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英语语法课程考试辅导

2005-06-10 00:00  自考365.COM·恋雨 【 】【我要纠错

  英语语法是关于英语语言结构的理论知识。要学好这门课程需要系统地、全面地了解英语语言的结构层次以及每一层次上语言单位的组合规则,同时需要认知语言的意义,语言是负载意义的,懂得意义也是学习语法和解题的基础。语言的使用是意义和结构相结合的产物。本文讲述英语语法考试中考生容易忽略的各部分测试要点或难点,并结合近两年(98年至2000年)的英语语法专业考试试题和《英语语法自学考试指导练习》中的题目,分析解题方法。

  一、词组和基本句型

  1.英语的句子首先是词组的序列。词组是句中被分割的句法单位的形式,句子成分则是句法单位的功能。例如:

  The device        is            the most important invention in many years.

  名词词组     动词词组                 名词词组

  主        语     谓语动词                主语补足语

  两者之间有交叉关系。要注意每个词组可能担当的句子成分,例如:

  It is hoped that the two sides may come to an agreement.

  ____________,the two sides may come to an agreement.(2000年上试题)

  分析:空格是评注性状语,常为副词词组,故填Hopefully.

  2.英语的五个基本句型是理解句子结构的关键。例如,在“主语+谓语动词+主语补足语”句型中,动词是连系动词。

  The plums looked sweetly(A), but(B) he could not eat(C) the fruit he had stolen(D)。(练习32页)

  分析:look 在此句中不是行为动词而是连系支词,故A需改为sweet.

  3.在“主语+谓语动词”句型中,动词是不及物动词。

  He rose(A) to speak(B) and was listened(C) with enthusiasm by the large audience(D)。(练习86页)

  分析:listen是不及物动词,无被动语态,故C改为was listened to.

  4.在“主语+谓语动词+宾语”句型中,动词是单宾语及物动词,必须带一个宾语,否则是错句。

  It should bear(A) in mind that(B) there us great damage(C) to(D) the forests.(98年下试题)

  分析:that引导主语从句,及物动词bear后无宾语,故A改为被动语态。

  5.在“主语+谓语动词+间接宾语+直接宾语”句型中,动词是双宾语及物动词。

  They tell me that he is at home.

  I ____________  ____________ that he is at home.(练习177页)

  分析:一个宾语me可因被动语态变主语I ,另一宾语仍在后面。故填am told.

  6.在“主语+谓语动词+宾语+宾语补足语”句型中,动词是复合宾语及物动词。宾语后接宾语补足语,及物动词是否可带宾语补足语以及所带补足语的形式为动词本身的特点所决定。

  Don‘t get the boy ____________ (frighten)into ____________(cry)。(99年下试题)

  分析:根据frighten空格所需的被动意义和get可接过去分词做宾语补足语的特征填frightened和crying.

  二、名词和名词词组

  1.要了解名词词组四个部分的词序,例如:

  all those beautiful warm days in the country

  限定词+前置定语+中心词+后置定语

  ――“What on earth is that?”

  ――“Don‘t you know? That’s whale,____________.”

  A.largest world‘s mammal

  B.a largest world mammal

  C.the world‘s largest mammal

  D.largest mammal of the world(98年下试题)

  分析:C是正常词序,其它三个答案均有错误。

  2.限定词对中心词作所指和数量关系的限定,分为前位、中位和后位限定词。例如:

  These all(A) last few(B) days, we have been busy(C) fighting(D) drought.(98年下试题)

  分析:A错,前位和中位限定词错位,改为All these.

  不可以同时使用两个前位或两个中位限定词,后位限定词则可以被重叠使用。如在上句中有两个后位限定词。

  其次,要注意限定词和可数名词、不可数名词的搭配关系,例如:

  Many(A) critics have condemned the television networks for(B) not having much(C) imaginative programs for(D) children.(98年下试题)

  分析:much不可限定可数名词programs,改为many.

  3.前置定语中部分主要是形容词。常有两、三个形容词的排序问题,例如:

  The Republican Party is one of the ____________ parties of the United States.

