SECTIONI VOCABULARY （30 points）
Ⅰ。 Directions： Match the words in Column with their definitions in Column B. Blacken the letter of the answer to each word in Column A on your ANSWER SHEET.（10 points，1 point for each）
1. inexhaustible A. that can be felt by touch
2. evaporate B. that cannot be used up
3. extrapolate C. anger
4. boom D. showing a limitless eagerness for something
5. rage E. guess from known facts
6. tangible F. change into steam and disappear
7. lament G. every two years
8. voracious H. rapid growth or increase
9. biannual I. express sorrow for
10. docile J. easily managed or controlled
Ⅱ。 Directions： Read each of the following sentences carefully， and choose A， B， C or D that has the closest meaning to the underlined word or phrase. Blacken the corresponding letter of the answer on your ANSWER SHEET. （10 points，1 point for each）
11. Why is there currently so much interest in microcomputers？
12. The machine is activated by a small set of words with every accurately defined meanings.
[A] pushed forward
[B] set to work
13. Some of the students in this class seem reluctant to help those who have difficulties in their studies.
14. Hunters have almost exterminated many of the larger animals like the bighorn sheep and the grizzly bear.
[A] increased gradually
[B] developed fully
[C] decreased slowly
[D] destroyed completely
15. During the subsequent lull in hunting， the seal population made a good， although temporary， recovery.
16. Forecasters have to take into account a broad diversity of themes.
17. A man is in his best shape in the decade before age 25.
[B] most honest
[C] most handsome
18. It should be borne in mind that we are destroying part of the Creation.
[B] given a strong desire
19. More people report that they“fell”on the verge of a nervous breakdown.
[A] on top of
[B] instead of
[C] very close to
[D] on behalf of
20. Pesticides have also taken a toll of animals and birds.
[A] played an important part in increasing the number of animals and birds
[B] nurtured animals and birds
[C] caused deaths and injuries to animals and birds
[D] threatened the existence of animals and birds
Ⅲ。 Directions： Scan Passage 1 and find the words which have roughly the meanings given below. Write the words in the corresponding space on your ANSWER SHEET.（10 points，1 point for each）
Note： The numbers in the brackets refer to the numbers of paragraphs in the passage.
21. points out the differences of （1）
22. a business or company （1）
23. decide （2）
24. recognize （2）
25. tell people publicly about a product or service in order to persuade them to buy it （3）
26. keep someone or something safe （4）
27. permission to do something （5）
28. make someone believe something that is not true in order to get what you want （5）
29. an official written statement giving you the right to do something （6）
30. promises that something will certainly happen or be done （6）
1. A trademark identifies and distinguishes the products of one business firm from those of another. It may include a word， a sentence， a symbol， a picture， or any combination of these. Trademarks must be attached directly to the product. Many trademarks contain the name of the business. But manufacturers often use some words to describe the qualities of the owner of the product， or make up a word. The spoken part of a trademark is called the brand name.
2. Trademarks provide a simple way for people to determine who is responsible for a particular item. They also help people identify the qualities of the product.
3. Service marks also identify goods and services. They do not have to be attached to a product. Companies that provide services to the public， such as transportation companies， use these marks to advertise their services. For example， a blue sign with a bell， the symbol of the American Telephone and Telegraph Company， tells every passerby that a public telephone is available for use.
4. Laws to protect the rights of the trademark owner were developed in the early 1800‘s. Most countries now provide for regulation and registration of trademarks. An important protection for trademark rights is federal registration. In 1905， the US Congress passed the first federal law on trademark registration to be held constitutional.
5. A person wishing to register a trademark submits his application to the United States Government Patent Office. The Patent Office may refuse to register a trademark if it contains （1） immoral， misleading， or scandalous material； （2） the flag， or any other official insignia of the United States， a state， a municipality， or another country； （3） the name， picture， or signature of any living person without his or her written consent； （4） a mark or name that is now in use in the United States， if it might confuse or deceive purchasers.
