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2001年10月全国高等教育自学考试英语(一)试题

2005-06-14 00:00   【 】【我要纠错

  PART ONE

  Ⅰ。Vocabulary and Structure(10 points,1 point for each)

  从下列各句四个选项中选出一个最佳答案,并将答案写在答题纸上。

  1.American people are not very happy on April 15,when the federal taxes are .

  A. high B. near C. close D. due

  2.Some language learners find difficult to succeed in other fields of science.

  A. that B. so C. it D. them

  3.Animals can live only on plants have already turned from inorganic to vegetable matter.

  A. that B. which C. what D. how

  4.A few years ago, the belief became general orange juice and milk should never be drunk at the same meal.

  A. that B. so that C. and that D. now that

  5.The real difference between plants and animals in what they do, and not in what they seem to be.

  A. is laid B. is lain C. lays D. lies

  6.We now know that about all the kinds of seaweed are animals.

  A. one fourth B. one fourth of C. one four of D. the one fourth

  7.Scientists could see many things that most people would to see.

  A. fell B. fail C. fall D. fill

  8.The children stay in the nuclear family they grow up and marry.

  A. because B. once C. after D. until

  9.Sometimes problems grow out of a observation.

  A. charge B. change C. chance D. choice

  10.Eager buyers bought all 50 of the items in one weekend.

  A. but B. yet C. out D. beyond

  Ⅱ。Cloze Test(10 points,1 point for each)

  下列短文中有十个空白,每个空白有四个选项。根据上下文要求选出最佳答案,并将答案写在答题纸上。

  How will the present-day science develop in the near future, i.e. the next decade or so   To 11 with, we can expect 12 science to produce a vast increase in entirely new products of all 13 .These will range from light-weight, high-strength materials for 14 in the many specialized branches of engineering, 15 drugs and chemicals with a greatly-increased selectivity 16 can be used in medicine and agriculture. However, in this 17 case in particular, it may be predicted 18 the wide-spread application and combination of new and more complex products will give 19 to unexpected interreactions or side-effects. For this reason, greatly intensified programmes of research will be required in 20 to discover and eliminate the harmful results of such combination.

11.  A. talk  B. begin  C. introduce  D. research 
12.  A. applied  B. social  C. nuclear  D. economic 
13.  A. lines  B. levels  C. kinds  D. values 
14.  A. work  B. help  C. use  D. shift 
15.  A. to  B. for  C. in  D. with 
16.  A. it  B. what  C. whether  D. which 
17.  A. late  B. later  C. latter  D. last 
18.  A. why  B. that  C. which  D. whether 
19.  A. way  B. fall  C. light  D. rise 
20.  A. general  B. order  C. question  D. nature 

  Ⅲ。Reading Comprehension(30 points,2 points for each)

  从下列每篇短文的问题后所给的四个选择项中选出一个最佳答案,并将答案写在答题纸上。

  Passage One

  Questions 21 to 25 are based on the following passage.

  One of the advantages of being self-employed is that the profit the business makes belongs to the owner. If the self-employed person is successful in business, he or she has the chance to earn a great deal of money and even become wealthy. The profit earned by a self-employed person is the reward for his or her effort, ability, and creativity. Thus, a second advantage of being self-employed is that a person‘s intelligence and abilities have a direct effect on his or her earnings. People who have outstanding abilities or intelligence often find they can earn far more through self-employment than they can through working as an employee. A third advantage of being self-employed is that a person can control both the number of hours worked and the hours of work. While not all self-employed people are completely free to choose whatever hours they want to work, most of them have more control over this area than do the people who work for salaries or wages.

  As with most things in life, being self-employed is not without problems. First, being one‘s own boss places the responsibility for success directly on that individual’s shoulders. Abilities and intelligence will be put to the test. Everyone has some weaknesses and is less capable in some things than in others. These weaknesses will affect how successful a self-employed person is. Second, though the self-employed can earn considerable profits with a successful business, losses can force them out of business and, in some instances, place them in debt. A third disadvantage concerns income security. Self-employed people have no guaranteed wage. Their earnings can vary greatly from year to year, depending on business conditions. Salaried people, on the other hand, can generally count on continued earnings from year to year. In addition, salaried people often enjoy fringe benefits that mean greater peace of mind. Fringe benefits are all of the benefits provided for employees in addition to wages and salaries. One of these benefits may be insurance paid for by the employer that continues the employee‘s salary in the event of sickness or accident. Many self-employed people do not have such protection, unless they put money aside themselves.

