1.The famous quotation from Shakespeare‘s play “Romeo and Juliet” ’A rose by any other name would smell as sweet‘ well illustrates _______.（ ）
A.the conventional nature of language
B.the creative nature of language
C.the universality of language
D.the big difference between human language and animal communication
2.Of the following sound combinations， only _______ is permissible according to the sequential rules in English.（ ）
A.kibl B.bkil C.ilkb D.ilbk
3.The sentence that has a NP and a VP can be shown in a _______ formula “S→NP VP”。（ ）
A.hierarchical B.linear C.tree diagram D.vertical
4.It is the _______ on Case assignment that states that a Case assignor and a Case recipient should stay adjacent to each other.（ ）
A.Case Condition B.parameter
C.Adjacent Condition D.Adjacent Parameter
5.Predication analysis is a way to analyze _______ meaning.
A.phoneme B.word C.phrase D.sentence
6.According to Searle，those illocutionary acts whose point is to commit the speaker to some future course of action are called _______.（ ）
A.commisives B.directives C.expressives D.declaratives
7.The term _______ linguistics may be defined as a way of referring to the approach which studies language change over various periods of time and at various historical stages.
A.synchronic B.diachronic C.comparative D.historical comparative
8.The way in which people address each other depends on their age， sex， social group， and personal relationship. The English system of address forms frequently used includes first name， last name， title+last name， _______，and kin term.
A.title+first name B.title+title
C.title alone D.first name+last name+title
9.Language and thought may be viewed as two independent circles overlapping in some parts. When language and thought are identical or closely parallel to each other， we may regard thought as “subvocal speech，” and speech as “_______”。（ ）
A.vocal thought B.subvocal thought
C.covert thought D.overt thought
10.Whcih of the following best states the behaviorist view of child language acquisition _______.（ ）
A.Language acquisition is a process of habit formation
B.Language acquisition is the species-specific property of human beings
C.Children are born with an innate ability to acquire language
D.Humans are equipped with the neural prerequisites for language and language use
11.In the course of time， the study of language has come to establish close links with other branches of s________ studies， such as sociology and psychology.
12.Clear ［1］ and dark［ ］are allophones of the same one phoneme /1/.They never take the same position in sound combinations， thus they are said to be in c________ distribution.
13.A r________ is often seen as part of a word， but it can never stand by itself although it bears clear， definite meaning.
14.A c________ sentence contains two or more clauses， one of which is incorporated in the other.
15.That the denial of one member of two words implies the assertion of the other is the characteristic of c________ antonyms.
16.While the meaning of a sentence is abstract and decontextualized， that of an u________ is concrete and context-dependent.
17.Phonological rules may move phonemes from one place in the string to another. For example， Modern English verb ask was Old English askian， with the /k/preceding the/s/.Sound change as a result of sound movement is known as m________.
18.In many societies of the world， we find a large number of people who speak more than one language. As a characteristic of societies， b________ inevitably results from the coming into contact of people with different cultures and different languages.
19.The brain‘s neurological specialization for language is called linguistic I ________， which is specific to human beings.
20.In order to acquire a second language， learners will subconsciously use their first language knowledge in learning a second language. This is know as language t________.
（ ）21.In the history of any language the writing system always came into being before the spoken form.
（ ）22.In English， long vowels are also tense vowels because when we pronounce a long vowel such as/i：/，the larynx is in a state of tension.
（ ）23.A compound is the combination of only two words.
（ ）24.“The student” in the sentence “The student liked the linguistic lecture.”，and “The linguistic lecture” in the sentence “The linguistic lecture liked the student.”belong to the same syntactic category.
（ ）25.Linguistic forms having the same sense may have different references in different situations while linguistic forms with the same reference always have the same sense.
（ ）26.An important difference between presupposition and entailment is that presupposition， unlike entailment， is not vulnerable to negation. That is to say， if a sentence is negated， the original presupposition is still true.
（ ）27.The division of English into Old English， Middle English， and Modern English is nonconventional and not arbitrary.