  A.political two principle

  B.principle political two

  C.two principle political

  D.two political principle(98年上试题)

  分析:答案是C,顺序为:限定词、一般描绘性的形容词、用途形容词。

  4.中心词是名词词组的核心,决定该名词词组单数或复数的概念。

  A(A) number of endangered species(B) increases every year as(C) natural resources disappear(D)。(98年下试题)

  分析:A改为The,中心词由species变成number,因为动词increases是单数形式。

  5.后置定语的形式有形容词词组、非限定动词词组、介词词组、定语从句等。要注意前、后置定语的相互切换以及形式的变化。例如:

  a three-year-old boy / a boy three years old / a boy who is three years old

  三、代词

  1.代词指代名词词组,代词的所指对象在上文和下文中分别为后照应和前照应。应注意代词和所指带的名词词组之间的数、人称等方面的一致。例如:

  None(A) of us knew his real intentions(B) until we were(C) revealed by accident(D)。(99年上试题)

  分析:C错。we改为they指intentions. In their(A) own way, mathematics can(B) be as creative and exciting(C) as(D) poetry.(98年下试题)

  分析:A错。their改为its指mathematics.

  2.人称代词指代包含前、后置定语在内的名词词组,不可以再带前、后置定语,例如:

  For them(A) interested in nature, the club offers(B) hikes and overnight camping(C) each week during(D) the summer.(练习21页)

  分析:them不带后置定语,改为those.

  3.人称代词做同位语时,根据所同位的名词词组在句中的成分,选择主格或宾格。

  To(A) the finalists, Bob and I(B), the last high jump was the most exciting as well as(C) the most difficult(D)。(练习20页)

  分析:B错,I改为me,因为所同位的finalists是宾语。

  4.不定代词的用法比较复杂,需要我们逐一去熟悉它们各自的用法。例如:

  So(A) is the length of the bridge(B) that the shape of the earth has to be taken into(C) account by(D) its designer.(98年上试题)

  分析:A错。Such而不是so可做代词在此倒装句中做主语补足语。

  四、形容词和副词及其词组

  形容词或形容词词组一般作名词词组中的修饰语和补语;副词或副词词组一般作形容词和副词词组的修饰语和状语。

  1.中心形容词和边缘形容词。边缘形容词不完全具备形容词所有的句法功能。一种边缘形容词不能做前置修饰语,例如:

  表示健康状况的形容词:ill,well,unwell,faint

  以词缀a开始的形容词,例如ablaze, adrift, afire, aflame, afloat, afoot, afraid, akin, alike, alive, along, amiss, ashamed, aslant, alight, asleep, awake, aware等。

  另一种边缘形容词只能做前置定语,例如:

  a mere child, the only reason, sheer arrogance, a certain man, utter nonsense

  2.梯度形容词有程度变化,有比较级和最高级形式,也可以由very等程度状语修饰。非梯度形容词则相反,例如:

  He occupies a ____________ place in English literature.(练习40页)

  A.most unique

  B.unique

  C.least unique

  D.very unique

  分析:答案B,因为unique是非梯度形容词。

  3.ing词尾的形容词有主动意义,ed、able和ible词尾的形容词具有被动意义。

  The unnatural tides(A) of the ocean(B) left the scientists completely(C) astonishing(D)。(98年下试题)

  分析:答案D,改为astonished,因为该部分需要被动意义。

  4.注意同词根或形式相近的形容词、副词之间差异,例如,

  In modern(A) industrious(B) areas, sociocultural changes is occurring(C) at an accelerated(D) rate.

  分析:答案B,改为industrial,industrious意为勤奋的,industrial意为工业的。

  5.句子有原级比较有as结构,有比较结构有than结构,例如,

  Truly speaking(A), success(B) does not own so much to(C) intelligence like(D) diligence.(99年下试题)

  分析:答案D,改为as,因为前面有原级比较结构。

  6.注意比较结构的转换,例如:

  I am more impressed by the form of the poem than by its content.

  I am ____________ so impressed by the content of the poem ____________ by its form.(not as)(99年下试题)

  The book cost as much as 50 dollars. The book cost ____________ than 50 dollars.(no less)(99年下试题)

  He is the strongest of all the students in his class.

  He is stronger ____________ any of his ____________ .(than classmates)(99年下试题)

  五、动词和动词词组

  在这一部分,应注意动词在时态、语态、语气和非谓语动词等表现方式上的变化。

  1.状态动词一般无进行时态。例如

  Now that the flowers ___________ , the garden ____________ , good.(教材161页)

  A.bloom, smells

  B.bloom, is smelling

  C.are blooming, smells

  D.are blooming, is smelling

  分析:答案是C,smell是状态动词,没有进行时态。

  2.进行时态有较强的动作的暂时性特征,例如:

  My son isn‘t diligent, but he ___________ (work)hard this term.

  分析:填is working,因为“勤奋”有暂时性。

  3.进行时态和某些频度副词连用,有情感色彩,例如:

  Nobody likes him, because he ____________ to curry favour with the boss.(98年下试题)

  A.is always trying

  B.always tries

  C.does always try

  D.has always tried

  分析:因为“无人喜欢分”,答案是A.

