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04年10月欧洲文化入门串讲资料1

2005-06-10 00:00  北京自考热线·linylee 转载 【 】【我要纠错

  1、There are many elements constituting(组成) European Culture.

  2、There are two major elements: Greco-Roman element and Judeo-Christian element.

  3、The richness(丰富性) of European Culture was created by Greco-Roman element and Judeo-Christian element.

  第一章

  1、The 5th century closed with civil war between Athens and Sparta.

  2、The economy of Athens rested on(依赖) an immense(无限的)amount of slave labour.

  3、Olympus mount, Revived in 1896(当代奥运会)

  4、Ancient Greece(古希腊)‘s epics was created by Homer.

  5、They events of Homer‘s own time. (错)

  (They are not about events of Homer‘s own time, probably in the period 1200-1100 B.C.)

  6、The Homer‘s epics consisted of Iliad and Odyssey.

  7、Agamemnon, Hector, Achilles are in Iliad.

  8、Odysseus and Penelope are in Odyssey.

  9、Odyssey(对其作品产生影响)—→James Joyoe‘s Ulysses(描述一天的生活)。 In the 20th century.

  10、Drama in Ancient Greece was floured in the 5th century B.C.

  11、三大悲剧大师① Aeschylus

  《Prometheus Bound》—→模仿式作品 Shelly《Prometheus Unbound》

  ② Sophocles(之首)

  《Oedipus the King》—→ Freud‘s “the Oedipus complex” (恋母情结) —→ David Herbert Lawrence’s《Sons and lovers》(劳伦斯)447页

  ③ Euripides

  A.《Trojan Women》

  B.He is the first writer of “problem plays”(社会问题剧) 在肖伯纳手中达到高潮,属于存在主义戏剧的人物

  C.Elizabeth Browning called him “Euripides human”(一个纯粹的人)

  D.Realism can be traced back(追溯到) to the Ancient Greece.

  To be specific(具体来说), Euripides.

  12、The only representative of Greek comedy is Aristophanes. 18页

  Aristophanes writes about nature. —→浪漫主义湖畔派(The lakers)华兹华兹(新古典主义代表作家《格列夫游记》《大人国小人国》《温和的提议》用讽刺的写作手法)

  13、History (Historical writing)史学创作

  ※ “Father of History” —→ Herodotus —→ war(between Greeks and Persians)

  This war is called Peleponicion wars. 博罗奔泥撒,3

  只是陈述史实,并没有得出理论。

  ※ “The greatest historian that ever lived.” (有史以来最伟大的历史学家) —→ Thucydides —→ war (Sparta, Athens and Syracuse)

  14、The Greek historical writing writes mainly about wars.

  15、受希腊文化影响的传教士St. Paul. Democritus (Materialism)

  16、希腊文化中的哲学被基督教所吸收17、① Euclid‘s Elements解析几何

  It was in use in English schools until the early years of the 20th century. (历史地位)

  ② Archimedes

  His work not only in geometry几何学,but also in arithmetic算术, machanics机械, and hydrostatics.流体静力学

  选择:Give me a place to stand, and I will move the world.谁的理论(Archimedes)

  18、Architecture古希腊建筑三大风格temple—→Parthenon帕特农神庙① The Doric style

  is also called masculine style. (宏伟的)

  but the Doric style is monotonous and unadorned (单调)

  is sturdy (坚强的), powerful, severelooking (庄严肃穆) and showing a good sense of proportions and numbers.

  ② The Ionic style

  is also called the feminine style. (阴柔的)

  is graceful (优雅的) and elegant (优美的)。

  The Ionic style often shows a wealth of ornament. (装饰性)

  ③ The Corinthian style

  is known for its ornamental luxury. (奢侈)

  19、The famous temples: The Acrpolis at Athens and the Parthenon.

  20、The burning of Corinth in 146 B.C. Marked Roman conquest of Greece.

  21、The melting between Roman Culture and Greek Culture. (罗马征服希腊的标志)

  22、From 146 B.C., Latin was the language of the western half of the Roman Empire.

  Greek that of the eastern half.

  23、Both Latin and Greek belong to Indo-European language.

  24、The Roman writer Horace said “captive Greece took her rude conqueror captive”。

  25、The dividing range(分水岭) in the Roman history refers to 27 B.C.

  26、The year 27 B.C. Divided the Roman history into two periods: republic and empire.

  27、The idea of Republic can be traced back to Plato‘s republic.

  28、The land area of Roman empire reached its climax in 2 to 3 century.

  29、north: Scotland east: Armenia and Mesopotamia

  30、In the Roman history ,there came two hundred years of peaceful time, which was guaranteed(保证) by the Roman legions(罗马军团)

  31、In the Roman history, there came two hundred years of peaceful time, which was known as Pax Romana.(神圣罗马帝国)

  32、名解In the Roman history ,there came two hundred years of peaceful time, which was guaranteed(保证) by the Roman legions, it was known as Pax Romana

  33、The Roman Law protected(保护) the rights of plebeians (平民)。

  34、The important contribution made by the Romans to the European culture was the Roman Law.

  35、After 395,the empire was divided into East (the Byzantine Empire) and West.

  36、Cicero西赛罗he legal and political speeches are models of Latin diction拉丁语用词

  described as Ciceronian.西赛罗式的

  an enormous influence(巨大影响) on the development of European prose.(散文)

  37、Julius Caesar commentaries批评论 “I came, I saw, I conquered.”

  38、Virgil Aeneid 阿尼德

  39、The pantheon was built in 27 B.C.

  The world‘s first vast interior space.世界上第一所最大的室内场所

  40、The Colosseum(大理石像) it‘s an enormous.露天的环形影剧院

  41、Sculpture(雕塑) She-wolf(母狼)

  42、The representation form of Greek Democracy is citizen-assembly.古希腊民主的表现形式

  43、The embodiment of Greek democracy is citizen-assembly. 古希腊民主的具体形式

  论述简答

  一、What is the limitation of “Democracy” in ancient Greece?(名解简答)

  (How do you understand “Democracy” in ancient Greece? What is the difference between “Democracy” in ancient Greece and modern democracy?)