  21.A self-employed person is one .

  A. who can make a big profit

  B. who is his or her own boss

  C. whose business has a better chance to success

  D. who employs no others but his or her relatives

  22.One of the advantages self-employment offers is that self-employed people .

  A. may decide when and how long they work

  B. have outstanding abilities and intelligence

  C. may get more business support from the government

  D. are easy to earn money and ready to become wealthy

  23.One problem of self-employment is that .

  A. there is no guarantee of income security

  B. it is comparatively weak in management

  C. an employer‘s earnings have nothing to do with business conditions

  D. salaries may vary greatly from person to person

  24.We may guess from the context that fringe benefits .

  A. are all the money provided for employees

  B. are benefits an employee receives apart from wages and salaries

  C. consist of those that are paid by insurance companies

  D. result from business activities the employer has organized

  25.The author‘s attitude towards self-employment is .

  A. positive B. negative C. indifferent D. objective

  Passage Two

  Questions 26 to 30 are based on the following passage.

  Every living thing has what scientists call a biological clock that controls behavior. It tells plants when to form flowers and insects when to leave protective cocoon(茧)and fly away. And it tells animals and human beings when to awaken, sleep, and seek food. It controls our body temperatures, the release of some hormones(激素)and even dreams.

  Events outside the plant and animal affect its actions. Scientists recently found that a tiny animal called Siberian hamster changes the color of its fur because of the number of hours of daylight. In shorter days of winter its fur becomes white. The fur becomes gray-brown in longer hours of daylight in summer.

  Inner signals control other biological clocks. German scientists found that some internal one seems to order birds to begin their migration flights two times each year. Birds prevented from flying become restless when it is time for the trip. But they become calm again when the time of the flight has ended.

  A mix of outside and internal events controls some biological clocks; such things as heartbeat and the daily change from sleep to walking take place because of both external and internal signals.

  Scientists are beginning to learn which parts of the brain contain the biological clocks. A researcher at Harvard University—Dr. Martin Moore Ede—said a small group of cells near the front of the brain seems to control the timing of some of our actions. Probably there are other cells to control other body activities. He is studying how they affect the way we do our work. Most of us have great difficulty if we must often change to different work hours. It can take many days for a human body to accept a major change in work hours. Industrial officials should have a better understanding of biological clocks and how they affect workers. He said such an understanding could reduce sickness and accidents at work, and would help increase production.

  26.Which of the following can not be controlled by biological clocks

  A. Dreams.

  B. When and what to eat.

  C. Body temperature.

  D. When the flowers should open.

  27.The author mentions Siberian hamster to illustrate that .

  A. every living thing has b biological clock

  B. Siberian hamster is a highly adaptive species

  C. biological clocks can change an animal‘s skin color

  D. external factors can affect the behavior of an organism

  28.From the passage we can infer that .

  A. biological clocks are responsible for all the human behaviors

  B. biological clocks are too mysterious to be explained

  C. heartbeat and some daily activities affect biological clocks

  D. studies on biological clocks can throw some light on human actions

  29.Why should industrial officials have a better understanding of biological clocks

  A. Because some cells in the brain are very important.

  B. Because it is very hard to change working time.

  C. Because it may lead to improvement of work efficiency.

  D. Because it takes a long time for a person to get used to the shift of work hours.

  30.The best title for the passage could be .

  A. A Brief Account of Biological Clocks

  B. Biological Clocks and Work Efficiency

  C. How Biological Clocks Work

  D. The Location of Biological Clocks

  Passage Three

  Questions 31 to 35 are based on the following passage.

  “There is no arguing about taste”—runs the Latin proverb. But taste did not just happen. Cultural, historical, biological and environmental events have interacted to cause frogs, for example, to be viewed as delicious in southern China but to be regarded with revulsion(厌恶)in northern China. Even though much remains unknown, tastes cannot be dismissed as inarguable or illogical; an attempt will be made here to discover why, as Lucretius put it,“What is food to one man may be fierce poison to others?”

  Among the approximately thirty million tribal people of India, a total of 250 animal species are avoided by one group or another. Most of these people will not eat meat from a tiger or any of various snakes. Although they say they feel a relationship with these animals, it is obvious that both are highly dangerous and that hunting them systematically would be foolish.

