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2005-06-10 00:00  北京自考热线·花儿 【 】【我要纠错

  l 希腊罗马

  Homer   Author of epics

  Sappho Lyric poet


  Tragic dramatist

  Sophocles    Tragic dramatist

  Euripides    Tragic dramatist

  Arostophoes     Comedy writer

  Herodotus Greeks and Persians Father of the history

  Thucydides Athens and Sparta, Syracuse historian

  Pythagoras All things were numbers

  Heracleitue Fire is the primary element

  Democritus Materialist , atomic

  Socrates Dissect of oneself, virtue was high worth of life, dialectical method

  Plato Man have knowledge because of the existence of certain general ideas

  Aristotle Direct observation, theory follow fact, idea and matter together made concrete individual realities

  Euclid  geometrist

  Others Diogenes, Pyrrhon, Epicurus philosophy

  Cicero Far less rhetorical, but colloquial and intimate Prose writer

  Caesar I came, I saw, I conquered Prose writer

  Lucretius On the nature of things poet

  Virgil -Aeneas-tragic hero

  4th century B.C.后半叶希腊在Alexander,king of Macedon的领导下,5th century B.C.达到顶峰,146B.C.被罗马攻克。

  l 基督教和圣经

  Jews—以前叫Hebrews,3800B.C.穿过中东沙漠,1300B.C.Moses带领Hebrews离开埃及,开始他们的Exodus,他在 Sinai山定了ten commandments in the name of God,40年后Hebrews定居Pelestine, known as Canaan,Hebrew人的历史口头传送记入the old Testament, 6th century B.C.,他们在Babylon形成synagogue(忧太集会)来发扬他们的教义。

  Jesus生活在第一个罗马帝国Augustus, Emperor Constantine 1于313年宣布基督教合法,Emperor Theodosius于393年宣布基督教为国教。

  Hebrew人的历史口头传送记入the old Testament,旧约包含39本书,写了从1000B.C.-100A.D.的事情,最重要的前五本是Pentateuch,旧约主要由 Hebrew写成,the New Testment主要是Greek的形式,包含14本书,最古老的Latin Bible叫Vulgate,在1382年被John Wycliff翻译成了英语,Greek Bible叫Septuagint

  l 中世纪



  在文化上继承了Roman culture,出现了Hebrew and Gothic culture

  feudalism主要是一种system of land holding,for exchanging military service,它还是一种local and decentralized government

  1045,教堂分裂为the Roman Catholic Church and the Eastern Orthodox Church


  Charles Martel给士兵们estates known as fiefs in 732

  St. Thomas Aquinas写了The Summa Theologica总结了中世纪神学的所有知识并形成了系统,他认为feudal hierarchy of society is God‘s rule

  The power of feudal rulers is God‘s will

  Pope is Crist‘s Plenipotentiary

  中世纪封建社会的人主要分为三个等级:clergy, lords, peasants

  Charlemagne and Alfred the Great encouraged learning by setting up monastery schools. They copied various ancient books and translated the Latin works into the vernacular.

  l 文艺复兴与宗教改革

  Boccaccio Decameron

  Cervantes Don Quixote(crowned literature of Spain)

  Petrarch  Sonnet,father of modern poetry

  Da Vinci   Artist in Italy

  Michelangelo Artist in Italy

  Raphael Known for his Madonna Artist in Italy

  Titian Oil color Artist in Italy

  Ronsard France

  Rabelais Cargantua and Pantagruel France

  Montaigne The Essais France

  Thomas More Utopia

  Shakespeare crowned literature of England

  Copernicus The father of modern astronomy

  Vesalius The founder of modern medicine Anatomy

  Aldus Manutius The foremost printer in Italy

  Machiavelli Father of political science Political sciencehistoriography



  others Giotto,Brunelleschi,Donatello,Giorgione,Spencer, Bacon artists

  Reformation was led by Martin Luther. 它主张用the Bible的绝对权威取代the Roman Catholic Church的绝对权威,这促进了资本主义的发展。