  答:

  ① Democracy means “exercise of power by the whole people”, but in Greece by “the whole people” the Greeks meant only the adult male citizens.

  ② Women, children, foreigners and slaves were excluded from Democracy.

  二、How did the Greek Culture originate and develop?

  答:

  ① Probably around 1200 B.C., a war was fought between Greece and troy. This is the war that Homer refers to in his epics.

  ② Greek culture reached a high point of development in the 5th century B.C.

  A. The successful repulse of the Persian invasion (入侵) early in the 5th century.

  B. The establishment of democracy.

  C. The flourishing (蒸蒸日上的) of science, philosophy, literature, art and historical writing in Athens.

  ③ The 5th century closed with civil war between Athens and Sparta.

  ④ In the second half of the 4th century B.C., Greece was conquered by Alexander, king of Macedon. Whenever he went and conquered, whenever Greek culture was found.

  ⑤ Melting between Greek culture and Roman culture in 146 B.C., the Romans conquered Greece.

  三、How did the Ancient Greek philosophy develop?

  答:

  (1)、Three founders

  1、Pythagoras① All things were numbers.

  ② Scientific mathematics.

  ③ Theory of proportion.比例的理论

  2、Heracleitue① Fire is the primary(主要的) elements of the universe.火是万物之源

  ② The theory of the mingling of opposites produced harmony.矛盾的对立统一

  3、Democritus① the atomic theory.第一个原子理论开拓者

  ② materialism.唯物主义

  (2)、Three thinkers

  1、Socrates①He hadn‘t works. We can know him from Plato’s dialogues.

  ②The dialectical method was established by Socrates.

  2、Plato①The Academy is the first school in the world, it was established by Plato.

  ②He has four works. Dialogues, Apology, Symposium and Republic.

  3、Aristotle①The Lyceum is the second school in the world, it was established by Aristotle.

  ②Aristotle is a humanist.

  (2)、Five contending schools

  1、The Sophists诡辩派

  ①Under the leadership of Protagoras.

  ②The representative of work is On the God.诸神论

  ③His doctrine教义 is “man is the measure of all things”。人是衡量一切的标准

  2、The Cynics犬儒派

  ①Under the leadership of Diogenes.

  ②The word “cynic” means “dog” in English.

  ③He proclaimed宣扬 his brotherhood. And he had no patience with the rich and powerful.权利

  3、The Sceptics置疑学派

  ①Under the leadership of Pyrrhon.

  ②His thought is not all knowledge was attainable可获得的, and doubting the truth of what others accepted as true.

  4、The Epicureans享乐派

  ①Under the leadership of Epicurus. 选择:根据领导者的名字直接命名

  ②Pleasure to be the highest good in life but not sensual肉欲 enjoyment.享乐

  Pleasure could be attained by the practice of virtue.通过实行道德获得

  Epicurus was a materialist. He believed that the world consisted of atoms.原子

  5、The Stoics斯多哥派

  ①Under the leadership of Zeno.

  ②His thought is duty is the most important thing in life.

  One should endure忍受 hardship艰难 and misfortune不幸 with courage.勇气

  Developed into Stoics‘ duty.

  He was also a materialist.

  四、What philosophy system did Plato established?

  (Why do we say Plato‘s philosophy system was idealistic? Do you think Plato built up a comprehensive综合的 system of philosophy? )

  答:

  1、It dealt with, among other things, the problem of how, in the complex, ever—changing world, men were to attain获得 knowledge.

  2、The first case and physical自然 world should take the secondary case.

  3、Idealistic of philosophy.

  4、Many of Plato‘s ideas were later absorbed into Christian thought. (吸收到基督教的思想中)

  五、What‘s the difference between Plato and Aristotle in terms of their philosophical ideas(system)?

  答:

  1、 For one thing, Aristotle emphasized(强调) direct observation of nature and insisted that theory should follow fact.(理论联系实际)This is different from Plato‘s reliance(依赖) on subjective thinking.(万物依赖主观思维)

  2、For another, he thought that “form” and matter together made up concrete(具体的) individual(个别的) realities. (物质与意识共同构成的客观事实)Here, too, he differed from Plato who held that ideas had a higher reality than the physical world(意识高于物质)

  3、Aristotle thought happiness was men‘s aim in life. But not happiness in the vulgar庸俗的 sense, but something that could only be achieved by leading a life of reason, goodness and contemplation.(善良和期待)

  一句话简答题What should be man‘s aim in life?

  Aristotle‘s answer was: happiness.

  六、What is the great significance of Greek Culture on the later-on cultural development?

  (What positive influence did the Greek Culture exert运用 on the world civilization文化?)

  答:

  There has been an enduring excitement兴奋 about classical经典的 Greek culture in Europe and elsewhere别处。Rediscovery of Greek culture played a vital有生命力的 part in the Renaissance in Italy and other European countries.

  1、Spirit of innovation创新精神

  The Greek people invented mathematics and science and philosophy; They first wrote history as opposed反对 to mere纯粹的 annals历史记载; They speculated思索 freely about the nature of the world and the ends of life生命的轮回, without being bound in the fetters束缚 of any inherited orthodoxy.继承的习俗

  2、Supreme Achievement至高无上的成就

  The Greeks achieved supreme achievements in nearly all fields of human endeavour努力: Philosophy, science, epic poetry, comedy, historical writing, architecture, etc.

  3、Lasting effect持续的影响

  ①Countless无数的 writers have quoted举例, borrowed from and otherwise used Homer‘s epics, the tragedies of Aeschylus and Sophocles and Euripides, Aristophanes’s comedies, Plato‘s Dialogues,ect.

  ②In the early part of the 19th century, in England alone, three young Romantic poets expressed their admiration of Greek culture in works which have themselves become classics经典之作: Byron‘s Isles of Greece, Shelley’s Hellas and Prometheus Unbound and Keats‘s Ode on a Grecian Urn.

