Ⅰ。 Each of the statements below is followed by four alternative answers. Choose the one that would best complete the statement. （30%）
1.As far as the origins of the words are concerned， English words can be classified into （ ）。
A.content words and functional words
B.native words and borrowed words
C.basic words and borrowed words
D.loan words and dialectal words
2.Vocabulary can refer to the following except （ ）。
A.the total number of the words in a language
B.all the words used in a particular historical period
C.all the words of a dialect
D.all the words of an article
3.“skirt” is （ ）。
A.a basic word B.a Spanish word
C.a slang word D.both A and B
4.The early inhabitants of the British Isles spoke （ ） .
5.The Norman Conquest started a continual flow of （ ） words into English.
6.The three main sources of new words are （ ）。
A.the rapid development of modern science and technology； social， economic and political changes； the influence of other cultures and languages
B.the rapid development of modern science and technology； social， economic and political changes； reviving archaic or obsolete words
C.creation， borrowing and reviving archaic or obsolete words
D.semantic change， creation， borrowing and reviving archaic or obsolete words
7.Morphemes are __________ units， which are realized in speech by discrete units known as __________.（ ）
A.concrete， allomorphs B.abstract， morphs
C.abstract， lexemes D.concrete， morphs
8.Derivational affixes can be further divided into __________ and __________.（ ）
A.bound roots and suffixes B.prefixes and suffixes
C.bound roots and prefixes D.inflectional affixes and prefixes
9.Bound morphemes include two types： __________ and __________.（ ）
A.prefixes， suffixes B.bound roots ， prefixes
C.bound roots， affixes D.derivational morphemes and suffixes
10.Means of English word formation exclude （ ）。
A.repetition and alliteration B.clipping， acronymy and blending
C.conversion and back formation D.affixation and compounding
11.Words formed by acronymy can be divided into acronyms and initialisms depending on （ ）。
A.the pronunciation of the words B.the spelling way
C.the grammatical function D.none of the above
12.The three most productive means of word formation are （ ）。
A.affixation， compounding and shortening
B.conversion， compounding and shortening
C.affixation， compounding and conversion
D.affixation， compounding and back formation
13.Words are but symbols， many of which have meaning only when they have acquired （ ）。
14.Sense denotes the relationships （ ）。
A.with the concept B.outside the language
C.with the meaning D.inside the language
15.Associative meaning comprises four types （ ） .
A.lexical， grammatical， stylistic， and affective
B.connotative， stylistic， affective， and collocative
C.lexical， conceptual， affective， and collocative
D.conceptual， connotative， affective， and stylistic
16.The later meanings added the first meaning of the word are called （ ） meanings.
17.Generally， __________ precedes __________.（ ）
A.concatenation， radiation B.widening， concatenation
C.narrowing， widening D.radiation， concatenation
18.People use antonyms in idioms to （ ） .
A.express ideas economically for the sake of contrast
B.form antithesis to achieve emphasis
C.both A and B
19.The associated transfer of meaning and euphemistic use of words， etc. are often due to （ ） factors.
20.（ ） is the most unstable element of a language as is undergoing constant changes both in form and content.
21.If a word has extended to cover a __________ and often __________ definite concept， the word has undergone extension of meaning.（ ）
A.broader， more B.narrower， less
C.broader， less D.narrower， more
22.Ambiguity often arises due to __________ and __________.（ ）
A.homomymy， polysemy B.antonymy， homonymy
C.synomymy， antonymy D.synonymy， hyponymy
23.“Trade union” has different interpretations in the western countries and China. That is due to （ ）。
A.lexical context B.grammatical context
C.cultural background D.linguistic context
24.The clue for understanding “conflagration” in the sentence “Their greatest fear was of a conflagration since fire would destroy everything in its way.” is （ ）。
C.relevant details D.synonymy
25.（ ） occasionally occurs in proverbs and sayings， where only a part of them is used instead of the whole.
26.In terms of complexity of sentences， sentence idioms can be divided into three types except （ ）。
A.compound sentences B.imperative sentences
C.simple sentences D.complex sentences
27.Of five groups of idioms， （ ） are the largest group.
A.idioms nominal in nature B.idioms adjectival in nature
C.idioms verbal in nature D.idioms adverbial in nature
28.The best-known unabridged dictionary is （ ）， which contains 450，000 headwords.
A.The Encyclopedia Americana
B.Webster‘s Third New International Dictionary
C.The World Book Dictionary
D.Webster‘s New World Dictionary
29.For beginners and elementary and lower-intermediate learners， a/an （ ） dictionary is essential as they don‘t have enough knowledge of English.
30.The main body of a dictionary is （ ） of words.
Ⅱ。 Match the words in Column A with those in Column B according to the sense relations of the pairs of words in Column A. Write your answer （A， B， C， … I， or J） in the bracket.（10%）
33.dead/alive C.emotive synonyms
35.sow （v.） / sow （n.） E.dialectal synonyms
36.fair （n.） /fair （adj.） F.upper term / lower term
37.pen， ruler G.stylistic synonyms
38.siren/beautiful H.perfect homonymy
40.creature/animal J.contradictory terms
31.（ ）32.（ ）33.（ ）34.（ ）35.（ ）
36.（ ）37.（ ）38.（ ）39.（ ）40.（ ）
Ⅲ。 Complete the following statements with proper expressions according to the textbook. （10%）
41.Lexicology is a branch of linguistics， inquiring into the origins and__________of words.
42.Old English has about __________ words.
44.The most productive compounds are__________and adjectives.
45.The meanings of etymologically motivated words relate directly to their __________.
Ⅳ。 Study the following words and decide how each word is formed. （15%）
Example： disobey （affixation）
46.throughout （ ） 47.telecast （ ）
48.fridge （ ） 49.Radar （ ）
50.emote （ ）
Ⅴ。 Answer the following questions. （20%）
51.What are the characteristics of Modern English
52.Why do we say that free morphemes and free roots are identical
53.What is blending
54.What is the relationship and difference between grammatical meaning and lexical meaning
55.What are the types of context
Ⅵ。 Analyze and comment on the given sentences. Pick out the idiom in the sentence， then point out its structure， grammatical function and figure of speech. （ 15%）
56.Look at him. He‘s sleeping like a log.