6. If the Government accepts the trademark， it issues a permit. This permit guarantees a person‘s right to use the trademark for twenty years. It may be renewed every 20 years. If a trademark owner stops using the mark for a period of two years， he loses the right to exclusive use of that mark.
SECTION 2 READING COMPREHENSION （40 points）
Ⅳ。 Directions： Skim Passage 2 and read the statements given right after the passage and judge whether they are True or False. Blacken the corresponding answers on your ANSWER SHEET.（10 points，1 point for each）
1. What happens when we look at something？ ？Beams of light of different degrees of intensity， reflected from all parts of the object， strike the lens （晶状体） of the eye. The lens then gathers together the spots of light from these beams and focuses them onto a light-sensitive plate ？the retina （视网膜） ？at the back of a pattern of lights.
2. The retina contains millions of minute light-sensitive elements， each of which is separately connected to the brain by a tiny fibre in the optic nerve. These nerve fibres， working independently， pick out minute details from the image on the retina and turn the small spots of light into nerve impulses （脉冲） of different strengths. They then transmit these impulses to the brain. They do this all the same time.
3. All the details of the image are fed to the brain， and， as we have taught our brain to add them together correctly， we see a clear picture of the object as a whole.
4. Television， which means vision at a distance， operates on a similar principle. A television picture is built up in thousands of separate parts.
5. Beams of light reflected from the subject being televised strike the lens of the television camera， which corresponds to the lens of the eye. The camera lens gathers together the spots of light from these beams and focuses an image of the subject onto a plate， the surface of which is coated with millions of photo-electric elements sensitive to light.
6. The spots of light forming the image on the plate cannot be transmitted as light. So they are temporarily converted by an electronic device into millions of electrical impulses； that is， into charges of electricity.
7. These electrical impulses are then sent through space on a wireless wave to the homes of the viewers. They are picked up by the aerials and conveyed to the receivers ？to the television sets. There， they are finally converted back into the spots of light that make up the picture on the television screen.
31. All the rays of light reflected from objects are of varying intensity.
32. The retina at the back of the eyeball is a light-sensitive plate.
33. An image of the object is focused on the brain in the form of a pattern of lights.
34. The nerve fibres connecting the light-sensitive elements to the brain work independently.
35. The nerve fibres transmit the small spots of light directly to the brain.
36. The lens of the television camera is just like the lens of the eye when beams of light are reflected from the subject being televised.
37. A camera lens focuses an image onto the surface of a plate which is covered with millions of light-sensitive elements.
38. TV station sends pictures to television sets through the spots of light.
39. The spots of light forming the image on the plate in a television camera are converted into pictures.
40. A television set is a transmitter.
Ⅴ。 Directions： Read Passages 3 and 4 and choose the correct answer. Blacken the corresponding letter of the answer on your ANSWER SHEET.（20 points，1 point for each）
1. Of all the foods we know， fruit is one of the most healthful. It is also one of the most tasty foods. Almost everyone enjoys fruit. Fruit is grown in almost every part of the world. There are hundreds of different kinds of fruits. And there are thousands of different varieties. In the United States alone， there are several hundred types of apples.
2. In general though， there are three separate groups. There are tropical fruits. These are most important. In this group， we have bananas and pineapples. They are shipped from tropical countries and are eaten all over the world.
3. Next come the subtropical fruits. The most important of these are the citrus fruits. Oranges， tangerines， limes， and grapefruit are favorites. Other fruits in this class are figs， dates， and olives.
4. The last group comes from the temperate zone. In this group are pears， apples， grapes， and plums. Many kinds of berries fit this group， too.
5. Fruits are very important to the human diet. Besides being tasty， they provide important acids， salts， and vitamins. Also， they are easy to digest. Nutrition experts say that the more fruit people eat， the healthier they become.
6. Down through the centuries fruit has played a part in tales and history. In a Greek myth， Hercules sent Atlas to pick“golden apples”to pay for a crime. Today we believe these golden apples were oranges. During the 1700‘s， British ships began to carry limes. It was found that sailors who drank the lime juice did not get sick. Since that time， British sailors have been called“limeys.”