  ③In the 20th century, there are Homeric parallels与…平行 in the Irishman爱尔兰 James Joyce‘s modernist masterpiece代表作 Ulysses.

  七、What is the similarity and difference between Greek culture and Roman culture?

  答:

  1、similarity① Both peoples had traditions rooted in the idea of the citizen-assembly.

  ② Their religions were alike enough for most of their deities(神) to be readily(容易的) identified (一致), and their myths (崇拜的神) to be fused.(融合)

  ③ Their languages worked in similar ways, both being members of the Indo-European language family.

  2、difference① The Romans built up a vast (巨大的) empire; the Greeks didn‘t, except for the brief (短暂的) moment of Alexander’s conquests, which soon disintegrated.(瓦解)

  ② The Romans were confident(自信的) in their own organizational power, their military and administrative capabilities.(管理国家的能力)

  八、What is the Rome historical background?

  答:

  1、 The history of Rome divided into two periods: Before the year 27 B.C., Rome had been a republic; from the year 27 B.C., Octavius took supreme (最大的) power as emperor with the title of Augustus and Roman Empire began.

  2、Two centuries later, the Roman Empire reached its climax, marked by land area‘s extension: Encircling (环绕) the Mediterranean.(地中海)

  3、Strong military power: the famous Roman legions.

  4、 In the Roman history ,there came two hundred years of peaceful time, which was guaranteed(保证) by the Roman legions, it was known as Pax Romana.

  5、Another important contribution made by the Romans to European culture was Roman Law.

  6、The empire began to decline in the 3rd century.选择

  ① In the 4th century the emperor Constantine moved the capital from Rome to Byzantium. Renamed it Constantinople (modern Istanbul)。

  ② After 395 (分裂时间), the empire was divided into East (The Byzantine Empire) and West

  ③ In 476 the last emperor of the West was deposed by Goths and this marked the end of the West Roman Empire.

  ④ The East Roman Empire collapsed (崩溃) when Constantinople fell to the Turks in 1453. (英法百年战争结束)

  第二章1、Christianity is by far the most influential in the West. 在西方最具影响力的宗教

  2、Judeo-Christian tradition constitutes one of the two major components of European culture: Judaism and Christianity.

  3、The Jewish tradition, which gave birth to Christianity. (犹太教是基督教的前身) Both originated in Palestine, which was known as Canaan.

  4、The ancestors of the Jews — the Hebrews. 犹太人的祖先是希伯来人

  5、They called “Hebrews”, which means “wanderers”。商旅

  6、About 1300 B.C., the Hebrews came to settle (定居) in Palestine.

  7、The Hebrews history was recorded in the Old Testament of the Bible.

  8、The Bible was divided into two sections: the Old Testament and the New Testament.

  9、The Old Testament is about God and the Laws of God. 上帝与上帝的教义

  10、The New Testament is about the doctrine (教义) of Jesus Christ.

  11、The New Testament is, in essence (实质上), the four accounts (四福音书), written by the four disciples.弟子

  12、The word “Testament” means “agreement”, the agreement between God and Man.

  13、Bible is representative of Christianity and 新旧约

  14、The Old Testament名词解释

  The Bible was divided into two sections: the Old Testament and the New Testament. The Old Testament is about God and the Laws of God. The word “Testament” means “agreement”, the agreement between God and Man.

  15、The New Testament名词解释

  The Bible was divided into two sections: the Old Testament and the New Testament. The New Testament is about the doctrine (教义) of Jesus Christ. The word “Testament” means “agreement”, the agreement between God and Man.

  16、The Old Testament consists of 39 books, the oldest and most important of which are the first five books, called Pentateuch.摩西五经

  17、Pentateuch名词解释The Old Testament consists of 39 books, the oldest and most important of which are the first five books, called Pentateuch. Pentateuch contains five books: Genesis (创世记), Exodus (出埃及记), Leviticus(教义记), Numbers (逃亡记), Deuteronomy (摩西遗言记)。

  18、Genesis名词解释Genesis is one of the five books in Pentateuch, it tells about a religious account (描述) of the origin of the Hebrews people, including the origin of the world and of man, the career (经历) of Issac and the life of Jacob and his son Joseph.

  19、Exodus名词解释Exodus is one of the five books in Pentateuch, it tells about a religious (宗教的) history of the Hebrews during their flight from Egypt, the period when they began to receive God‘s Law. Joshua brought the people safely back to canaan.

  20、The Fall of Man was recorded in Genesis, Pentateuch, the Old Testament, The Bible.

  21、Noah‘s Ark was recorded in Genesis, Pentateuch, the Old Testament, The Bible.

  22、The Historical Books was divided into seven sections:?

  ①Books of Joshua ② Books of Judges ③ Books of Samuel ④ Books of Kings

  ⑤ Books of the Chronicles ⑥ Books of Ezra ⑦ Books of Nehemiah.

  23、The content of historical Books: 1200B.C. 586 B.C.

  Dealing with history of the Hebrew people from their entry into Palestine around 1200 B.C., till the fall of Palestine into hands of Assyrians and Chaldeans in 586 B.C.

  24、The History Books的内容

  ① The development of system of landed nobles.

  ② The development of monarchy. 君主专制

  ③ Establishment of the two Kingdoms. 两大王国的初步形成

  ④ (略看) The settlement in the highlands

  ⑤ (略看) Age of great prosperity under Saul, David and Solomon.

  25、Joshua brought the people safely back to Canaan.

  26、The first king to unite the Hebrews was Saul.

  27、David established religious capital, Jerusalem to Palestine.

  28、The Prophets (先知)名词解释 宣传教义并受神灵庇佑的人

  For more than a thousand years in the Middle East there had been a class of people known as “Prophets” or the spokesmen of God. Earlier prophets lived in groups as temple officials. Later on there appeared in dependent prophet. The Prophets can be grouped into the Major Prophets and Minor Prophets.(分为大小先知)

  29、The Book of Daniel名词解释

  The Book of Daniel belongs to The Old Testament of the Bible. It tells about the Hebrews being carried away into Babylon.

