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2005-06-10 00:00  北京自考热线·dianafang 【 】【我要纠错


  Homer   Author of epics

  Sappho Lyric poet



  Tragic dramatist

  Sophocles    Tragic dramatist

  Euripides    Tragic dramatist


  Aristophanes   Comedy writer


  Herodotus  wrote about wars between Greeks and Persians  Father of history

  Thucydides wrote about wars between Athens and Sparta and Athens and Syracuse

  the greatest historian that have ever lived


  Pythagoras All things were numbers founder of scientific mathematics

  Heracleitue Fire is the primary element

  Democritus Materialist, one of the earliest exponents of the atomic theory

  Socrates Dissect of oneself, virtue was high worth of life, dialectical method

  Plato Man have knowledge because of the existence of certain general ideas

  Aristotle Direct observation, theory follow fact, idea and matter together made

  concrete individual realities

  Euclid  a textbook of geometry

  Archimedes when a body is immersed in water its loss of weight is equal to the

  weight of the water displaced “Give me a place to stand and I‘ll move

  the World“

  Others Diogenes (the Cynics) Pyrrhon(the Sceptics) Epicurus (the Epicureans) Zeno

  (the Stoics)

  4th century B.C.后半叶希腊在Alexander, king of Macedon的领导下,5th century B.C.达到顶峰,146 B.C.被罗马攻克


  Jews —以前叫Hebrews,3800B.C.穿过中东沙漠,1300B.C.Moses带领Hebrews离开埃及,开始他们的Exodus,他在 Sinai山定了ten commandments in the name of God,40年后Hebrews定居Pelestine, known as Canaan,Hebrew人的历史口头传送记入the old Testament, 6th century B.C.,他们在Babylon形成synagogue(忧太集会)来发扬他们的教义。

  Jesus Christ生活在第一个罗马帝国Augustus, Emperor Constantine 1于313年宣布基督教合法,Emperor Theodosius于392年宣布基督教为国教。

  Hebrew 人的历史口头传送记入the old Testament,旧约包含39本书,写了从1000B.C.-100A.D.的事情,最重要的前五本是Pentateuch,旧约主要由 Hebrew写成,the New Testment主要是Greek的形式,包含14本书,最古老的Latin Bible叫Vulgate,在1382年被John Wycliff翻译成了英语,Greek Bible叫Septuagint




  a period in which classical, Hebrew and Gothic heritage merged

  1054,教堂分裂为the Roman Catholic Church and the Eastern Orthodox Church


  Charles Martel给士兵们estates known as fiefs in 732

  St. Thomas Aquinas(Scholasticism)写了 Summa Theologica,这本书sums up all the knowledge of medieval theology他认为feudal hierarchy(层次,等级) of society is God‘s rule The power of feudal rulers is God’s will Pope is Christ‘s Plenipotentiary

  Charlemagne and Alfred the Great encouraged learning by setting up monastery schools. They copied various ancient books and translated the Latin works into the venacular

  Roger Bacon and Experimental Science  one of the earliest advocates of scientific research, called for careful observation

  Dante(但丁)  神曲 one of the landmarks of world literature

  Chaucer  first modern poet in English literature


  14th and 17th Century Starting in Florence and Venice

  Boccaccio  the greatest achievement of prose fiction in中世纪

  Petrarch  Sonnet, father of modern poetry


  Giotto  forerunner of renaissance

  Brunelleschi showed a systematic use of perspective

  Donatello  one of the first artists engaged in anatomy

  Giorgione  made happy use of colour schemes to unify his pictures


  Da Vinci


  Raphael Known for his

  Titian Oil color the most prolific of the great Venetian painters of Western World

  Pre-Luther Religious Reformers

  John Wycliffe chief forerunner of the reformation, took up the translation of the Bible into English for the first time in 1382

  Jan Hus Czech Religious leader

  John Calvin  基督教教义 one of the most influential theological works Calvinism

  Rabelais  拉伯雷  french writer

  Ronsard Pleiade七星诗社代表人  法国第一个近代抒情诗人

  Montaigne  蒙田 散文集 French Writer

  Cervantes  father of modern European novel spain

  Thomas More  British writer

  Shakespeare 作品包括》 》 >  crowned literature of England 代表欧洲文艺复兴的最高成就

  Copernicus The father of modern astronomy 现代天文学之父

  Vesalius  marked the beginning of a new era in the study of anatomy (解剖学) founder of modern medicine

  Aldus Manutius foremost printer in Italy

  Machiavelli Father of political science

  Vosari .