7. The peach also has an exciting history. It has been a world traveler. Its journey began many， many centuries ago. Peaches were first grown in China. From China， traders of long ago carried peach trees to Persia. From there， Alexander the Great brought the fruit to Europe. From Europe， Spanish ships carried peaches to the New World.
8. Through the years， fruit trees and plants have been improved. Today‘s fruits are bigger. They also taste better. Different kinds of fruits are often being bred. We now have fruit that can travel to all parts of the world and still stay fresh. Even after traveling for some time， these new fruits keep the vitamins and minerals that are so good for our diet. Fruit will always be prized as a basic food that now can be enjoyed the whole year round.
41. Of all the foods we know， fruit is one of the most ______________.
[D] B and C
42. According to paragraphs 1 and 2， which of the following is NOT true？
[A] Most people enjoy eating fruit.
[B] Fruit can be grown almost all over the world.
[C] There are tens of thousands of different kinds of fruits.
[D] There are three groups of fruits.
43. Pineapples are grown in _____________ climate.
[A] cold and dry
[B] hot and humid
[C] snowy and wet
[D] mid and dry
44. Among the following， _____________ belong to citrus fruits.
45. Strawberries probably belong to __________.
[A] tropical fruits
[B] subtropical fruits
[C] temperate fruits
[D] none of the above
46. Fruits are popular because they are easy to __________.
47. British sailors have been called“limeys”because at one time they ___________.
[A] drank lime juice
[B] lived only on limes
[C] refused to ship limes
[D] liked limes better than any other fruits
48. This passage does not mention the story about ___________.
49. According to this passage， today‘s fruits ______________，
[A] like a lot of rain
[B] need a lot of fertilizer
[C] remain the same in size and taste
[D] can stay fresh for a long time
50. In Paragraph 8， the word“prized”is closest in meaning to __________.
[C] valued highly
1. In science， a theory is a reasonable explanation of observed events that are related. A theory often involves an imaginary model that helps scientists envision the way an observed event could be produced. A good example of this is found in the kinetic molecular theory， in which gases are pictured as being made up of many small particles that are in constant motion.
2. A useful theory， in addition to explaining past observations， helps to predict events that have not as yet been observed. After a theory has been publicized， scientists design experiments to test the theory. If observations confirm the scientists‘ predictions， theory is supported. If observations do not confirm the predictions， the scientists must search further. There may be a fault in the experiment， or the theory may have to be revised or rejected.
3. Science involves imagination and creative thinking as well as collecting information and performing experiments. Facts by themselves are not science. As the mathematician Jules Henry Poincare said：“Science is built with facts just as a house is built with bricks， but a collection of facts cannot be called science any more than a pile of bricks can be called a house.”
4. Most scientists start an investigation by finding out what other scientists have learned about a particular problem. After known facts have been gathered， the scientist comes to the part of the investigation that requires considerable imagination. Possible solutions to the problem are formulated. These possible solutions are called hypotheses.
5. In a way， any hypothesis is a leap into the unknown. It extends the scientist‘s thinking beyond the known facts. The scientist plans experiments， performs calculations， and makes observations to test hypotheses. For without hypotheses， further investigation lacks purpose and direction. When hypotheses are confirmed， they are incorporated into theories.
51. The word“related”in Paragraph 1 is closest in meaning to __________.
52. The word“this”in Paragraph 1 refers to _____________.
[A] a good example
[B] an imaginary model
[C] the kinetic molecular theory
[D] an observed event
53. What is NOT true about a theory？
[A] A useful theory can explain past observations.
[B] A useful theory helps to make predictions.
[C] A theory is the truth that does not need to be tested.
[D] A theory may have to be revised or rejected sometimes.