  30、The former body of church was known as Synagogues. 犹太教的会堂是教堂的前身

  31、The Pentateuch is the book of Daniel is also called torah. 摩西五经的别称

  32、 The story about God‘s flooding to the human being and only good-virtue being saved was recorded in Genesis, Pentateuch, the Old Testament, the Bible, which was known as Noah’s Ark.

  33、By 300 A.D.each local church was called a parish and had a full time leader known as a priest.

  34、Several parishes were grouped together into a large unit called diocese, which was headed by a bishop.

  35、The most important bishops were called archbishops. (红衣大主教)

  36、 Towards the end of the fourth century four accounts were accepted as part of the New Testament, which tells the beginning of Christianity.

  37、The Birth of Jesus was recorded in Matthew (马塞福音书)

  38、All the generations from Abraham to David are fourteen generations.为什么十四在西方吉利

  39、The Last Supper was recorded in John.

  40、The Last Supper was put into an oil painting by Da Vinci in the high renaissance in Italy.

  文艺复兴以人为本的标志-蒙娜丽莎41、The Last Supper adapted from St.John, the New Testament, the Bible.

  42、The story about Jesus being betrayed by Judas was known as The Last Supper.

  43、The story about Jesus being pinned (钉死) in the cross to death was known as The Last Supper.

  44、 The first English version of whole Bible was translated from the Latin Vulgate in 1382 and was copied out by hand by the early group of reformers (改革者) led by John Wycliff.

  45、Wycliff 与 Tyndale 的区别是:语言来源不同

  Reformation (宗教改革) 为了 against the Latin language.

  46、William Tyndale‘s version was based on the original Hebrew and Greek sources.来源

  论述简答一、What difference between Christianity and the other religions?

  (What are the forceful beliefs of Christianity?)

  答:

  Christianity based itself on two forceful (强烈的) beliefs which separate it from all other religions.

  1、 One is that Jesus Christ is the Son of God, and that God sent him to earth (世界) to live as humans live, suffer as humans suffer, and die to redeem mankind.(挽回人类)

  2、The other is that God gave his only begotten son (唯一的儿子), so that whosoever (whoever的强调型) believes in him should not perish, but have everlasting life. (获得永生)

  加尔文主义也有这样的观点

  二、How did Christianity originate and develop in the European continent (洲)?

  ☆ (How was Christianity spread to Europe and became the official religion? 统治性宗教)

  答:

  1、The disciples of Jesus tried to spread his gospel, first among the Jews in Palestine and then in the Mediterranean region.

  2、 During a time of great unrest and upheaval动荡不安 in the European continent, the poor and humble found comfort in the Christian Gospel.福音(书)

  3、Christianity began to draw men and women from all classes in Europe. The Romans grew tired of war and feared (害怕) the collapse (崩溃) of the empire. And they admired the courage of the Christian missionaries.传教士

  4、Constantine believed that God had helped him in winning the battle (战役) and issued (发出) the Edict of Milan米兰特令 (选择) in 313. It granted (许可) religious freedom to all, and made Christianity legal.合法化

  5、In 392 A.D., Emperor Theodosius made Christianity the official religion of the empire and outlawed all other religions.其他宗教不合法

  6、Now Christianity had changed from an object of oppression (压迫) to a weapon in the hands of the ruling (管理) class to crush their opponents (粉碎对手)。 The Latin language became the official language.

  三、What are the different translation editions of the Bible?

  答:

  1、 The oldest extant (现存的) Greek translation of the Old Testament is known as the Septuagint. And it is still in use in the Greek Church today. But it only translated the Old Testament.

  2、The most ancient extant Latin version of the whole Bible is the Vulgate edition, which was done in 385-405 A.D. By St. Jerome in common people‘s language. It became the official Bible of the Roman Catholic Church throughout the world.

  3、 The first English version of whole Bible was translated from the Latin Vulgate in 1382 and was copied out by hand by the early group of reformers (改革者) led by John Wycliff.

  4、After John Wycliff‘s version, appeared William Tyndale’s version. It was based on the original Hebrew and Greek sources.来源

  5、 The Great Bible (大圣经) ordered by Henry Ⅷ in 1539 to be placed in all the English churches was in part founded on Tyndale‘s work.

  6、The most important and influential of English Bible is the “Authorized”(官方版圣经) or “King James” version, first published in 1611. It was produced by 54 biblical scholars at the command of King James. With its simple, majestic (高雅的) Anglo-Saxon tongue, it is known as the greatest book in the English languages.

  7、The Revised Version appeared in 1885, and the standard American edition of the Revised Version in 1901. (美国英语版)

  8、The Good News Bible and the New English Bible.

  四、What is the great significance of the translations of the bible?

  (What are the great influences that the English Bible has on the American and British literature?)

  答:

  1、It is generally accepted that the English Bible and Shakespeare are two great reservoirs (水库) of Modern English.

  2、 Miltion‘s Paradise Lost (失乐园), Bunyan’s Pilgrim‘s Progress, Byron’s Cain, up to the contemporary (同时期的) Hemingway‘s The Sun Also Rises, and Steinbeck’s East of Eden. They are not influenced without the effect of the Bible.

  第三章1、the Middle ages名词解释

  In European history, the thousand-year period following the fall of the Western Roman Empire in the fifth century is called the Middle Ages.

  2、The middle ages is so called because it came between ancient times and modern times. To be specific (具体说来), from the 5th century to 15th century.

  3、The transitional (过渡时期) period is called the middle ages, between ancient times and modern times.

  4、The transitional (过渡时期) period is called the 17th century, between the middle ages and modern times.

