Ⅰ。 Vocabulary and Structure（10 points，1 point for each）
1. American people are not very happy on April 15， when the federal taxes are ______.
2. Some language learners find _______ difficult to succeed in other fields of science.
3. Animals can live only on _______ plants have already turned from inorganic to vegetable matter.
4. A few years ago， the belief became general ________ orange juice and milk should never be drunk at the same meal.
[B] so that
[C] and that
[D] now that
5. The real difference between plants and animals ________ in what they do， and not in what they seem to be.
[A] is laid
[B] is lain
6. We now know that about ________ all the kinds of seaweed are animals.
[A] one fourth
[B] one fourth of
[C] one four of
[D] the one fourth
7. Scientists could see many things that most people would ________ to see.
8. The children stay in the nuclear family ________ they grow up and marry.
9. Sometimes problems grow out of a ________ observation.
10. Eager buyers bought all _______ 50 of the items in one weekend.
Ⅱ。 Cloze Test（10 points，1 point for each）
How will the present-day science develop in the near future， i.e. the next decade or so？
To 11 with， we can expect 12 science to produce a vast increase in entirely new products of all 13 .These will range from light-weight， high-strength materials for 14 in the many specialized branches of engineering， 15 drugs and chemicals with a greatly-increased selectivity 16 can be used in medicine and agriculture. However， in this 17 case in particular， it may be predicted 18 the wide-spread application and combination of new and more complex products will give 19 to unexpected inter-reactions or side-effects. For this reason， greatly intensified programmes of research will be required in 20 to discover and eliminate the harmful results of such combination.
Ⅲ。 Reading Comprehension（30 points，2 points for each）
Questions 21 to 25 are based on the following passage.
One of the advantages of being self-employed is that the profit the business makes belongs to the owner. If the self-employed person in successful in business， he or she has the chance to earn a great deal of money and even become wealthy. The profit earned by a self-employed person is the reward for his or her effort， ability， and creativity. Thus， a second advantage of being self-employed is that a person‘s intelligence and abilities have a direct effect on his or her earnings. People who have outstanding abilities or intelligence often find they can earn far more through self-employment than they can through working as an employee. A third advantage of being self-employed is that a person can control both the number of hours worked and the hours of work. While not all self-employed people are completely free to choose whatever hours they want to work， most of them have more control over this area than do the people who for salaries or wages.
As with most things in life， being self-employed is not without problems. First， being one‘s own boss places the responsibility for success directly on that individual’s shoulders. Abilities and intelligence will be put to the test. Everyone has some weaknesses and is less capable in some things than in others. These weaknesses will affect how successful a self-employed person is. Second， though the self-employed can earn considerable profits with a successful business， losses can force them out of business and， in some instances， place them in debt. A third disadvantage concerns income security. Self-employed people have no guaranteed wage. Their earnings can vary greatly from year to year， depending on business conditions. Salaried people， on the other hand， can generally count on continued earnings from year to year. In addition， salaried people often enjoy fringe benefits that mean greater peace of mind. Fringe benefits are all of the benefits provided for employees in addition to wages and salaries. One of these benefits may be insurance paid for by the employer that continues the employee‘s salary in the event of sickness or accident. Many self-employed people do not have such protection， unless they put money aside themselves.
21. A self-employed person is one _____________.
[A] who can make a big profit
[B] who is his or her own boss
[C] whose business has a better chance to success
[D] who employs no others but his or her relatives
22. One of the advantages self-employment offers is that self-employed people ________.
[A] may decide when and how long they work
[B] have outstanding abilities and intelligence
[C] may get more business support from the government
[D] are easy to earn money and ready to become wealthy
23. One problem of self-employment is that ___________.
[A] there is no guarantee of income security
[B] it is comparatively week in management
[C] an employer‘s earnings have nothing to do with business conditions
[D] salaries may vary greatly from person to person
24. We may guess from the context that fringe benefits _____________.
[A] are all the money provided for employees
[B] are benefits an employee receives apart from wages and salaries
[C] consist of those that are paid by insurance companies
[D] result from business activities the employer has organized
25. The author‘s attitude towards self-employment is ____________.
Questions 26 to 30 are based on the following passage.
