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自学高教自考英语翻译技巧4

2005-06-10 00:00  自考365.COM社区 【 】【我要纠错

  英汉互译时的词性转换

  I.英语的名词转译成汉语的动词:英汉两种语言具有不同的辞语结构。在汉语里,一个句子可以有多个动词并排使用,不管有多少动词,都可以按照先后的顺序一个一个地排下去;而英语则是一门静止的语言,在同等条件下,选择用名词的情况居多数,例如:

  1.在名词转译成动词的句子中:a. My shock and embarrassment at finding Mother in tears on Wednesday was a perfect index of how little I understood the pressures on her(我星期三发现妈妈在流眼泪而感到震惊、尴尬,这就表明我对妈妈所承受的压力知道的多么少。)

  在这个句子当中,shock , embarrassment, index等等都是英语趋向于用名词而不用动词的最好例子b. Because they tremble at the thought of being seen in public in clothes that are out of fashion and they are always taken advantage of by the designers and the big stores.(他们一想到在公共场穿不时髦的衣服,就感到浑身不自在,而一些商店和设计师们正是利用了他们的这种弱点。)

  c. As a boy and then as an adult, I never lost my wonder at the personality that was Einstein. (不论是在儿时还是长大以后,我一直都对爱因斯坦的人格感到很好奇。)

  d. Most of my friends live in the city, yet they always to into raptures at the mere mention of the country. (我的大多数朋友都住在城里,然而,他们只要一提起乡村就欣喜若狂。)

  e. The availability of information on the INTERNET, for example, widens the possibilities of informal education immensely.(比如,由于人们能在INTERNET网上可以得到信息,这就大大扩大了获得非正规教育的可能性。)

  2.在一些特定结构中,如:介词+ 名词= 副词a. It is wise of him to deal with the delicate problem with care and with calmness.(他很明智,在处理这一敏感问题时及尽仔细和谨慎。)

  b. Einstein watched it in delight , trying to deduce the operating principle.(爱因斯坦很欣喜地看着它,想推断出其中的操作原理。)

  c. The soldier stared in surprise at the old farmer and the girl. (那个士兵很震惊地看着那个老农夫和女孩。)

  d. The old man looked closely at the row of puddings with great interest(老人很感兴趣地仔细打量起一排布丁。)

  3.由形容词变成的名词:这类词通常都是表示一类人,如:the poor/ oppressed/ exploited 4.在某些词组中a. a good case in point after a while ,as a result ,at any rate ,break(burst ) into tears ,go into service ,in a sense in addition in exchange for,in other words in reality,out of place,run (fly )into rage take account of to certain extent to his disappointment to one ‘s taste b. To his surprise, Mr. Beck failed to come as expected.(奇怪的是,贝克先生来晚了。)

  c. In all probability , I‘m sure that he’ll come.(我敢肯定,他完全可能来晚。)

  d. He has said in all seriousness that their performance is perfect.(他很正经地说他们的演出很成功。)

  e. I saw a man walking across the road with the obvious intention of talking to me.(我看到一个人穿过大街,明显地想跟我交谈。)

  f. Of course, daydreaming is no substitute for hard work ……

  (当然,白日梦不可能代替艰苦的工作。)

  另外,还有一些句子也大量用名词而不用动词,翻译时要特别注意词性的转换,如:g. That will help lead you to the attainment of your goals. (那会有助于你达到目标。)

  h. But in combination with the more usual methods of self-development , it might make a critical difference. (但是,如果与通常的自我发展的方法相结合,他就能产生很大的不同。)

  i. He said that this exercise of privilege of high-rank government officials will produce bad influence on people ‘s mind concerning our Party ’s image . (他说,政府高级官员滥用职权,将会在人们的心目中产生很坏的影响,损坏党的形象。)

  j. Those significant progress had been made in some industries, the general quality of industrial products leaves much to be desired. (一些工业取得了长足的进步,但是工业产品总的质量还亟待提高。)

  k. When comparing men and women in the matter of fashion, the conclusions to be drawn are obvious.(如果把男人和女人就流行款式方面作个比较,结论就很明显了。)

  l. In the light of these he puts further questions, and so on. (根据这些,他又提出了另外一些问题,如此等等。)

  6.在一些特定的词组中或格式中也趋向于用名词。

  a. be of(great )significance/ (little) use /(no) value/ (some) help / (vital)

  importance(很有意义的)/ 很有用的)/ 很有价值)/ (很有帮助)/ (很重要)

  b. My suggestion/ motion/ recommendation /idea

  is that he(should) go there 我建议(想,提议,认为,主张)他去。

  7.在一些表示结果的特定词组中如: be shocked into stillness(惊呆了)

  those people who toil to death(累得要命的人)

  bore somebody to death(枯燥得要死)

  be worried to death.(担心得要命)

  8.英语的句子结构紧凑,汉语里一个有主语有谓语可以独立的分句,译成英语可能就变成了一个名词词组,这就更说明了英语的名词性特征。

  a. The outbreak of the civil war totally damaged his splendid dream of contributing what he had for his country.(战争爆发彻底破坏了他那为国奉献一切的梦想。)

  b. The train was delayed by the heavy snowfall. (火车因为积雪而晚点。)

  II. 英语的动词结构反过来转译成汉语的名词:一些由名词派生的表示意愿、情绪等的动词,在翻译成汉语时往往还将其返回来译成名词:1. This course is intended to provide aid to those women who , for this reason or that, fail to get the opportunity to receive education.(这门课的目的就是给那些因为种种原因没有机会上学妇女们提供帮助。)

  2.A well-dressed man, who looked and talked like a millionaire , turned out to penniless。 (那个穿着讲究,外表和谈吐都象百万富翁的人却身无分文。)

  3. Gordon Allport , an American psychologist , found nearly 18,000 English words characterizing differences in people‘s behavior. (美国的心理学家高顿。爱尔波特发现有一万个英语单词可以用来表达人们行为的不同特征。)

  III.名词转移成形容词:1. The speech presented by the visiting scholar left considerable excitement in his mind(那位到访学者的演讲着实让他感到很激动。)

  2. The room is small but very cozy and his satisfaction can be read from his face.(这间房间很小但很舒适,从他脸上一眼就可看出他很满意。)

  IV. 其它词汇的转译方法:1.介词译成动词a. If it‘s academic success you’re after,you can ‘t neglect studying. (如果你追求学术上的成功,一定不能忽视了学习。)

  b. Those who are for the program please raise your hand.(同意这项计划的人请举手。)

  c. Will those in favor of the proposal come to attend the meeting next Saturday ?

  (赞成这项提议的人下星期六来开会好吗?)

  d. It wasn‘t that I was after money. I just wanted to make sure that he was found guilty again in the civil suit. (并不是因为我想要钱,我只是想让他即使是在民事案件方面也被判有罪。)

  2.副词或形容词转译成名词:a. In an overcrowded country, very few people own enough to make them financially independent. 在一个人口过度稠密的国家里,很少有人能在财政上独立。)

  b. To be economically prosperous, China will apply more flexible policies of opening to the outside. (为了能达到经济上的繁荣,中国将实行更为灵活的开放政策。)

  c. Aside from offering financial support, work can keep us healthy not only physically but also mentally.(工作除了能给我们提供财政上的支持外,还能够使我们在身体上和心理上保持健康。)

  一些短语中:To be mentally prepared …。,心理上做好准备To be materially equipped………,物资上作好准备During the politically eventful late-1960s…。,政治上正置多事之秋的60年代。

 

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