  5、In 476 A.D. a Germanic (日耳曼) general killed the last Roman emperor and took control of the government. 西罗马476灭,东罗马1653年灭

  6、Feudalism名词解释Feudalism in Europe was mainly a system of land holding (土地所有) — a system of holding land in exchange for military service (军事力量)。 The word “feudalism” was derived (来源) from the Latin “feudum”, a grant (许可的) of land.

  7、fiefs(次划分)名词解释In Feudalism, the ruler of the government redivided the large lands into small pieces to be given to chancellors (有功的大臣) or soldiers as a reward (奖赏) for their service. The subdivisions were called fiefs.

  8、vassals (占有fiefs的人)名词解释

  In Feudalism, the ruler of the government redivided the large lands into small pieces to be given to chancellors (有功的大臣) or soldiers as a reward (奖赏) for their service. The subdivisions were called fiefs. The owners of the fiefs was call vassals.

  9、code of chivalry (骑士制度)名词解释

  As a knight, he were pledged to protect the weak, to fight for the church, to be loyal to his lord and to respect women of noble birth. These rules were known as code of chivalry, from which the western idea of good manners developed.

  10、dubbing (骑士头衔加冕仪式)名词解释

  After a knight was successful in his trained and tournaments, there was always a special ceremony (选择) to award him with a title, knight. This special ceremony is called dubbing.

  11、knight trained for war by fighting each other in mock battles called tournaments.(模拟战场)

  12、The crusades ended up with the victory of Moslems.(穆斯林)

  13、The Manor (领地所有制)名词解释

  The centre of medieval life under feudalism was the manor. Manors were founded on the fiefs of the lords (农场主)。 By the twelfth century manor houses were made of stone and designed as fortresses. They came to be called castles.

  14、After 1054, the church was divided into the Roman Catholic Church and the Eastern Orthodox Church.

  15、 The Catholic Church made Latin the official language and helped to preserve (保留) and pass on the heritage (传统) of the Roman Empire.

  16、The word “catholic”, meant “universal”。(广泛的,无处不在的)

  17、St. Jerome, who translated into Latin both Old and New Testament from the Hebrew and Greek originals. Vulgate (拉丁语圣经)

  18、Early Monasticism (早期修道院制)名词解释

  Between 300 and 500 A.D., many men withdrew from (放弃了) worldly contacts to deserts and lonely places. This movement developed into the establishment of monasteries (男) and convents (女) for monks and nuns. Some of the hermits (隐士) were great scholars known as “Father of the Church”, whose work is generally considered orthodox.(东正教)

  19、Augustine —→ “Confession” (坦白) and “The City of God” (上帝之都)

  20、St. Benedict —→ founded Benedictine Rule about 529 A.D. (专门给清修的人制定的法律)

  21、The Inquisition (问讯厅) to stamp out so-called heresy.异教

  22、The most important of all courses was Jerusalem. (耶路撒冷)

  23、Crusades went on about 200 years.

  24、There were altogether eight chief Crusades.

  25、 (结束) By 1291 the Moslems (穆斯林) had taken over the last Christian stronghold. They won the crusades and ruled all the territory in Palestine that the Crusaders had fought to control.

  26、Carolingian Renaissance名词解释

  Carolingian Renaissance is derived from Charlemagne‘s name in Latin, Carolus. The most interesting facet (一面) of this rather minor renaissance is the spectacle (有见解) of Frankish or Germanic state reaching out to assimilate (吸收) the riches of the Roman Classical and the Christianized Hebraic culture.

  27、Roger Bacon‘s work was the Opus maius.

  28、National Epics(民族史诗运动)名词解释

  The epic was the product of the Heroic Age. It was an important and mostly used form in ancient literature. “National epic” refers to the epic written in vernacular languages—that is, the languages of various national states (民族国家) that came into being in the Middle Ages. Literary works were no longer all written in Latin. It was the starting point of a gradual transition of European literature from Latin culture to a culture that was the combination of a variety of national characteristics.

  29、Chaucer (乔叟) 的诗歌特点: ① power of observation (观察)

  ② piercing irony (敏锐的讽刺) ③ sense of humour ④ warm humanity (温暖的人性)

  与狄更斯相似30、Gothic名词解释① The Gothic style started in France and quickly spread through all parts of Western Europe.

  ② It lasted from the mid-12th to the end of 15th century and, in some areas, into the 16th. More churches were built in this manner than in any other style in history.

  ③ The Gothic was an outgrowth (丰富与发展) of the Romanesque.(罗马式)

  31、The Canterbury Tales:

  ① The Canterbury Tales was written by Chaucer.

  ② Chaucer introduced French and Italy writing the English native alliterative verse.(压头韵)

  ③ Both Chaucer and The Canterbury Tales are the best representative of the middle English.

  论述简答一、In the middle ages, what cultures began to merge (融合)?

  答:

  Classical, Hebrew and Gothic heritages merged (文化融合)。 It paved the way for the development of what is the present-day European culture.中世纪为现代欧洲文化铺平道路

  二、Why is the middle ages is called Age of Faith (信仰的年代)?名词解释和简答

  答:

  1、 During the Medieval (中世纪) times there was no central (中央的) government to keep the order. The only organization that seemed to unite (团结) Europe was the Christian church.

  2、The Christian church continued to gain (赢得) widespread (普及的) power and influence.

  3、 In the Late middle ages, almost everyone in western Europe was a Christian and a member of the Christian Church. Christianity took the lead in politics, law, art, and learning (思想领域) for hundreds of years.

  4、It shaped (形成) people‘s lives. That is why the middle ages is also called the “Age of Faith”。

  三、How did Feudalism develop in Europe in middle ages?

  答:

  1、 feudalism in Europe was mainly a system of land holding (土地所有) — a system of holding land in exchange for military service (军事力量)。 The word “feudalism” was derived (来源) from the Latin “feudum”, a grant (许可的) of land.

  2、In order to seek the protection of large land-owners, the people of small farms or land gave their farms and land to large land-owners, but they still had freedom, they were called freemen.