Every living thing has what scientists call a biological clock that controls behavior. It tells plants when to form flowers and insects when to leave protective cocoon（茧）and fly away. And it tells animals and human beings when to awaken， sleep， and seek food. It controls our body temperatures， the release of some hormones（激素）and even dreams.
Events outside the plant and animal affect its actions. Scientists recently found that a tiny animal called Siberian hamster changes the color of its fur because of the number of hours of daylight. In shorter days of winter its fur becomes white. The fur becomes gray-brown in longer hours of daylight in summer.
Inner signals control other biological clocks. German scientists found that some internal one seems to order birds to begin their migration flights two times each year. Birds prevented from flying become restless when it is time for the trip. But they become calm again when the time of the flight has ended.
A mix of outside and internal events controls some biological clocks； such things as heartbeat and the daily change from sleep to walking take place because of both external and internal signals.
Scientists are beginning to learn which parts of the brain contain the biological clocks. A researcher at Harvard University ─ Dr. Martin Moore Ede ─ said a small group of cells near the front of the brain seems to control the timing of some of our actions. Probably there are other cells to control other body activities. He is studying how they affect the way we do our work. Most of us have great difficulty if we must often change to different work hours. It can take many days for a human body to accept a major change in work hours. Industrial officials should have a better understanding of biological clocks and how they affect workers. He said such an understanding could reduce sickness and accidents at work， and would help increase production.
26. Which of the following can not be controlled by biological clocks？
[B] when and what to eat.
[C] Body temperature.
[D] When the flowers should open.
27. The author mentions Siberian hamster to illustrate that _________.
[A] every living thing has a biological clock
[B] Siberian hamster is a highly adaptive species
[C] biological clocks can change an animal‘s skin color
[D] external factors can affect the behavior of an organism
28. From the passage we can infer that __________.
[A] biological clocks are responsible for all the human behaviors
[B] biological clocks are too mysterious to be explained
[C] heartbeat and some daily activities affect biological clocks
[D] studies on biological clocks can throw some light on human actions
29. Why should industrial officials have a better understanding of biological clocks？
[A] Because some cells in the brain are very important.
[B] Because it is very hard to change working time.
[C] Because it may lead to improvement of work efficiency.
[D] Because it takes a long time for a person to get used to the shift of work hours.
30. The best title for the passage could be _________.
[A] A Brief Account of Biological Clocks
[B] Biological Clocks and Work Efficiency
[C] How Biological Clocks Work
[D] The location of Biological Clocks
Questions 31 to 35 are based on the following passage.
“There is no arguing about taste”─ runs the Latin proverb. But taste did not just happen. Cultural， historical， biological and environmental events have interacted to cause frogs， for example， to be viewed as delicious in southern China but to be regarded with revulsion（厌恶）in northern China. Even though much remains unknown， tastes cannot be dismissed as inarguable or illogical； an attempt will be made here to discover why， as Lucretius put it，“What is food to one man may be fierce poison to others？”
Among the approximately thirty million tribal people of India， a total of 250 animal species are avoided by one group or another. Most of these people will not eat meat from a tiger or any of various snakes. Although they say they feel a relationship with these animals， it is obvious that both are highly dangerous and that hunting them systematically would be foolish.
Monkeys are avoided， probably because they look like human beings in appearance； in these tribes， man-eating is viewed as extremely cruel. A reluctance to eat some female animals has been attributed to respect for the mother‘s role， but it could also be due to a policy of allowing the females to reproduce and provide more young for people. Many tribes avoid eating any animal that has died of unknown causes an intelligent attitude in view of the possibility that the animal might have died from a disease that could spread to humans. Animals that consume garbage are similarly avoided， an adaptive step that prevents contact with parasites（寄生虫）， and that might explain why members of one tribe eat any of twenty-one different species of rats， but not the house that.
31.“There is no arguing about taste”， which means ___________.
