Until recent years， the children of immigrants were forced to “sink or swim” and to learn English in American schools. But in the mid 60‘s there developed an awareness among ethnic groups that every American has a heritage and should be proud of his or her other identity. For new immigrant groups， this has become a demand that their children should begin their education in the native language and learn about their first culture in the schools.
Bilingual Programs provide separate classes and curricula for students who need to use their native tongue in class until they have made the transition to classes conducted in English. The number of lessons taught in the native language or in English differs from program to program. Some bilingual programs use the native language 90% of the time； others are 50%； while still others begin in the native language and rapidly move to complete use of English after a few years.
Today， 287，000 foreign-born students in America—76% of them Hispanic—are taught some， if not all， of their lessons in 70 different dialects and languages. The idea behind the bilingual program is to ease immigrant children into the mainstream of American society. Critics argued that bilingual programs are badly managed and inefficient， and that qualified foreign-born teachers are hard to find. They feel that students who speak mostly their native language at school and speak no English at home will not learn enough English to compete in a highly technological society. Says the deputy mayor of New York City， a Puerto Rican： “We have plenty of Jobs in Manhattan businesses； the problem is that our kids can‘t spell.”
1） What does the phrase “sink or swim” in sentence I mean？
A. succeed or fail without help from others
B. learn to swim
C. learn English
D. have difficulty in learning English
2） For new immigrant groups， their children are made to（ ）。
A. learn English first
B. desert their own culture
C. be proud of their own culture
D. learn American culture
3） The bilingual program intends to（ ）。
A. teach the immigrant children two languages
B. make the immigrant children more capable
C. make the immigrant children proud of their identity
D. help the immigrant children get into the mainstream of American society more easily
I‘m a very keen reader， but selecting the book with a natural――history theme which has influenced me most was some challenge， until I thought back to my childhood. Then it was easy.
where the book came from is a mystery， and I have never met anyone who has heard of it. it is Rita Richie‘s The Golden Hawks of Genghis Khan. I read it when I was about 10 years old and I remember to this day the effect it had on me.
Set in 1218， it is a story of rich boy whose parents are dead. He is growing up in the splendid city of Samarkand and has a fascination for hawks， those magnificent hunting birds. There is a great deal of mystery surrounding his past， but he is led to believe that a band of Mongols killed his father to steal a rare type of bird —the golden hawk. Determined to get these birds back， he runs away from Samarkand and joins a group of people traveling to the country of Mongolia. What follows is a grand adventure centered on the city of Karakorum， where the great Mongol chief Genghis Khan was then based.
The book combines adventure， mystery， honor， friendship， danger， suffering－all seen through the eyes
of the young hero， Jalair. I still find this fantasy a thrilling read. Jalair‘s great love for the birds was enviable and inspiring.
But the book gave me more than hawks， horses and a desire for wild places. It also gave me a set of values. The Mongols in The Golden Hawks were totally uninterested in possessions， a characteristic that is absolutely essential for people who spent their lives traveling from place to place. They were never mean. Generosity， goodwill and optimism were highly valued， hard work was enjoyed and the rest was pure fun. They simply loved life.
4） What does “It‘’ （sentence2 paragraph 1） refer to？
A. the choice B. her childhood C. the book D. the theme
5） The author says the book The Golden Hawks of Genghis Khan（ ）。
A. was recommended by a friend B. was very popular when she was a child
C. is known to very few people D. is one of the many mystery books she has read
6） The main interest of the hero of the book is（ ）。
A. what happened to his parents B. the desire to see different country
C. the beauty of his homeland D. his passion for particular birds
During the last few years， there has been an enormous increase in the number of shops， stores and supermarkets， which provide facilities for self-service. Their general purpose is to provide goods in perfect condition， so that the customer can serve herself， and then pay for the goods without delay.
The organizers of a self-service store have their difficulties. They must display n great number of goods in limited space without covering up anything. They must deal with the goods which are easy to become rotten， and they must arrange n speedy flow of customers past the cashier‘s. For the purpose of display of goods， many devices are used such as long lengths of adjustable shelves to take various sizes of packs， rotating circular shelves， and display stands.
The problem of quick payment has been solved by the use of modern cash machine， which can quickly record the cost of each item and totals the bill. Then it also takes in the sum given in payment， and shoots out the right change into a cup near the customer.