54. The word“supported”in Paragraph 2 is closest in meaning to _________.
55. Science involves ___________.
[A] imagination and creative thinking
[B] collecting information
[C] performing experiments
[D] all of the above
56. The key point of the quotation from Jules Henry Pincare is that __________，
[A] facts are the most important things
[B] building a house is like performing experiments
[C] science is more than a collection of facts
[D] a pile of bricks can not be called a house
57. In Paragraph 4， the author implies that imagination is most important to scientists when they ___________.
[A] evaluate previous work on a problem
[B] formulate possible solutions to a problem
[C] gather known facts
[D] close an investigation
58. Hypotheses are _____________.
[A] known facts
[D] possible solutions
59. In Paragraph 5， the author refers to a hypothesis as“a leap into the unknown” in order to show that hypotheses _________.
[A] go beyond available facts
[B] are sometimes ill-conceived
[C] can lead to dangerous results
[D] require efforts to formulate
60. In Paragraph 5， by saying“when hypotheses are confirmed， they are incorporated into theories”， the author means that _____________.
[A] when hypotheses are tested， they become a part of known theories
[B] when hypotheses are proved to be correct， they become theories
[C] when observations are tested， hypotheses are connected with theories
[D] when experiments are proved to be correct， hypotheses are united with theories
Ⅵ。 Directions： Passage 5 is taken from the TEXTBOOK. Read the passage carefully and choose the best answer. Blacken the corresponding letter of the answer on your ANSWER SHEET.（10 points，1 point for each）
1. Every year 100 million holiday-makers are drawn to the Mediterranean. With one-third of the world‘s tourist trade， it is the most popular of all the holiday destinations： it is also the most polluted.
2. It has only 1 per cent of the world‘s sea surface， but carries more than half the oil and tar floating on the waters. Thousands of factories pour their poison into the Mediterranean， and almost every city， town and village on the coast sluices its sewage， untreated， into the sea.
3. The result is that the Mediterranean， which nurtured so many civilisations， is gravely ill ？the first of the seas to fall victim to the abilities and attitudes that evolved around it. And the pollution does not merely stifle the life of the sea ？it threatens the people who inhabit and visit its shores.
4. Typhoid， paratyphoid， dysentery， polio， viral hepatitis and food poisoning are endemic in the area， and there are periodic outbreaks of cholera.
5. The mournful litany of disease is caused by sewage. Eighty-five percent of the waste from the Mediterranean‘s 120 coastal cities is pushed out into the waters where their people and visitors bathe and fish. What is more， most cities just drop it in straight off the beach； rare indeed are the places like Cannes and Tel Aviv which pipe it even half a mile offshore.
6. Less than 100，000 of Greece‘s four million coastal people have their sewage properly treated ？and Greece， as our map shows， is one of the cleaner countries of the northern shore.
7. The worst parts of the sea are the Israeli/Lebanon coast and between Barcelona and Genoa， which flushes out over 200 tons of sewage each year for every mile of its length.
8. Not surprisingly， vast areas of the shallows are awash with bacteria and it doesn‘t take long for these to reach people. Professor William Brumfitt of the Royal Free Hospital once calculated that anyone who goes for a swim in the Mediterranean has a one in seven chance of getting some sort of disease. Other scientists say this is an overestimate， but almost all of them agree that bathers are at risk.
9. An even greater danger lurks in the seductive seafood dishes that add so much interest to holiday menus. Shellfish are prime carriers of many of the most vicious diseases of the area.
10. They often grow amid pollution. And even if they don‘t they are frequently infected by the popular practice of ’freshening them up‘？throwing filthy water over them in markets.
11. Industry adds its own poisons. Factories cluster round the coastline， and even the most modern rarely has proper waste-treatment plant. They do as much damage to the sea as sewage.
12. Fifteen thousand factories foul the Italian Ligurian Riviera. Sixty thousand pollute the Tyrrhenian Sea between Sardinia， Sicily and the west Italian coast！ The lagoon of Venice alone receives the effluents of 76 factories.