  4.现在完成时态常用so far,up to now,in the past/last…years/days/weeks等时间状语:

  “Is there anything wrong?”

  “No. So far I ____________ no trouble.”(98年下试题)(答案:have had)

  5.过去完成时常表示某一动作在过去的一个动作之前已经完成,例如:

  The secretary opened the mail which ____________ (deliver)that morning.(98年下试题)

  分析:送邮件在打开邮件之前,故填had been delivered.

  6.将来完成进行时常表示一将来动作在另一将来动作发生之后才发生,例如:

  You won‘t know if it fits until you ____________ (try)it on.(98年下试题)

  分析:试穿以后才知道是否合身,故填have tried.

  7.如果及物动词后面的宾语消失,则说明该动词应为被动形式,例如:

  It should bear(A) in mind that(B) there is great damage(C) to(D) the forests.(98年下试题)

  分析:答案是A,bear后面无宾语应将其改为被动形式。

  8.注意would rather(that)/would sooner(that)/would as soon(that)/would prefer(that)结构中的虚拟语气,例如:

  I‘d rather you ____________ (post)the letter right away.(98年下试题)

  分析:此空格动词表示未来的动作,填posted.

  The show was boring. I‘d rather ____________(not go)to it.(98年下试题)

  分析:此格动词表示已发生过的动作,填had not gone.

  9.在含有非真实条件的句子中虚拟语气交叉时间或交叉语气形式:

  If you hadn‘t taken such a long time to get dressed, we ____________(be)there by now.(98年下试题)

  分析:交叉时间,过去的虚假假设,现在的结果故填would be.

  He was attending a meeting, or he ____________(attend)your birthday party.(99年下试题)

  分析:先为陈述语气,后为虚拟语气,故填would have attended.

  10.表示建议、命令、要求的四种名词性从句需用虚拟语气,例如:

  She asked that flowers ____________ (present)____________(please)the group of visitors.(99年上试题)

  分析:ask的宾语从句,表示要求,故填be presented和to please.

  11.动词不定式常用来表示未发生过的动作,例如:

  The museum ____________(renovate)next week is situated on the river‘s bank.(98年下试题)

  分析:因为时间是下周,故填to be renovated.

  12.动词不定式的完成式在下面句子中表示过去本要做,但是没有做成的虚拟语气

  I ought ____________(discuss)the matter with you, but I had other business in hand.(99年下试题)

  I meant ____________(write)a letter to you, but I just couldn‘t find time.(98年下试题)

  分析:两题分别表示本应该和本打算要做,但未做成,故填to have discussed和to have written.

  13.动词不定式的完成式表示动作发生在句子主要谓语动词所表示的动作之前。例如:

  The building is said ____________(destroy)in a fire two years ago.(98年下试题)

  分析:destroy发生于is said之前,故用完成式。

  14.做结果状语时,动词不定式常和only连用;分词常和thus连用。

  He hurried to the station only ____________(find)the train had gone.

  The plane ran into a lamp pole, thus ____________(cause)heavy casualties.(99年下试题)

  分析:分别填to find和causing.

  15.逻辑主语后加分词结构为独立主格结构,仍需注意之间的主被动关系。例如:

  The old man walked with a stick, his hope ____________(slip)away at every step.(99年下试题)

  The temperature ____________(be)low, the fuel has to be preheated.(98年下试题)

  A man turned corner, a heavy, blue-black revolver ____________(hold)in each hand.(99年下试题)

  分析:上两句中为主动关系,故填slipping和being, 下句中为被动关系,故填held.注意不能填was slipping等,因为逗号不连接两个分句。

  16.动名词能否做动词宾语取决于前面的动词。如果是介词宾语,非谓语动词中只有动名词能做。例如:

  “Why don‘t you try to do that kind of work?”

  “I can‘t risk ____________(do)something new right now.”(99年下试题)(答案:doing)

  We look forward to ____________(see)you soon.(99年下试题)(答案:seeing)

  六、一致关系

  1.语法一致指主语名词词组中心词的形式决定谓语动词的单复数。例如:

  A(A) number of endangered species(B) increases(C) every year as natural resources disappear(D)。

  分析:答案是A,改为The,中心词由species变成number.

  2.意义一致是指有时不根据中心词的单复数而是根据其意义决定谓语动词的形式。

  So long as you have a companion, twenty miles aren‘t a long way to walk, especially on a fine morning like this.(99年下试题)

  分析:twenty miles被看作一个整体,B部分改为isn‘t a long way.