Some of the advantages of the self－service seem to be that there is no waiting to be served； there is wide variety of choice， and it is claimed that ready－made meal and vegetables are very clean. Shopping is said to be more efficient and more economical. Nevertheless many people still prefer to be served by a small shopkeeper who knows them personally and will deliver goods to their homes.
7） Which of the following statements is true？
A. Supermarkets provide cheaper food. B. There is less delay in payment in supermarkets.
C. Food and meat are more clean and tasty. D. Air-conditioning is at different temperatures.
8） The problem of organizers in supermarket is（ ）。
A. to keep foods clean B. to keep the shelves moving around
C. to provide a wide variety of goods D. proper display of foods and easy flow of customers
9） Which of the following is not the main advantage of self—service？
A. A greater variety of goods B. Better service
C. Efficiency and economy D. More clean food
10） Many people like the small shops because（ ）。
A. they are very close B. they are cheaper
C. they are friendly D. they can send goods to their homes
1） A 这个短语的意思是：或沉或浮，放任自流。
2） C 见文章第一段第二、三句。
3） D 见文章最后第一段第二句。
4） A 作者第一段说，要她选择自然历史方面对她影响最大的书对她而官不是件容易的事，直到她回想起重年，这时这件事就变得容易了。由此可知，“这件事”指的是做出选择。
5） C 见文章第二段第一句。
6） D 见文章第三段第二句。
7） B 见第一段最后一句。
8） D 第二段讲到了超市组织者面临的最重要的问题是保证流通流畅，食品展台方便顾客。
9） C 第四段中，“shopping is said to be more efficient and more economical.”一句暗示，作者或许并不认为自选超市更经济实惠，提高效率。
10） C 从文中最后—句可以推测出，小食品商场更具有人情味。
Never use any drug unless there is a good reason， especially in a woman who is expecting s baby. Ask the patient if he has had previous drug reactions： if he has， be cautious（小心）。 It is estimated that more than half of the adverse reactions that are reported would be presented if this were done.
Ask the patient if he is already receiving other drugs.
If possible， use a drug with which you are familiar. If you use a new drug， be specially on the watch for adverse reactions.
Report serious or unusual reactions suspected as due to established drugs， and any reaction however trivial（轻微） that may be due to a newly marketed drug.
1） This is a set of recommendations for（ ）。
A. drug company representatives
B. doctors prescribing for patients
C. scientists who specialize in drugs
D. doctors treating drug takers
2） The patients should be asked if they are（ ）。
A. familiar with drugs
B. cautious about taking drugs
C. taking other drugs
D. looking for newly marketed drugs
3） We learn from the passage that（ ）。
A. any unexpected effect of new drugs is worth reporting
B. established drugs have serious adverse effects
C. newly marketed drugs have trivial effects
D. full reports should be made of all the effects of all drugs
Researchers have shown that noise can adversely affect humans in both physiological and psychological ways. Hearing losses in particular occupations such as ship-building and construction work are well known， in fact， however， we all find hearing more difficult as we age. Young ears can distinguish a wide range of sounds from low
to very high frequencies， while older ears lose the ability to distinguish high-pitched sounds（高音）。 A comparison of people living in some industrialized and non-industrialized areas suggests that ~ hearing loss may not necessarily accompany old age.
Furthermore， a closer inspection of other data reveals economic effects. For instance， an increased turnover（周转，易手） in property has been observed in noisy areas near airports. Job performance can be adversely affected by loud noise， especially if accuracy and mental effort are involved. The use of outdoor （户外） areas for conversation is not possible for an estimated 5 to 10 million people who live or work in urban area. When interference with television or speech or sleep is included， as many as 22 to 24 million people can be said to have lost part of the use of their homes and grounds because of noise.
Thus noise pollution is a serious environmental concern. The indifferent attitude toward noise should be overcome；considerable efforts should be made to alert people to the grave effects which may stem from an excessively noisy environment.