13. More filth comes washing down the rivers from industries far inland. The Po and the Rhone are the dirtiest， followed by the Ebro and the Llobregat in Spain， by the Adige and the Tiber in Italy， and by the Nile.
14. Thousands of tons of pesticides are blown off the fields into the sea， detergents from millions of sinks kill fish， and fertilizers， flushed out to the sea， nourish explosions of plankton which cover bathers with itchy slime.
15. Then there is the oil ？350，000 tons pouring each year from ships， 115，000 tons more from industries round the shore. Recent studies show that the Mediterranean is four times as polluted by oil as the north Atlantic， 40 times as bad as the north-east Pacific.
16. Apart from the nine-mile-wide Strait of Gibraltar， the Mediterranean is landlocked， virtually unable to cleanse itself. It takes 80 years for the water to be renewed， through the narrow， shallow straits， far too slow a process to cope with the remorseless rush of pollution.
17. Weak coastal currents keep sewage and industrial waste close to the shore and gently spin floating oil and tar towards the beaches. And the sea‘s feeble tides can do little to help remove it.
18. Of course， the people of the Mediterranean have always used the sea for their wastes. The canals of Venice， the waters of the Bosphorous and the sea off the Nile Delta have been health hazards for centuries.
19. But the population has increased round the shores to 100 million and a further 100 million tourists come annually. The population of the French and Italian Rivieras trebles every summer.
20. Three tourists visit the northern shore every year for every yard of beach. With the numbers of holiday-makers expected to double in 20 years， it is hard for even the best treatment plants to cope.
21. The good news is that the countries of the Mediterranean have been coming together to work out how to save their common sea.
22. But it will be a long time before the measures they approved take effect in cleaning up the sea.
61. The poison factories pour into the Mediterranean brings about the following results except that ____________.
[A] diseases are spread in the area
[B] pollution stifles the life of the sea
[C] the sea still nurtures civilisations
[D] pollution threatens the people who inhabit and visit the place
62. In terms of diseases caused by the pollution of the Mediterranean， which of the following is NOT mentioned？
[A] Typhoid and polio.
[B] Paratyphoid and dysentery.
[C] Measles and tuberculosis.
[D] Food poisoning and viral hepatitis.
63. The main idea of Paragraph 5 is that _____________.
[A] many diseases in this area are brought about by improperly treated sewage
[B] people and visitors still bathe and fish in the sea though the water is polluted
[C] most cities drop their sewage beside the sea
[D] places like Cannes and Tel Aviv don‘t pipe their sewage into the sea
64. According to Paragraphs 5， 6 and 7， which of the following is true？
[A] If a man swims and bathes in the waters near the Israeli/Lebanon coast， he is likely to get some sort of disease.
[B] If a man swims and bathes in the waters near Greece， he is more likely to get one sort of disease.
[C] If a man swims and bathes in the waters near Cannes， he is least likely to get diseases.
[D] If a man swims and bathes in the Mediterranean， he is unlikely to get diseases.
65. What are the prime carriers of the most vicious diseases of the Mediterranean？
[A] People who swim and bathe in the waters.
[B] People who inhabit and visit the shores.
[C] Shellfish that live in the waters.
[D] Plankton that live in the waters.
66. Which of the following does not pollute the Mediterranean？
[D] Soft water.
67. It is implied in Paragraph 15 that _________.
[A] the north-east Pacific is polluted to a greater extent than the north Atlantic by oil
[B] the north Atlantic is polluted to a greater extent than the north-east Pacific by oil