  1492, Columbus发现了America

  1487,Dias发现了the cape of good hope

  1497,da Gama发现了the route to India round the Cape of Good Hope

  5. 17世纪

  Copernicus  天体运行论 Although he did not belong to the 17th century he was the forerunner of modern medicine

  Kepler Kepler‘s Law (the three laws of planetary motion)德 国 the three laws formed the basis of all modern planetary astronomy and led to Newton’s discovery of the laws of gravitation

  Galileo 意大利 acceleration in dynamics, the law of inertia, the law of falling bodies动力加速度,惯性定律,落体定律

  Newton  英国

  Leibniz  Distinguishes three levels of understanding: self-conscious(自我意识)conscious(意识)unconscious/subconscious (潜意识)他和牛顿都是caculus的创始人

  Milton Areopagitica,

  English revolution

  Bacon   Knowledge is power 英国 反对deductive method,创立了inductive method 认为哲学应该与神学分开

  Hobbes 利维坦 Materialist (knowledge come from experience) Social Contract 英国 认为最好的统治方式是monarchy

  Locke  政治论 Materialist views (ideas derived from sensation or from reflection) Social Contract

  英国在英国革命中有两个领袖,Cromwell 和John Milton

  Cromwell the man of action

  John Milton the man of thought

  在英国文学史上ranks with Shakespear and Chaucer

  Descartes 笛卡尔  Cartesian Doubt I think therefore I am  法国 it is generally believed that modern philosophy begins with Bacon in England and Descartes in France

  Corneille 高乃依熙得 法国第一部古典主义悲剧,表现责任与爱情的冲突


  the greatest tragic dramatist of French neoclassical theatre 表现情感和理性的冲突

  Moliere 达尔杜夫愤世嫉俗吝啬鬼 the best representative dramatist of French Classical comedies

  很多科学器械在被发明:microscope, telescope, thermometer, barometer, pendulum

  1689,the Bill of Rights建立了the Parliament至高无上的权利

  法国最著名的建筑:Palace of Versailles Garden Front

  East Front of the Louvre

  英国最著名建筑:St. Paul‘s Cathedral

  6.启蒙运动 the age of reason

  18th century intellectual movement starting from France

  the most important forerunners of the enlightenment were two 17th century Englishmen John Locke and Issac Newton.Locke‘s materialist theory and Newton’s theory of gravitation

  Major force of the enlightenment is French Philosophes


  The American War of Independence(1776)ended British colonial rule over the U.S.


  The French Revolution(1789)ended the French Monarchy and the first French Republic was born in 1792


  French Philosophy and Literature


  Separation of powers


  Voltaire  most famous of his novels

  Rousseau    one of the greatest figures of French enlightenment


  English Literature

  Pope spokesman in verse of the Age of Reason, translation of Homer, good at heroic couplet 擅长英雄双韵体

  Defoe one of the greatest fiction writer of the 18th century England  鲁滨逊漂流记

  Swift  the foremost satirist in the English language and one of the satiric masters of all time

  Henry Fielding  Father of the English novel

  Samuel Richardson The founder of English domestic novel

  Samuel Johnson editor of

  18世纪英国文学最著名的期刊 The Tatler 和 The Spectator, Addison 和 Steele经常在上面写文章

  German Literature and Philosophy

  Lessing  German dramastist German classicism

  Goethe   the Greatest German Poets


  a founder of modern German literature

  Kant Waterhead of modern philosophy Propose the nebular hypothesis

  The Musical Enlightenment

  J. S. Bach Christianity Major musicians of the musical Enlightenment

  Handel 亨德尔  being his crowning masterpiece

  Bach and Handel showed the world Baroque musical architecture at its imposing best

  The Baroque period was followed by the Classical Period, roughly between 1750 and 1820

  Haydn  Classical period Viennese school


  Beethoven occupy a Pivotal position, leaning in much of his work towards the Romantic Movement in Music

  7. 浪漫主义 Romanticism

  late 18th and early 19th century starting from the ideas of Rouseau in France and from the Storm and Stress Movement in Germany

  The enlightenment brought about two revolutions and they caused Romanticism to rise: the French Revolution and the Industrial revolution

  New economic ideas were put forward by Adam Smith in his book , which laid the theoretical groundwork for capitalism.