  3、While the people from towns and cities did not possess farms or land. They had nothing but their freedom to be given to large land-owners, and then they lost their freedom for protection. They were called serfs.

  4、In Feudalism, the ruler of the government redivided the large lands into small pieces to be given to chancellors (有功的大臣) or soldiers as a reward (奖赏) for their service. The subdivisions were called fiefs. The owners of the fiefs was call vassals.

  5、There came a form of local and decentralized (分散化的) government.

  6、 As a knight, he were pledged to protect the weak, to fight for the church, to be loyal to his lord and to respect women of noble birth. These rules were known as code of chivalry, from which the western idea of good manners developed.

  四、What positive influence does the Crusades exert on the European Culture?

  (What is the great significance of the Crusades?)

  答:

  1、 The crusades brought the East into closer contact with the West. And they greatly influenced the history of Europe. (拉近了东西方的交流)

  2、During the wars while many of the feudal lords went to fight in Palestine, kings at home found opportunities (机会) to strengthen (加强) themselves. Thus among other things, Crusades helped to break down feudalism, which, in turn led to the rise of the monarchies. (取而代之的是君主专制) 霍布斯主张君主专制

  3、 Besides, through their contact with the more cultured Byzantines and Moslems, the western Europeans changed many of their old ideas. Their desire (期望) for wealth or power began to overshadow (战胜) their religious ideals.

  4、The Crusades also resulted in renewing people‘s interest in learning and invention. By the 13th century, universities had spread all over Europe. Such knowledge as Arabic numerals (阿拉伯数字), algebra (代数), and Arab medicine (医学) were introduced to the West.

  5、 As trade increased, village and towns began to grow into cities. And the rise of towns and trade in western Europe paved the way of the growth of strong national governments. (民族政府)

  五、How did learning and science develop in the Middle Ages?

  答:

  1、Charlemagne and Carolingian Renaissance: (查理曼的文艺复兴)

  ① He was crowned “Emperor of the Romans” by the pope in 800.

  ② Carolingian Renaissance is derived from Charlemagne‘s name in Latin, Carolus. The most interesting facet (一面) of this rather minor renaissance is the spectacle (有见解) of Frankish or Germanic state reaching out to assimilate (吸收) the riches of the Roman Classical and the Christianized Hebraic culture.

  2、Alfred the Great and Wes*** Centre of Learning: (阿尔伏雷德大帝和威克萨斯王国)

  ① He promoted (奖励) translations into the vernacular from Latin works.

  ② He also inspired (授意) the compilation of the Anglo-Saxon Chronicles. (编年史)

  3、St. Thomas Aquinas and Scholasticism: (经院主义,保守主义的雏形)

  4、Roger Bacon and Experimental Science: (实用主义)

  ① Roger Bacon, a monk, was one of the earliest advocates of scientific research. (最早的支持者) 亚里士多德最早提出

  ② He called for careful observation (观察) and experimentation. His main work was the Opus maius.

  六、How did literature develop in the middle ages?

  答:

  1、 The epic was the product of the Heroic Age. It was an important and mostly used form in ancient literature. “National epic” refers to the epic written in vernacular languages—that is, the languages of various national states (民族国家) that came into being in the Middle Ages. Literary works were no longer all written in Latin. It was the starting point of a gradual transition of European literature from Latin culture to a culture that was the combination of a variety of national characteristics. Both Beowulf and song of Roland were the representative works of the National Epics.

  2、Dante Alighieri and The Divine Comedy: (但丁与神曲)

  ① His masterpiece, The Divine Comedy, is one of the landmarks of world literature.

  ② The poem expresses humanistic ideas which foreshadowed (预示) the spirit of Renaissance.

  ③ Dante wrote his masterpiece in Italian rather than in Latin. (只用意大利语创作)

  3、Geoffery Chaucer and The Canterbury Tales: (乔叟与坎特布雷集)

  ① The Canterbury Tales were his most popular work.

  ② Most of the tales are written in verse (诗) which reflects(反映) Chaucer‘s innovation (改革) by introducing into the native alliterative verse (压头韵诗) the French and Italian styles.

  ③ Chaucer is thus to be , regarded as (被看作) the first short story teller and the first modern poet in English literature.短篇写作第一人

  ④ Chaucer and the Canterbury Tales were representative of the Middle ages.

  七、 What is the difference between the vernacular language used in the National epics and the vernacular language used by Mark twain? (重点☆)

  答:

  1、 The epic was the product of the Heroic Age. It was an important and mostly used form in ancient literature. “National epic” refers to the epic written in vernacular languages—that is, the languages of various national states (民族国家) that came into being in the Middle Ages. Literary works were no longer all written in Latin. It was the starting point of a gradual transition of European literature from Latin culture to a culture that was the combination of a variety of national characteristics. Both Beowulf and song of Roland were the representative works of the National Epics.

  2、The vernacular (方言) language used by Mark twain refers to both local and colloq (地方式俗语) language used in the Mississippi area, with a strong characteristic of that region (地区) .Mark twain used vernacular language not only in dialogue, but also in narration. (叙述)

  3、His representative works Life on the Mississippi.

  第四章1、 Renaissance名词解释

  Generally speaking, Renaissance refers to the period between the 14th and mid-17th century. The word “Renaissance” means revival (复兴), specifically in this period of history, revival of interest in ancient Greek and Roman culture. Renaissance, in essence (从实质上讲), was a historical period in which the European humanist thinkers and scholars made attempts (试图) to get rid of conservatism (保守主义思想) in feudalist Europe and introduce new ideas that expressed the interests of the rising bourgeoisie (资产阶级), to lift the restrictions (禁忌) in all areas placed by the Roman church authorities.(权利威信)

  2、 Generally speaking, Renaissance refers to the period between the 14th and mid-17th century.