  3.就近原则指一些并列结构做主语时,其相关形式根据较近的并列成分而定。

  English you or your sisters must do it by ____________.(99年下试题)

  A.themselves

  B.yourself

  C.oneself

  D.yourselves.

  分析:与your sisters较近,答案为A.

  4.主语的中心词是常为复数意义的集体名词时,谓语动词用复数形式。

  The police(A) has been searching(B) for a tall dark(C) man with a beard. Until now(D) more than one person is suspected.(99年下试题)

  分析:由于has been而将A部分改为policeman.

  5.主语的中心词是常为不可数意义的集体名词时,谓语动词用单数形式。

  I like to stay long in the park. The green __________ really beautiful.(98年下试题)

  A.foliage is

  B.foliage are

  C.foliages is

  D.foliages are

  分析:foliage是此类名词,答案是A.

  6.定语从句的谓语动词要和该从句引导词所代表的先行词保持一致。例如:

  I am one of(A) those people who(B) by general opinion of the world is(C) counted both(D) infamous and unhappy.

  分析:who指those people, 故C改为are.

  七、并列句、复合句和独立结构

  1.注意并列结构中和语篇连接中的语义关系,这常常是考查点。

  Think it over again(A) but(B) you will be able to find(C) it out(D)。(98年下试题)

  分析:but改为and, 前后是条件和结果的关系。

  Mr. Robert told his assistant to hold it right side up and be careful not to jerk it ____________ the mechanism.

  A.or he would damage

  B.and he would damage

  C.or he damaged

  D.and he damaged

  (98年下试题)

  分析:需要的意义为“否则”,动作尚为发生,故选A.

  Public transportation in those(A) countries is expanding(B), and consequently(C) the use of subways in some metropolitan(D) areas is on the decline.(99年下试题)

  分析:C部分意义应为“然而”或“但是”,改为however、yet等。

  2.注意从句各类引导词不同的功能,例如:

  That our computer failed to work properly was ____________ the bill was incorrect.(99年下试题)

  A.why

  B.because

  C.whether

  D.since

  分析:because和since不引导主语补语从句,该从句意义需要一副词,故选A.

  She emphasized the fact ____________ people do something dishonest they are really cheating themselves.(99年下试题)

  A.which then

  B.that when

  C.that those

  D.those which

  分析:that引导同位语从句,when引导该从句中的时间状语从句,故选B.

  No matte(A) who(B) has skills as well as(C) knowledge must be treated well, mustn‘t he(C)?(99年下试题)

  分析:答案为A,改为Anyone.此句还可改为:Whoever had skills and knowledge must be treated well, mustn‘t he?或者No matter who has skills and knowledge, he must be treated well, mustn’t he?

  The boy no longer reads the same kind of stories ____________ used to fascinated him. A.which

  B.as

  C.to be

  D.having(99年下试题)

  分析:定语从句先行词前如有the same或such, 该从句引导词为as.

  3.注意逗号前后不能是并列结构,只能从属结构,例如:

  Mr. Smith will move into(A) his new house next Monday(B), by that time(C) it will be completely finished(D)。(98年下试题)

  分析:原句逗号并连了句子,故将C改为by which time.

  八、省略和倒装

  1. 省略是一种避免重复、保持语言简洁,并使上下文紧密联系的语法手段。在省略或替代中,我们常用I think so,I hope so,I‘m afraid so替代上文中出现的一些内容。其否定形式是I think not,I hope not,I’m afraid not.例如:

  “Is he going tonight?”

  “I‘m afraid ___________.”(98年下试题)

  A.not

  B.not so

  C.such

  D.that she so(答案:A)

  2.如果状语从句的主语和句子主语相同,其主语可以省略,例如:

  ____________ the most poverty-stricken county in the province, my native town has become the most prosperous county.(99年下试题)

  A.After

  B.Once

  C.If only

  D.As far as(答案:A)

  3.倒装是指英语句子正常的词序发生了变化。否定词在句首的句子要发生局部倒装。

  In no country other than(A) England one can(B) experience four seasons in a single day(C), can he(D)?(99年下试题)

  分析:句首部分有否词no,故B部分改为can one.

  4.Only+状语在句首的句子要发生局部倒装。

  Only by driving off the road we were able to avoid a serious accident on our way to London a few days ago.(2000年上试题)

  分析:B部分改为were we.

  5.非真实条件中条件状语分句可以倒装。例如:

  ____________ you lend me some help, I would feel much obliged.

  A.If

  B.Were

  C.Would

  D.Should(98年下试题)

  分析:答案为D,倒装后意为If you should lend…。

 

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