be the work of a well-organized organized group. )

  d.我是为友谊和求学而来。

  (I came here in the spirit of friendship and learning. )

  有时形容词前面也可以加上名词:e. His wife thinks that this furniture is too expensive and , moreover looks very ugly.(他妻子认为,这件家具价格昂贵而且外表难看。)

  f. I thus appeared to them to be quite familiar with this sort of situation and it confirmed them in their belief that I was a thoroughly disreputable character.(然后,我继续装着对这种事情很内行的样子,结果更使他们认定我是一个名声很坏的人。)

  有时,一些名词或者数量词的复数形式翻译成汉语后前面也要加词表示重叠:g. Thousands of students from the city‘s colleges and universities jammed the railway station awaiting the arrival of their football team. (成千上万的高校学生一起涌到火车站欢迎他们的足球队凯旋。

  h. These she bought the medical supplies with the large sums of money given to her by many friends to help her in the Crimea (她用朋友们给她的一笔笔钱购买医疗设备。)

  i. To look after the hordes of sick men there were only a few old doctor who were helpless before such scene of suffering and misery. (只有这些老医生来照看一群群的伤员,他们在如此的痛苦、悲伤面前,显得无可奈何。

  3.加代词:这里的代词主要是指作动词宾语的代词,因为英语中的所有及物动词都必须带有宾语,所以汉语翻译成英语时也需要增补:a. If you like this novel , I can lend it to you.(如果你喜欢这本小说,我可以借给你。)

  b. I think she‘d appreciate it if we all helped out a bit more.(我觉得如果我们能帮她一把,她回很感激的。)

  c. Would you please look for the key once more? I remembered clearly putting it in the drawer last time. (能不能再找一遍钥匙?我记得上次放在抽屉里了。)

  4.加连词和介词:汉语可以通过上下文来连接句与句之间的逻辑关系,而英语则靠一些连接词来完成:a. If you want to go, I would give you my advice that you take an umbrella.(你要去,我建议你别忘了带把伞。)

  b. Since its opening five years ago , the shop has attracted a lot of customers.(这家商店五年前开业以来,吸引了大批顾客。)

  c. Since the beginning of this century, more and more scientists have become interested in the way the human brain works. (本世纪以来,越来越多的科学家已经开始对人脑活动的方式感兴趣。)

  d. His friends asked him to write them as soon as he got there. (他的朋友要他到了那儿就给他们写信。)

  e. He went so far as to cheat openly on test. (他居然敢公开作弊。)

  f. The factory has decided to mass-produce the equipment at a low cost. (这家工厂已经决定低成本、大批量的生产这种仪器。)

  g. Why was he absent from school yesterday?

  (他昨天为什么不上学?)

  h. The older leader gave us the suggestion that we be free from arrogance and rashness.(老领导告戒我们要戒骄戒躁。)

  i. This , he said, deprived him of his civil rights , and he asked for $150,000 in damages. (他说,这等于是剥夺了他的公民权力,因此申请$150,000 的赔偿。)

  j. His marriage suffered and ended in divorce.(他的婚姻也受到影响,最后还是离了婚。)

  k. After a few rounds of talks, both sides regarded the territory dispute as settled.(几轮会谈以后,双方认为边界问题可以解决了。)

  l. As her year as chief resident drew to a close, Mrs. White decided to specialize in children ‘s diseases. (在她作住院总医师要结束时,怀特太太决定专攻病理。)

  5.下面的一些句子则是为了修辞目的而加词:a. He was sentenced as much as six months in jail for drunk driving.(他因酗酒驾驶而被判入狱半年。)

  b. As many as twenty people were killed in the accident yesterday.(二十个人在昨天的事故当中丧生。)

  c. I came here as early as eight o‘clock this morning. (我今天八点钟就来了。)

  6 . 在某些作定语的不定式结构中,介词有时需要加上:a. I‘d like to find someone to play with (我想找人玩。)

  b. Would you please pass me a piece of paper to write on. (你能否递张纸给我,我想写点东西。)

  c. Totally alone in the room, her mother wanted to find someone to talk to (她妈妈觉得一个人在房间里太孤单了,想找个人说说话。)

  7.某些独立结构中:With a book in his hand , the teacher came into the class. (老师走了进来,手里拿本书。)

  8.加副词a. They started up into the sky until the noise of the rocket died away.(他猛地抬头往天空看,直到火箭发射的声音渐渐远去。)

  b. He stole a glance at the pretty girl walking alongside with him. (他偷偷地瞥了他一眼。)

  9.有时还要根据实际需要,加上一些表示“范畴”的词,即表示笼统意思的单词,意见、想法、道理等等。

  a. The cultivation of a hobby and new forms of interest is therefore a policy of first importance to a public man. But this is not a business that can be undertaken in day or swiftly improvised by a mere command of the will. (因此,对社会活动家来说,培养业余爱好和新的兴趣就成为头等重要的事情了。但这不是一蹴而就的事情,也不能单靠毅力就能临时凑成。)

  b. A situation in which such a large number of students cheat openly on the exam and escape punishment is very dangerous and cannot last long(如此多的学生作弊,居然没人管,是很危险的,也不可能持久。)

  c. So he began to study the children‘s responses in situation where no milk was provided(所以,他开始研究小孩子得不到牛奶时的反应是什么样的。)