4） We can learn from this passage that（ ）。
A. young people are able to distinguish high-pitched sounds
B. Young people distinguish low frequency noise better than old people
C. high frequency noise can cause hearing loss in old people
D. industrialized people will suffer hearing loss when they are old
5） According to the text， noise can interfere with sleep. Which of the following statements does this imply？
A. Noise can cause dreams. B. Noise makes people turn round in their sleep.
C. Noise makes people sleep more. D. Noise interrupts sleep.
6） The grave effects of noise on humans are（ ）。
A. physiological only
B. psychological only
C. psychological， physiological and economic
D. both psychological and physiological
Everything that is new or uncommon raises a pleasure in the imagination， and because it fills the soul with a pleasant surprise， satisfies its curiosity， and gives it an idea which it did not possess before. We are too much familiar with one set of objects and tired out with so many repeated shows of the same things and whatever is new or uncommon contributes a little to vary human life with the strangeness of its appearance： it serves us for a kind of refreshment， and takes off that satiety（厌腻） we tend to complain of in our usual and ordinary entertainments. It is this variety that gives our mind something now and relieves our attention from dwelling（滞留） too long and wasting itself on any particular object. It is this， likewise， that improves what is great or beautiful， and makes it afford our mind an double entertainment. Woods， fields， and meadows are at any season of the year pleasant to look upon but never so much as in the beginning of the spring， when they are all new and fresh and not yet too much accustomed and familiar to the eye. For this reason there is nothing that makes a prospect more fascinating than rivers or sprays of water from fountains， where the scene is constantly shifting and entertaining the sight every moment with something new. We are quickly fired with looking upon hills and valleys， where everything remains fixed and settled in the same place and manner， but find our thoughts a little excited and relieved at the sight of such objects as are ever in motion and sliding away from beneath our eyes.
7） Which of the following contains the main idea of the passage？
A. Whatever is new is more worthwhile than that which is old.
B. Newness makes a thing fascinating.
C. We must change the old for the new to achieve variety.
D. We cannot evaluate the worth of an item until it is no longer new.
8） Which of the following describes the development of the ideas in this passage？
A. The thought moves by association from one aspect m another.
B. The thought moves from a hypothesis to an application of the hypothesis.
C. The thought moves from a generalization to a series of observations to prove the generalization.
D. The thought moves from event to event in the time sequence……
9） The author‘s implied purpose in this passage is to（ ）。
A. entertain the reader
B. prevent the reader from making mistakes
C. present an alternative view
D. improve the reader‘s sense of right and wrong
10） The author finds fountains fascinating because（ ）。
A. of the beauty of their appearance
B. of the freshness of the water
C. of the movement of the water
D. of the beauty of nature
1） B 文中几次提到ask the patient … ，还提到要注意药物可能引起的不良反应，对孕妇用药要特别小心等。可知是在告诫医生开处方时要谨慎。不要选D， drug takers是指吸毒者，不是一般病人。
2） C 见第2段。本文在另一处也提醒要ask the patient，但询问的内容是以前有没有过药物反应，选择项中没有列入。
3） A 见最后一段的最后一部分：… any reaction however trivial that may be due to a newly marketed drug.不要选D，文中只提到：Report serious or unusual reactions suspected as due to established drugs，也就是说对现有的药物，要报告的只限于严重的、不寻常的反应。
4） D 本文第1段提到 … we all find hearing more difficult as we age，意思是说：人们发现随着年龄的增长，自己的听力会逐渐衰退。这一段的最后一句说，比较生活在工业发达地区和工业不发达地区的人，发现听力衰退不一定和年龄的增长有关。它暗示，只有住在工业区的人们听力才会逐渐受到损害。不要选C，这一选项的意思是：高频噪声对老年人的听力有损害。从全段的意思看，这是不对的。老年人所以听力衰退，是长期（从年轻时起）受噪音污染的结果。
5） D 句中interfere with sleep（干扰睡眠）和interrupt sleep的意思相同。
6） C 文中第1段首先提到噪音在生理和心理两方面对人有不利的影响，第2段第l句又说别的数据资料揭示在经济上也有影响。可知这种影响是三方面的。
7） B 本文第1句提出了作者的观点，那就是新的、不寻常的事物能给人以愉悦、激发人们的想象力等等，
8） C 本文先提出作者的总观点，然后举例证明自己的观点。这种叙述方式正是C项所指的那一种。
9） C 作者在文中列举的现象可能有各种解释，作者提出了自己的见解，让读者自己做出判断，哪一种解释最合理。这就是作者的目的，他没有说别的什么解释是错误的。
10） C 作者在提到没有什么东西比河流或喷泉的景象更动人时说where the scene is constantly shifting and entertaining the sight every moment with something new. 这里的shifting就是指水的流动。