（ ）28.Language reflects sexism in society. Language itself is not sexist， just as it is not obscene； but it can connote sexist attitudes as well as attitudes about social taboos or racism.
（ ）29.If a child is deprived of linguistic environment， he or she is unlikely to learn a language successfully later on.
（ ）30.When children learn to distinguish between the sounds of their language and the sounds that are not part of the language， they can acquire any sounds in their native language once their parents teach them.
31.cultural transmission （as a defining feature of human language）
32.phonic medium of language
41.Why do we say tree diagrams are more advantageous and informative than linear structure in analyzing the constituent relationship among linguistic elements Support your statement with examples.
42.Describe the process of language perception， comprehension and production.
1.A 2.A 3.B 4.C 5.D
6.A 7.B 8.C 9.D 10.A
The contrary is true. The writing system is always a later invention.
Some compounds contain more than two words.
It is false because linguistic forms with the same reference might differ in sense. A case in point is the two expressions “morning star” and “ evening star.” They refer to the same star but differ in sense.
The division of English into Old English， Middle English， and Modern English is conventional and somewhat arbitrary.
Children first acquire the sounds found in all languages of the world， no matter what language they are exposed to ，and in later stages acquire the “ more difficult” sounds.
31.One of the major defining features of human language.Humans are born with the ability to acquire a language， but different from animals， the actual use of human language is not genetically transmitted， rather it is culturally transmitted， i.e.it has to be taught and learnt.
32.The limited range of sounds that are used in human language communication， i.e.the speech sounds.
33.Voicing is a phonetic feature of some sounds.It is caused by the vibration of the vocal cords.
34.Inflectional morphemes are morphemes that are used to indicate the grammatrcal relations and categories，such as-ed，-（e）s，-est in English.
35.Reference is what a linguistic form refers to in the real world； it is a matter of the relationship between the form and the reality.For example ，if we say， “The dog is barking，” we must be talking about a certain dog known to both the speaker and the hearer in the situation.The actual dog the word “dog” refers to in this particular situation is the reference of the word “dog”。
36.Locutionary act refers to the act of uttering words， phrases， and clauses.It is the act of conveying literal meaning by means of syntax， lexicon and phonology. For example， by saying “You have left the door wide open”，the locutionary act performed by the speaker is that he has uttered all the words and expressed what the words literally mean.
37.A protolanguage is the original form of a language family that has ceased to exist.The proto form can be reconstructed by identifying and comparing similar linguistic forms with similar meanings across related languages.
38.An ethnic dialect is a social dialect of a language，often cutting across regional differences. It is spoken mainly by a less privileged population that has experienced some form of social isolation， such as racial discrimination or segregation.
39.Registers are language varieties appropriate for use in particular speech situations，in contrast to language varieties that are associated with the social or regional grouping of their customary users. For this reason， registers are also known as situational dialects.
40.Acculturation refers to a process of adapting to the culture and value system of the second language community.
41.In addition to revealing a linear order， a constituent structure tree has a hierarchical structure that groups words into structural constituents and shows the syntactic category of each structural constituent， and consequently is believed to most truthfully illustrate the constituent relationship among linguistic elements.
For example， the phrase “ the old men and women” may have two interpretations， i.e.the adjective “old”may modify the noun “men”， or the following two nouns “men and women”。Linear order analysis cannot tell this difference， so it is ambiguous.Whereas，the constituent or tree diagrams analysis can make this difference clear.So，we say tree diagrams are more advantageous and informative than linear structure analysis.
NP NP NP NP
The old men and the women the old men and the old women
42.From the perspective of psycholinguistic analysis，language use in terms of perception，comprehension and production follows a certain pattern which involves the coordination of various language centers.
When we speak，words are drawn from Wernicke‘s area and transferred to Broca’s area， which determines the details of their form and pronunciation.The appropriate instructions are then sent to the motor area which controls the vocal tract to physically articulate the words.
When we hear something and try to comprehend it，t he stimulus from the auditory cortex is transmitted to Wernicke‘s area，where it is then interpreted.
When we perceive a visual image，a message is sent to the angular gyrus，where it is converted into a visual pattern.