  1492, Columbus发现了America

  1487,Dias发现了the cape of good hope

  1497,da Gama发现了绕过好望角去印度的航线

  英国在Elizabeth I的统治下达到鼎盛时期

  宗教改革以后,基督教分裂为:the Protestant and the Roman Catholic


  l 17世纪

  Leibniz Distinguishes three levels of understandingcaculaus

  Milton Areopagitica,

  English revolution

  Bacon Knowledge is power England

  Descartes I think therefore I am France

  Corneille FrenchNeoclassicismdramatists




  很多科学器械在被发明:microscope, telescope, thermometer, barometer, pendulum



  Bacon反对deductive method,创立了inductive method


  1689,the Bill of Rights建立了the Parliament至高无上的权利

  英国大革命中,Cromwell带领行动 Milton提供思想

  法国最著名的建筑:Palace of Versailles Garden Front

  East Front of the Louvre

  英国最著名建筑:St. Paul‘s Cathedral

  17th:physics, mathematics




  French classicism

  Baroque art



  l 启蒙运动

  Diderot   France

  Montesquieu Separation of powers


  Hobbes Social contract

  Locke Social contract




  Henry Fielding

  Samuel Richardson The founder of English domestic noval

  Lessing  German dramastistGerman classicim



  Kant Waterhead of modern philosophyPropose the nebular hypothesis

  Pope poet Dr.Johnson  lexicographer

  J.S.Bach ChristianityMajor musicians of the musical Englithenment


  Haydn Classical period Viennese school


  Beethoven Romantic Movement

  18世纪两大著名运动:The American War of Independence(1776)

  The Declaration of Independence

  The French Revolution(1789)

  Declaration of the Rights of Man

  Rococo艺术的典型建筑代表:Hotel de Soubise

  Addison, Steele在期刊The Tatler , The Spectator上发表论文

  The Enlightenment

  Rococo art

  l 现实主义



  Stendhal  a novel is a mirror walking along the road

  Flaubert first French realist Objectivity, detachment

  Zora  Naturalism, scientific heredity


  Chickikov A character in  Shame, and hypocrisy

  Peter the Great Russian reforms. End the middle age


  Ibsen  For women hypocrisy and seemy politics

  Strindberg Autobiograpgical Existence and self-realization


  George Eliot  Scientific, reason,objectivity

  Charles Dickens

  Thackeray  Becky Sharp

  Thomas Hardy Wessex  uperior, pitiless, indifference

  Berbard Shaw Fabian society major Barbara> Nobel Prize in 1925



  Turgenev First gain recognition in the west



  Other countries

  Walt Whitman

  Henry James The master beyond all masters, psychological subtlety

  Mark Twain  Father of American literature

  Gustave Courbet Neo-Baroque Brutality and vulgarity

  Millet Outside the circle of politics painter

  Manet The luncheon on the grass Challenge to Greco-Roman

  Monet Impression:sunrise

  Van Gogh Against impressionism

  Gauguin Use color in unexpected combinations

  Auguste Rodin Art for art‘s sake sculpture

  Antonin Dvorak The symphony in E Minor Patterns found in folk music

  Claude Debussy The founder of modern musical impression

  反对falseness, sentimentality

  Mark Twain称1870-1890年的美国为the gilded age,内战之后,New England的重要性让位于New York


  l 现代主义和其它


  Conrad  Human motives , moral values

  Virginia Woolf  Bloomsbury, stream of consciousness

  James Joyce

  Symbolism, naturalistic,interior monologue

  W.B.Yeats imagist movement, Symbolism

  William Faulkner  Conflictsbrotherhood

  Gorky Trilogy

  John Osborn

  Robbe-Grillet Nouveau Roman

  Samuel Beckett  Absurd Drama

  Tomas Mann  Psychological effect of isolation

  Andre Gide  1947,Nobel Prize

  Albert Camus meaning of life, values 1957,Nobel Prize

  M.A.Sholokhov  1965,Nobel Prize

  Marcel Proust Remembrance of things past

  Kingsley Amis  The angry young men

  Allen Ginsberg  The beat generation

  Iack Kerouac  The beat generation

  Jean-Paul Sartre   Existenlialism

  Emil Nolde Expressionism In Germany

  Joseph Heller  Black humor

  Fauves  Boldest color,

  Picasso cubism

  Umverto Boccioni futurism

  Marcel Duchamp   Dada movement

  Jackson Pollock Abstract expressionism Drip technique

  Henry Moore  Three-dimensional sculpter

  现代主义复杂丰富,它包含symbolism, surrealism, cubism, expressionism, futurism


  Schoenberg(serialism) Stravinsky(neoclassicism), Bartok, Vaughan Williams



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