  以上的几句虽然没有“局面”、“情况”等词,但其意思却已经包含在了里面。如果不加上“policy”,“business”,“situation ”等词,意思就不是很清楚,句子也不通顺。

  II. 由于汉英结构不同而造成的加词现象:

  1.由上下文的逻辑关系而引起的加词现象:句子结构方面:a. In most cases, this action will produce results. However , if it does not , there are various means the consumer may use to gain satisfaction. (在大多数情况下,这样做有一定效果。如果还不行,顾客可以采取许多措施直至满意为止。)

  b. They illustrate, for one thing, the underlying American faith that our future rests on the way our children turn out, and that a basic way to affect children‘s development is through their education. (有一点,他们表明了美国人内心深处的一个信念,那就是,我们的孩子如何成长将决定我们的未来,而影响他们发展的一个基本途径就是通过教育。)

  c. That men have learned much from the behavior of animals is hardly new. (人类已经从动物的行为中学到了很多东西的说法并不是什么新鲜事。)

  下面的例句都是一些需要加关系代词的现象:d. He passed the exam , which can be read from his the light on his face. (我从他脸上就可以猜出他已通过了考试。)

  e. He was late on that very morning for the interview , which totally damaged the possibilities of promotion. (他偏偏在面试的那天早晨迟到,结果丧失了一次晋升的绝好机会。)

  f. As is expected , he arrived at the railway station in time. (他果然准时到了火车站)

  2.在无主句、存在句或一些祈使句中中加主语。

  因为在这些句子中,主语虽然没有表示出来,但却早已隐含在句子里面;加上英语对句子表面上的结构要求非常严谨,因此在汉语翻译成英语时往往要加上省略的部分(主语)意思才能完整,例如:a.进行社会主义现代化建设必须尊重知识、尊重人才。

  (In our drive for socialist modernization, we must respect knowledge and talented people. )

  b.你还是带把雨伞吧,以防下雨。

  (You ‘d better take an umbrella in case it rains. )

  c.已经快七点种了,他怎么还没有到?

  ( It is nearly seven o ‘clock now , why hasn ’t he arrived yet?)

  d.一定不要忘记离家前父母对你所说的话。

  (Remember what your said to you before you left home.)

  有时,英语的动名词需要加上其逻辑主语才能显得意思完整:e. His father-in-law doesn‘t appreciate his smoking cigarette so heavily.(他的岳父对他抽这么多的烟很不以为然。)

  3.加宾语她妈妈说,他们应该带孩子一起去参加马丽的生日晚会。

  (Her mother said that they should bring their baby with them to Mary ‘s birthday party.)

  4.有时需要加上语气词:There were no houses whatsoever when we crossed the marshlands on the Long March , we just slept where we could.(我们长征时根本就没房子住,随便找个地方就睡下了。)

  The audience was not interested at all(in any sense) in his long and boring speech.(观众对他那又臭又长的讲话一点都不感兴趣。)

  减词:

  I.和一些单词有关系的减词法1.省略“范畴”词:先看下面的例子:a.系里的领导来找他做说服工作。

  (The leader of the department came to him to the undertake the persuasion)

  b.这次考试不及格,使他深切认识到写好作文在学习英文中的重要性。

  (The failure of this exam made him aware of the importance of writing in learning English.)

  c.这本书的目的是改进学生们的理解能力。

  II. 表示逻辑关系上的减词:1.省去句子的主要结构只保留关联词:a. The store manager may advise the consumer to write to the manufacturer. If so , the consumer should do this, stating the complaint as politely and as firmly as possible.(商店的老板会建议顾客给制造商写信。要真是这样的话,顾客应该尽量把投诉书写的礼貌些、措辞更坚定一些。)

  b. And how can it be otherwise, when the range of knowledge is so vast that the expert himself is an ignoramus as soon as he strays away from his own specialty. (可是不这样,有能有什么别的更好的办法呢?知识的范围如此广袤,一旦越出其专业范围,连专家也会变得一无所知。)

  c. It must be admitted that every nation has its strong points. If not, how can it survive ?

  (每个民族都有它的优点,不然,怎么可以生存下来?)

  2.省去主语:d. When completed , this bridge will be the largest in Asia. (这座桥一旦竣工将是亚洲最大的。)

  e. In some organization , important papers , letters, speeches , documents, etc,are kept on file so that they can be easily obtained when needed. (在许多组织里,重要的文件、信函、演讲材料、档案都保存在文件夹里,以便需要时很容易查到。)

 

本文转载链接:自学高教自考英语翻译技巧5

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