[C] 350，000 tons of oil is poured into the sea every year
[D] 115，000 tons of oil is poured into the sea from industries round the shore
68. It is almost impossible for the Mediterranean to cleanse itself because ________.
[A] it is almost landlocked
[B] its area is landlocked so that it takes 80 years for the water to be renewed
[C] the pollution is mainly round the shore
[D] it seldom rains in this area
69. The tone of the article is _________.
70. The main idea of the article is that __________.
[A] the pollution around the Mediterranean is very serious
[B] the problem of the pollution around the Mediterranean is so serious that people should pay more attention to it and take measures to solve it
[C] although the Mediterranean is seriously polluted， it is still the most popular holiday destination
[D] the pollution around the Mediterranean is mainly due to sewage
SECTION 3 QUESTIONS AND TRANSLATION （30 points）
Ⅶ。 Directions： The following questions are closely related to Passage 5. Write a brief answer （one to three complete sentences） to each of the questions on your ANSWER SHEET. Pay attention to spelling， grammar and sentence structure in your answers. （15 points，3 points for each）
71. Why does the Mediterranean threaten people‘s life？
72. If 7000 people swim in the Mediterranean， how many of them are likely to get diseases according to Professor Brumfitt‘s estimate？ What do other scientists think of his estimate？
73. What are the two ways in which shellfish are polluted？
74. Why do factories do as much damage to the sea as the cities， towns， and villages？
75. Name all the sources of pollution mentioned in the article.
Ⅷ。 Directions： Translate the following sentences （taken from Passage 5） into Chinese and write the Chinese version in the corresponding space on your ANSWER SHEET. （15 points，3 points for each）
76. The result is that the Mediterranean， which nurtured so many civilisations， is gravely ill ？the first of the seas to fall victim to the abilities and attitudes that evolved round it.
77. What is more， most cities just drop it in straight off the beach； rare indeed are the places like Cannes and Tel Aviv which pipe it even half a mile offshore.
78. Not surprisingly， vast areas of the shallows are awash with bacteria and it doesn‘t take long for these to reach people.
79. Thousands of tons of pesticides are blown off the fields into the sea， detergents from millions of sinks kill fish， and fertilizers， flushed out to the sea， nourish explosions of plankton which cover bathers with itchy slime.
80. It takes 80 years for the water to be renewed， through the narrow， shallow straits， far too slow a process to cope with the remorseless rush of pollution.
Ⅰ。 Directions： Match the words in Column A with their definitions in Column B. Blacken the letter of the answer to each word in Column A on your ANSWER SHEET.
Ⅱ。Directions： Read each of the following sentences carefully， and choose A， B， C or D that has the closest meaning to the underlined word or phrase. Blacken the corresponding letter of the answer on your ANSWER SHEET.
Ⅲ。 Directions： Scan Passage 1 and find the words which have roughly the meanings given below. Write the word you choose in the corresponding space on your ANSWER SHEET.
Ⅳ。 Directions： Skim Passage 2 and read the statements given right after the passage and judge whether they are True or False. Blacken the corresponding answer you choose on your ANSWER SHEET.
Ⅴ。 Directions： Read Passages 3 and 4 and choose the correct answer. Blacken the corresponding letter of the answer on your ANSWER SHEET.
Ⅵ。 Directions： Passage 5 is taken from the TEXTBOOK. Read the passage carefully and choose the best answer. Blacken the corresponding letter of the answer on your ANSWER SHEET.
Ⅶ。 Directions： The following questions are closely related to Passage 5. Write a brief answer （one to three complete sentences） to each of the questions on your ANSWER SHEET. Pay attention to spelling， grammar and sentence structure in your answers.
71. Because the Mediterranean is seriously polluted and the pollution causes many diseases： typhoid， paratyphoid， dysentery， polio， viral hepatitis， food poisoning and cholera which threaten people‘s life.
72. About 1000 people will get diseases according to his estimate. Other scientists， however， think that this is an overestimate.
73. They often grow amid pollution and are frequently infected by the popular practice of freshening them up by throwing filthy water over them in markets.
74. Because factories add their poisons. They cluster round the coastline， and even the modern ones rarely have proper waste-treatment plants.
75. The sources of pollution include sewage from the coastal cities， industrial poisons， pesticides and fertilizers off the fields， detergents from sinks， and oil and tar from ships and industries.
Ⅷ。 Directions： Translate the following sentences （taken from Passage 5） into Chinese and write the Chinese version in the corresponding space on your ANSWERSHEET.