[A] people don‘t like to talk about food
[B] one‘s taste in food is hard to explain
[C] there is no quarrelling about to eat
[D] no arguments about taste have been heard of before
32. It can be concluded from the first paragraph that ____________.
[A] the author is against eating frogs
[B] taste is illogical and inarguable
[C] some types of frogs are poisonous
[D] taste is influenced by many factors
33. The tribal people in India don‘t eat snakes because _____________.
[A] they are very dangerous
[B] they are respected by Indians
[C] they may spread disease
[D] they help kill rats
34. The tribal people in India may not eat the following animals EXCEPT _________.
[C] female deer
[D] house rats
35. The passage is probably written for the purpose of ________.
[A] introducing the eating habit of Indian tribal people
[B] distinguishing different types of taste
[C] accounting for people‘s different choices of taste
[D] explaining the relationship between taste and tribes
Ⅳ。 Word Spelling（10 points，1 point for two words）
36. 卖方 n. s _ _ _ _ _
37. 抽象的 a. a _ _ _ _ _ _ _
38. 正式的 a. f _ _ _ _ _
39. 递送 v. d _ _ _ _ _ _
40. 最高的 a. s _ _ _ _ _ _
41. 证据 n. e _ _ _ _ _ _ _
42. 完美的 a. p _ _ _ _ _ _
43. 频繁地 ad. f _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _
44. 成年人 n. a _ _ _ _
45. 假装 v. p _ _ _ _ _ _
46. 农业的 a. a _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _
47. 遥远的 a. r _ _ _ _ _
48. 稀有的 a. r _ _ _
49. 火山 n. v _ _ _ _ _ _
50. 存在 v. e _ _ _ _
51. 能量 n. e _ _ _ _ _
52. 平均 n. a _ _ _ _ _ _
53. 限制 v. r _ _ _ _ _ _ _
54. 熟悉的 a. f _ _ _ _ _ _ _
55. 抱怨 v. c _ _ _ _ _ _ _
Ⅴ。 Word Form（10 points，1 point for each）
56. Today many people are paying more attention to _________（reduce） stress in their lives.
57. For a person with good reading habits， a __________（print） page contains not only words but ideas， thoughts and feelings.
58. The right answers can be obtained only if the right questions _________（ask）。
59. The first _________（know） area was in India， where diamonds were found thousands of years ago.
60. A modern husband shares important decisions with his __________（work） wife.
61. He was the first to draw a map that __________（base） on all available knowledge， rather than guess or imagination.
62. Proverbs are quite common in both written and ________（speak） English.
63. I suggested that the meeting __________（hold） at some other time.
64. I didn‘t go to the party， but I do wish I ________（be） there.
65. It is generally agreed that a panic attack does not directly _________（danger） a person‘s life.
Ⅵ。 C-E Translation（15 points，3 points for each）
Ⅶ。 E-C Translation（15 points）
Visitors can find almost any kind of restaurant in most of the large cities in America. The telephone book lists restaurants for each city according to name， area of the city， or kind of food. Restaurants in large cities vary greatly in price. Many restaurants post their menus in the window so you can have some idea of the price and kind of food before you enter. If the menu is not posted， and you are uncertain about how expensive the place is， ask to see a menu before you are seated at a table， or else just ask about the price range. Appearances from the outside can be misleading ─ what looks like a small， informal restaurant may really be very expensive， and what looks like a large， expensive restaurant may be very reasonable.
You can get a meal for about $5 or slightly more if you eat in bars or coffee shops， but in most city restaurants you should expect to pay $20 to $30 a person for dinner， with drinks extra.
Ⅰ。 Vocabulary and structure
Ⅱ。 Cloze Test
Ⅲ。 Reading Comprehension
Ⅳ。 Word Spelling
Ⅴ。 Word Form
58. are asked
61. was based
63. （should） be held
64. had been
Ⅵ。 C-E Translation
66. She has a friend who used to take/use drugs. （Her friend used to take/use drugs.）
67. It is these children that （who） need psychological treatment.
68. Studies show that men are more likely to suffer from heart attacks than women.
69. Can you depend entirely on the agent when you buy insurance？
70. I don‘t think she will buy such things as the used clothing and empty bottles.
Ⅶ。 E-C Translation
游 客在美国的多数大城市，几乎可以找到各种类型的餐馆。电话簿以名称、所在城区位置或食物种类，列出每个城市的餐馆名称。大城市的餐馆价格差别很大。许多餐 馆在橱窗里张贴菜单，让你进去之前就能对食物的价格和种类有所了解。假如没有贴出菜单，而你又不知道那地方的饭菜贵到什么程度，那么进去之后，可以先要菜 单来看，再就坐，要不然就直接问价格高低。光看餐馆的外表，可能产生误导──外表普通的小餐馆，也许实际上极贵；外表看来昂贵的大餐馆，价钱可能很公道。