  3、 Renaissance started in Florence and Venice with the flowering of paintings, sculpture (雕塑) and architecture. 最早开始于painting

  4、 Florence was the golden city which gave girth to a whole generation of poets, scholars, artists and sculptors (雕塑家)。

  5、 In Renaissance literature of Italy, Petrarch (彼得拉克) was the representative poet.

  6、 Intellectuals became closely tied up (息息相关) with the rising bourgeoisie.

  (人文主义兴起的重要原因 Humanistic ideas to develop)

  7、 At the heart of the Renaissance philosophy was the assertion of the greatness of man.

  (以人为本—人文主义的核心)

  8、 Literature: The idea of the greatness of man is reflected in Shakespeare‘s literature.

  9、 painting: The idea of the greatness of man is reflected in Da vincci‘s Mona Lisa.

  10、Renaissance Art名词解释

  A radical (根本的) break with medieval (中古的) methods of representing the visible (可见的) world occurred (发生) in Italy during the second half of the 13th century. It was not until the second decade (十年) of the 15th century that there was a decided break with the medieval pictorial tradition (田园式风格)。

  11、Last Supper adapted from the New Testament of the Bible.

  12、Mona Lisa - model wife of a banker.

  - the ambiguity of the smile. (永恒的微笑)

  13、Michelangelo - David

  - Sistine Chapel (from the First book of the Bible, the Genesis )

  - Dying Slave (垂死的奴隶)

  - Moses (摩西)

  14、Raphael was best known for his Madonna. (圣母玛利亚)

  15、He painted his Madonnas in different postures (姿势), against (*) different backgrounds.

  16、One of the famous paintings besides the Madonnas is School of Athens (雅典学派)。 Plato and Aristotle engaged (使用) in argument.

  17、Titian - The Venus of Urbino (断臂的维纳斯)

  Man with the Glove (带手套的人) ☆

  18、John Wyclif - translation of the Bible into English for the first time.

  19、Jan Hus - Czech

  - in Czech language

  20、Martin Luther - translation of the whole Bible with the vernacular language.

  21、The reformation get it‘s victory first in England.

  22、Reformation名词解释The Reformation was a 16th century religious movement as well as (同时) a socio-political (社会政治) movement. It began as Martin Luther posted on the door of the castle church at the University of Wittenberg (机智) his 95 thesis (论题)。 This movement which swept over (席卷了) the whole of Europe was aimed at opposing (反对) the absolute authority (权威) of the Roman Catholic Church and replacing (代替) it with the absolute authority of the Bible. The reformists (改革者) engaged (使用) themselves in translating the Bible into their mother tongues. 宗教改革的实质是:反对罗马天主教,直接形式是用母语翻译圣经

  23、Calvinism名词解释Calvinism was established by Calvin in the period of Renaissance. Presbyterian government (长老会)。 Only those specially elected by God can be saved (上帝的选民) . This belief serves so well to help the rising bourgeoisie on its path (有助于资本主义的兴起)。

  24、The national religion established after reformation in England was called The church of England or The Anglican Church.

  25、It was under the reign (统治) of Henry Ⅷ that reformation was successful in England.

  26、The English Bible was adopted (采纳) in England after Reformation.

  27、Counter-Reformation (反宗教改革)名词解释

  By late 1520 the Roman Catholic Church had lost its control over the church in Germany.

  The Roman Catholic Church did not stay idle (坐以待毙)。 They mustered (召集) their forces, the dedicated (专用的) Catholic groups, to examine the Church institutions and introduce reforms and improvements (改良), to bring back its vitality (活力)。 This recovery of power is often called by historians the Counter-Reformation.

  28、The Jesuits (耶稣社团)名词解释 Ignatius (拼写)

  Ignatius and his followers called themselves the Jesuits, members of the Society of Jesus. The Jesuits went through strict (严格的) spiritual training (精神训练) and organized (有组织的) their own colleges to train selected youth who would be centre of their influence in the next generation.

  29、Francis Bacon introduced Montaigne “Essais” into the English literature.

  30、Montaigne was a French humanist known for his “Essais”(Essays)。

  31、 The representative author of Renaissance in France was Montaigne with his famous work Essais. The representative novelist of Renaissance in Spain was Cervantes with his famous work Do Quixote, which marked European culture entry into a new stage. (歧视文学作品)

  32、Art Greco - counter-reformation (反宗教改革的代表)

  - the Baroque-treatment (巴洛克)

  - The Burial of Count Orgaz (伯爵的葬礼) 典型的反宗教改革

  33、Renaissance in Germany: Dürer - The Four Horsemen of Apocalpse

  - Knight, Death and the Devil

  34、到达英国晚的原因:The war of Roses and Its weak and unimportant position in world trade.

  35、达到高潮的第一个原因:It was to produce some towering figures (顶级人物) in the English.

  William Shakespeare, Edmund Spenser, Sir Thomas More.

  达到高潮的第二个原因:The Reign of Elizabeth I was a period of political and religious stability (稳定) on the one hand and economic prosperity (繁荣) on the other. ☆

  36、England began to embark (从事) on the road to colonization (殖民扩张) and foreign control that was to take it onto its heyday (鼎盛) of capitalist development.

  37、William Shakespeare

  悲剧 —→ Hamlet (哈姆雷特), Othello (奥赛罗), King Lear (李尔王), Macbeth (麦克白)

  喜剧 —→ As You Like It and Twelfth Night (第十二夜)

  38、悲剧上的特点:① astonishing variety in presentment (表现上的多样性)

  ② dramatic movement (戏剧上的时刻)

  ③ in characterization (人物的个性化)

  乔叟中具有个性化的是女性39、Shakespeare‘s comedies prove Shakespeare to be a great humanist writer.

  40、喜剧表现出的 between humanists and feudal and capitalist reality.

  41、Copernicus (哥白尼): —→ Centric (日心说)

  42、Which was proved by Kepler and Galieo? Centric (日心说)

  43、Dante: The equality (平等) of the divine (神) power and the secular (世俗) power.(Satan)

  44、Machiavelli —→ Father of political science.(Prince诸侯论 Discourses演讲篇)

  45、美国小说之父 —→ 马克吐温

  英国小说之父 —→ 费尔丁

  英国诗歌之父 —→ 乔叟

  论述简答一、Why do we say Renaissance first came to Italy?