  Monkeys are avoided, probably because they look like human beings in appearance; in these tribes, man-eating is viewed as extremely cruel. A reluctance to eat some female animals has been attributed to respect for the mother‘s role, but it could also be due to a policy of allowing the females to reproduce and provide more young for people .Many tribes avoid eating any animal that has died of unknown causes, an intelligent attitude in view of the possibility that the animal might have died from a disease that could spread to humans .Animals that consume garbage are similarly avoided, an adaptive step that prevents contact with parasites(寄生虫),and that might explain why members of one tribe eat any of twenty-one different species of rats ,but not the house rat.

  31.“There is no arguing about taste”, which means .

  A. people don‘t like to talk about food

  B. one‘s taste in food is hard to explain

  C. there is no quarrelling about what to eat

  D. no arguments about taste have been heard of before

  32.It can be concluded from the first paragraph that .

  A. the author is against eating frogs

  B. taste is illogical and inarguable

  C. some types of frogs are poisonous

  D. taste is influenced by many factors

  33.The tribal people in India don‘t eat snakes because .

  A. they ate very dangerous

  B. they are respected by Indians

  C. they may spread disease

  D. they help kill rats

  34.The tribal people in India may not eat the following animals EXCEPT .

  A. donkeys B. tigers C. female deer D. house rats

  35.The passage is probably written for the purpose of .

  A. introducing the eating habit of Indian tribal people

  B. distinguishing different types of taste

  C. accounting for people‘s different choices of taste

  D. explaining the relationship between taste and tribes

  PART TWO

  Ⅳ。Word Spelling(10 points ,1 point for two words)

  将下列汉语单词译成英语并写在答题纸上。作为提示,每个词的词类和第一个字母以及用短线表示的其余字母数,已给出。

  36.卖方 . s 37.抽象的 . a

  38.正式的 . f 39.递送 . d

  40.最高的 .s 41.证据 . e

  42.完美的 . p 43.频繁地 . f

  44.成年人 . a 45.假装 . p

  46.农业的 . a 47.遥远的 . r

  48.稀有的 . r 49.火山 . v

  50.存在 . e 51.能量 . e

  52.平均 . a 53.限制 . r

  54.熟悉的 . f 55.抱怨 . c

  Ⅴ。Word Form(10 points, 1 point for each)

  将括号中的各词变为适当形式填入空白答案写在答题纸上。

  56.Today many people are paying more attention to (reduce)stress in their lives

  57.For a person with good reading habits, a (print)page contains not only words but ideas, thoughts and feelings.

  58.The right answers can be obtained only if the right questions (ask)。

  59.The first (know)area was in India, where diamonds were found thousands of years ago.

  60.A modern husband shares important decisions with his (work)wife.

  61.He was the first to draw a map that (base)on all available knowledge, rather than guess or imagination.

  62.Proverbs are quite common in both written and (speak)English.

  63.I suggested that the meeting (hold)at some other time.

  64.I didn‘t go to the party,but I do wish I (be)there

  65.It is generally agreed that a panic attack does not directly (danger)a person‘s life. 

  Ⅵ。C-E Translation(15 points,3 points for each)

  将下列各句译成英语并将答案写在答题纸上。

  66.她有个朋友过去常常吸毒。

  67.正是这些孩子需要心理治疗。

  68.研究表明男人比女人更容易得心脏病。

  69.购买保险时你能完全信赖保险代理商吗

  70.我认为她不会买象旧衣服和空瓶子这样的东西。

  Ⅶ。E-C Translation(15 points)

  将下列短文译成汉语并将答案写在答题纸上。

  Visitors can find almost any kind of restaurant in most of the large cities in America. The telephone book lists restaurants for each city according to name, area of the city, or kind of food. Restaurants in large cities vary greatly in price. Many restaurants post their menus in the window so you can have some idea of the price and kind of food before you enter. If the menu is not posted, and you are uncertain about how expensive the place is, ask to see a menu before you are seated at a table, or else just ask about the price range. Appearances from the outside can be misleading—what looks like a small, informal restaurant may really be very expensive, and what looks like a large, expensive restaurant may be very reasonable.

  You can get a meal for about $5 or slightly more if you eat in bars or coffee shops ,but in most city restaurants you should expect to pay $20 to $30 a person for dinner, with drinks extra.

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