  Romanticism in Germany

  The Storm and Stress Movement prepared the way for European Romanticism

  Goethe combined Romanticism with Classicism

  It was Love and Intrigue that made Schiller the best dramatist for the Storm and Stress

  The Jena School: Schlegel Brothers, Novalis and Tieck

  Heine: 海涅在1836年发表>,宣告浪漫主义在德国文学中的统治地位的结束

  Romanticism in England Blake:

  The Lakers: Wordsworth and Coleridge

  Byron:  is considered his masterpiece  the fact that the

  poet died for the Greek causes made him more respected his poem expressed

  an ardent love of liberty and a fierce hatred of tyranny


  noted for his lyrics

  Keats famous for his sonnets

  Walter Scott

  Romanticism in France

  Chateaubriand :

  Victor Hugo: 法国浪漫主义文学的最重要的作家。他于1827年发表的

  是法国浪漫主义运动的一篇重要宣言。他的长篇小说巴黎圣母院 悲惨世界宣扬了“爱”与“仁慈”等人道主义精神。The greatest poet of his day

  George Sand:法国浪漫主义文学最杰出的女作家

  Romanticism in Italy

  Manzoni: 约婚夫妇是意大利文学史上第一部以爱压迫的劳动人民为主人公的小说Leopardi:  he was the greatest poet of Italy Romanticism

  Romanticism in Russia

  Russia Romanticism began that way-adapting French plays and translating German and English poetry

  Pushkin: 俄国浪漫主义先锋(van) a

  Byronic character his masterpiece is 创造了俄国文学中的第一个“多余的人”的典型

  Lermontov: draws a fine portrait of Pushkin

  Romanticism in Poland

  Adam Mickiewicz:  beginning of Polish Romanticism

  is his masterpiece

  Art and Architecture

  Goya Spanish painter and etcher(蚀刻家)欧洲浪漫主义先驱

  David French Painter

  Delacroix  代表着法国浪漫主义绘画的最高成就

  Gericault French painter

  Turner English landscape painter

  Constable English landscape painter

  Turner and Constable代表了浪漫主义画派的最高成就



  Beethoven(贝多芬) German Composer  marked the

  beginning of 19th century programme music

  Schubert(舒伯特)Austrian composer

  Chopin(肖邦)Polish composer

  Schumann(舒曼) German composer

  Mendelssohn(门德尔松)German composer


  Berlioz(伯辽兹)French composer

  Liszt(里斯特)Hungarian composer

  Wagner(瓦格纳)German composer

  Brahms(伯拉姆斯)German composer

  Tchaikovsky(柴科夫斯基)Russian composer

  8. 马克思主义和达尔文主义 Marxism and Darwinism

  The Three Sources and Three Component Parts of Marxism

  German Classical Philosophy and Marxist Philosophy:

  Hegelian dialectics 黑格尔辩证法

  Feuerbach‘s materialism费尔巴哈唯物论

  Marxist Philosophy

  Dialectical materialism马克思主义辩证唯物论

  Historical materialism 马克思主义历史唯物论

  English Classical Political Economy and Marxist Political Economy

  Capital is the most important work by Marx about Marxist economics

  Surplus value was the source of profit, the source of the wealth of the capitalist class

  Doctrine of surplus value in Capital is the cornerstone of Marx‘s economic theory

  Utopian Socialism and Scientific Socialism

  Robert Owen: English industrialist and social reformer

  Henri de Saint-Simon: French social philosopher

  Charles Fourier: French social philosopher


  As Newton dominated 17th century science with the discovery of the laws governing the bodies of the universe, Charles Darwin dominated the 19th century science for his discovering of the laws governing the evolution of man himself. In the history of science he takes up a position as important as these occupied by Copernicus, Galileo and Newton.Darwin was not the first man to put forward the theory of evolution

  Lamarck was the first man whose conclusion on the subject. However, he failed to produce any evidence, French naturalist(自然主义者)

  Lyell English geologist

  Karl Marx

  Darwin‘s works and Theories:

  On the origin of Species by Means of Natural Selection, or the Preservation of Favoured Races in the Struggle for Life