  (what propositions先决条件 were there in Italy for renaissance to flourish??

  What priorities优势 were there in Italy for renaissance to flourish?)

  答:

  1、 Because of its geographical position (有利的地理位置), foreign trade developed early in Italy. This brought Italy into contact with other cultures and gave rise to (有推动力) urban (城市的) economy and helped Italy to accumulated wealth (积累财富)。

  2、 Beginning from the 11th century, cities began to rise in central (中) and north (北) Italy. But there existed (存在) rivalry (竞争) among the cities and they were constantly (不变的) at war with each other.

  3、 City-states (城邦) have been established in Italy in beginning from the 11th century.

  4、 For two centuries beginning from the late 15th century, Florence was the golden city which gave girth to a whole generation of poets, scholars, artists and sculptors (雕塑家)。 There was in Florence a revival of interest in classical learning and rising of humanist ideas.

  二、What are the characteristics of Renaissance art?

  (How does Renaissance art differ from the other kinds of arts?)

  答:

  1、Art broke away from the domination of the church.

  2、Themes (主题) of paintings changed (变化) to an appreciation(鉴赏) of all aspects of nature and man.

  3、 The artists studied the ruins (毁灭) of Roman and Greek temples and put many of the principles (原则信念) of ancient civilization into their works. They began to be supported by individual collectors (私人收藏品)。

  4、Artists introduced (采用) in their works scientific theories of anatomy (解剖) and perspective (透视)。

  三、Why did Renaissance decline in Italy in the end?

  答:

  1、 The feuds (不合) of families, the conflicts of classes and the rivalry (竞争) between the city-states kept the economic structure of Italy in the traditional local order.(停滞不前)

  2、In world trade Italy had lost its supremacy (优势) because of the discovery of America in 1492 and the rounding (环绕) of the Cape of Good Hope in 1488, the opening of an all-water route (全线贯通) to India which provided (供应) a cheaper means of transport.

  单成选择题:Which of the following is not the course for Italy to lose its favorable position?

  3、 The Protestant (新教徒) reformation forced (强迫) the Roman Catholic Church to tighten (拉紧) its control over thought, speech and publication.(语言和出版)

  4、 One after another the cradles (摇篮) of Italian Renaissance, Florence, Venice, Naples, Milan were pillaged (掠夺) and devastated (毁坏) in the Italian Wars. Spain, France and England fought for the control of its resources(资源)。

  5、from the above, it can be concluded that Renaissance finally declined in Italy due to the reason of different kinds.

  ① War ② Foreign trade ③ Position ④ Wars with the other country

  五、How did capitalism rise and develop in Europe?

  答:

  1、Protestantism was prepared for capitalist development.

  2、Imagination, creation and free thinking (思维)。

  3、Calvinism. 4、Navigation (航海) and the discoveries of new lands.

  5、Renaissance. 6、Reformation.

  六、What is the great significance of the reformation?

  (What positive influence does the reformation exert on world culture?)

  答:

  1、 The Roman Catholic Church was never the international court (法院) to which all rulers and states were to be morally (道德的) responsible for.

  2、Economically, peasants (农民) all over Europe had no need to pay a good amount (量) of their gains (利益) to the Pope.

  3、In educational and cultural matters, the monopoly (垄断) of the church was broken.

  4、 In religion, Protestantism brought into being different forms of Christianity to challenge (挑战) the absolute rule of the Roman Catholic Church.

  5、In language, the dominant position of Latin had to give way to (为…让步) the national languages as a result of various (不同的) translations of the Bible into the vernacular.

  6、In spirit, absolute obedience (盲从) became out-moded (不复存在) and the spirit of quest (探索), debate (争论), was ushered in by the reformists.(凡事都要问为什么的精神)

  七、Why do we say renaissance came to England very late, but in England renaissance reached its climax?

  答:

  1、The war of Roses and Its weak and unimportant position in world trade.

  2、It was to produce some towering figures (顶级人物) in the English. William Shakespeare, Edmund Spenser, Sir Thomas More.

  3、 The Reign of Elizabeth I was a period of political and religious stability (稳定) on the one hand and economic prosperity (繁荣) on the other. England began to embark (从事) on the road to colonization (殖民扩张) and foreign control that was to take it onto its heyday (鼎盛) of capitalist development.

  八、What are the Geographical Discoveries (航海大发现) in the Renaissance?

  答:

  The Renaissance was the golden age of geographical discoveries: by the year of 1600 the surface of the known earth was doubled (两倍)。

  1、Columbus:

  Columbus discovered the land of America. On his fourth voyage (航行) he explored (探测) the coast (海岸) of Central America(中美洲)。

  2、Dias:

  Dias was a Portuguese navigator (领航员) who discovered the Cape of Good Hope in 1487.

  3、Da Gama:

  Gama was a Portuguese navigator, who discovered the route (路线) to India round the Cape of Good Hope between the years of 1497 and 1498.

  4、Amerig (亚美利哥)

  Amerigo was the Italian navigator on whose honour (给某人) America was named. His discovered and explored the mouth of the Amazon (亚马逊河) and accepted South America as a new continent.(新大陆)

  九、What contribution did the Renaissance make to the world culture?

  答:

  1、 The Renaissance created a culture which freed man to discover and enjoy the world in a way not possible under the medieval Church‘s dispensation.

  2、The Reformation dealt the feudal theocracy a fatal blow. (给…以致命打击)

  第五章1、The first time to look at men‘s place in the Universe started in the 17th century.

  2、In modernism, men‘s position in the universe was looked at in a fresh new way.

  3、 The outlook (世界观) of educated men was transformed. There was a profound (深远的) change in the conception (概念) of men‘s place in the universe.(人在宇宙中的位置)

  4、The 1

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