  The Descent of Man

  9. 现实主义Realism

  arise in the 50s of the 19th century and had its origin in France

  Realism in France

  Stendhal 司汤达 红与黑是法国批判现实主义第一部成

  熟的作品 巴马修道院

  Balzac巴尔扎克 Balzac has been called the French Dickens as Dickens has been

  called the English Balzac

  Flaubert 福楼拜 非常重视艺术形式he is often called the first French realist


  Zora 左拉 founder of the naturalist school


  Maupassant 莫伯桑

  Realism in Russia

  Gogol果戈里  the first master of fiction in Russia

  Chickikov A character in  Shame, and hypocrisy

  Turgenev屠格涅夫 the first Russian author to gain recognition in the West



  Leo Tolstoy列夫托尔斯泰 战争与和平   安娜卡列尼娜  复活

  Chekhov契诃夫海欧 万尼亚舅舅 三姐妹  樱桃园

  Realism in Northern Europe

  Ibsen  a plea for the emancipation of woman

  His plays are viewed as the fountainhead of much modern drama

  Strindberg  The above three are

  his autobiographical works His first play is

  Realism in England

  This period occurs at the latter half of the reign of Queen Victoria, 这时期意味着大英帝国的顶峰,但太平盛世只是外表,整个国家内乱不断,危机重重

  Charles Dickens 大卫科波菲尔 荒凉山庄

  艰难时世 其小说展现了广阔的社会生活,真实情节与诗意气氛的结合,幽默、风趣与悲剧的结合

  George Eliot(Mary Ann Evans-PEN NAME)  is regarded by some

  critics as the finest English novel of the 19th century

  Thackeray萨克雷 名利场 他的写作范围多局限于上流社会

  Thomas Hardy

  Bernard Shaw萧伯纳 won the Nobel Prize in 1925

  Realism in the United States

  Harriet Beecher Stowe: greatest of all anti-slavery manifestoes

  Walt Whitman:

  Considered to be the greatest of all American poets

  Mark Twain: 哈克贝里芬历险记 amasterpiece of humour, characterization and realism, has been

  considered the first modern American novel 镀金岁月

  Henry James 出身世家,所以关注上层人物 the master beyond all masters   贵妇人画像


  Courbet库尔贝 French artist 反映生活的真实是创作的最高原则石工 奥尔南的葬礼

  illet米勒 French artist “农民画家”播种者拾穗者

  Impressionism in Art印象派艺术

  Manet 草地上的午餐福列斯贝热尔酒吧间

  Monet 日出印象

  Post-Impressionism in Art 后印象派艺术

  Paul Cezanne赛尚

  Van Gogh 凡高  dutch painter

  Paul Gauguin 高更 French painter

  10. 现代主义及其它思潮 Modernism and other trends

  also called “the tradition of the new” “dehumanization of art” originating from the end of 19th century

  Discoveries made at the end of the 19th and the beginning of the 20th century:

  Rontgen: the discovery of X-rays 伦琴 德国物理学家发明X射线

  Becquerel: the discovery of radioactive properties of uranium 贝克勒尔 法国物理学家 放射性现象的发现者,肯定了铀元素自发射线的性质

  Marie Curie the discovery of radium居里夫人 法国物理学家和放射学家发现镭

  Soddy the discovery of isotopes 索迪 英国放射化学家 同位素

  Rutherford the discovery of the atomic nucleus卢瑟福 英国物理学家发现原子核

  Einstein Special Theory of Relativity General Principles of Relativity

  Contemporary Western Literature


  Conrad  polish novelist  Woolf

  English novelist

  Lawrence English writer considered one of the “makers” of modern English fiction

  Yeats  Irish writer


  Irish writer

  Pound a leading figure of the Imagist movement  American poet



  Thomas Mann

  The most influential and representative German author of his time

  Gide  French writer

  Proust  French novelist

  Albert Camus  French novelist


  The greatest Russian literary figure of the 20th century

  Sholokhov  soviet author

  Literature and Philosophy Since 1945

  Angry Young Men in England 英国愤怒的青年



  Beat Generation in America美国垮掉的一代



  Nouveau Roman (New Novel) 法国新小说派



  The Theatre of the Absurd欧洲的荒诞派

  Beckett Irish writer

  Ionesco  French writer

  Black Humour 美国黑色幽默派




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