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2004年7月全国高等教育自学考试英语科技文选试题

2005-06-11 00:00   【 】【我要纠错

  课程代码:00836

  I. Directions: Add the appropriate affix(es) to each word according to the given Chinese, making changes when necessary.(10%)

  1. requisite 先决条件 1.______

  2. cast 预报 2.______

  3. system 系统化 3.______

  4. strength 加强 4.______

  5. sense 感觉的 5.______

  6. poison 有毒的 6.______

  7. mathematics 元数学 7.______

  8. cluster 超星系团 8.______

  9. conductor 半导体 9.______

  10. media 多媒体 10.______

  Ⅱ。Directions: Fill in the blanks, each using one of the given words and phrases below in its proper form.(10%)

  allot show up alternative bear out inject with end up

  have a bearing on be familiar with bump into what‘s more

  11. Eventually we shall be able to “humanize” animals by ______ them ______ human genes for transplantation purposes, so that their organs will become compatible with the body of the person receiving the transplant.

  12. These insights were later ______ by the observations made by Gregor Mendel in the second half of the nineteenth century.

  13. Men are from Mars, women from Venus.______, women do phonological processing with both their right and left inferior frontal gyri.

  14. Such a book would be by no means academic, but would ______ wide ______ the general history of thought and ideas.

  15. Every day, however, we ______ phenomena that may well be unknowable but that we do not recognize as such.

  16. Anyone who needs to understand how various substances interact, or how they change when conditions change, has to ______ some of the fundamental principles of chemistry.

  17. Defects ______ as variations from the perfect model because they produce an interference pattern.

  18. The group leader ______ a special task to each person.

  19. But FM-RI is more precise than other techniques—which is how she and her husband ______ discovering sex differences in phonological processing, or letter-to-sound conversion.

  20. It takes time to develop ______ energy sources.

  Ⅲ。Directions: Fill in each blank with a suitable word given below.(20%)

  how that such these consumption

  high better another help combine

  as identify advanced certain knowledge

  reliable increasingly of further under

  A noteworthy advance in agricultural technology will be expert computer systems that

  21 knowledge from many disciplines to help guide farmers‘ action. Several 22 “decision support systems” are now 23 development to aid farmers with soil management. Most

  24 are systems for handling phosphorus deficiency and 25 acidity, but others are in the offing. 26 computer applications not only present an expert analysis 27 what is known and the effect a 28 management approach might produce, but they also can 29 key gaps in knowledge that might be addressed by 30 data collection.

  The strength of expert systems is 31 they can combine scientific principles with indigenous farming 32 A weakness is that they may not provide 33 answers for situations that evolve rapidly. 34 approach, involving numerical simulations, can

  35 deal with continuously changing effects such as weather. The aim 36 is to integrate expert systems and simulation models. 37 this goal is accomplished, farmers will

  38 use computer-based tools to 39 control pests, reduce water 40 and manage many different kinds of crops.

  21.__________ 22.__________

  23.__________ 24.__________

  25.__________ 26.__________

  27.__________ 28.__________

  29.__________ 30.__________

  31.__________ 32.__________

  33.__________ 34.__________

  35.__________ 36.__________

  37.__________ 38.__________

  39.__________ 40.__________

  Ⅳ。Directions: Translate the following sentences into English, each using one of the given words or phrases below.(10%)

  in common be regarded as bump into

  afford untanglebe incompatible

  41. 在许多情况下,接受器官移植的身体对移植器官有排他性。

  42. 这两个朋友有许多共同之处。

  43. 解开缠绕的电线花了他很长时间。

  44. 心理学是生物科学的一个分支。他研究人的心理状态、心理过程等现象。

  45. 这个国家难以舍弃这些受过良好教育的专业人才。

  Ⅴ。Directions: Translate the following paragraph(s) into Chinese.(15%)

  46.Cyberspace,of course, is bigger than a telephone call. It encompasses the millions of personal computers connected by modems—via the telephone system—to commercial online services, as well as the millions more with high-speed links to local area networks, office E-mail systems and the Internet. It includes the rapidly expanding wireless services: microwave towers that carry great quantities of cellular phone and data traffic; communications satellites strung like beads in geosynchronous orbit; low-flying satellites that will soon crisscross the globe like angry bees, connecting folks too far-flung or too much on the go to be tethered by wires. Someday even our television sets may be part of cyberspace, transformed into interactive “teleputers” by so-called full-service networks like the ones several cable-TV companies(including Time Warner) are building along the old cable lines, using fiber optics and high-speed switches.

  Ⅵ。Directions:Read through the following passages and choose the best answer marked A,B,C or D.(20%)

  There are two main things that make aircraft engineering difficult; the need to make every component as reliable as possible and the need to build everything as light as possible. The fact that an aeroplane is up in the air and cannot stop if anything goes wrong, makes it perhaps a matter of life or death that its performance is absolutely dependable.

  Given a certain power of engine, and consequently a certain fuel consumption, there is a practical limit to the total weight of aircraft that can be made to fly. Out of that weight as much as possible is wanted for fuel, radio navigational instruments, passenger seats, or freight room, and, of course, the passengers or freight themselves. So the structure of the aircraft has to be as small and light as safety and efficiency will allow. The designer must calculate the normal load that each part will bear. This specialist is called the ‘stress man’。 He takes account of any unusual stress that may be put on the part as a precaution against errors in manufacture, acciedental damage, etc.

  The stress man‘s calculations go to the designer of the part, and he must make it as strong as the stress man says if necessary. One or two samples are always tested to prove that they are as strong as the designer intended. Each separate part is tested, then a whole assembly, for example, a complete wing, and finally the whole aeroplane. When a new type of aeroplane is being made, normally only one of the first three made will be flown. Two will be destroyed on the ground in structural tests. The third one will be tested in the air.

  Two kinds of ground strength tests are carried out. The first is to find the resistance to loading of the wings, tail, etc. until they reach their maximum load and collapse. The other test is for fatigue strength. Relatively small loads are applied thousands of times. Each may be well under what the structure could stand as a single load, but many repetitions can result in collapse. One from of this test is done on the passenger cabin.

  It is filled with air at high pressure as for high-altitude flying and completely submerged in a large tank of water while the test is going on. The surrounding water prevents the cabin from bursting like a bomb if there is a failure.

  When a plane has passed all the tests it can get a government certificate of airworthiness, without which it is illegal to fly, except for test flying.

  Making the working parts reliable is as difficult as making the structure strong enough. The flying controls, the electrical equipment, the fire precautions, etc. must not only be light in weight, but must work both at high altitudes where the temperature may be below freezing point and in the hot air of an airfield in the tropics.

  To solve all these problems the aircraft industry has a large number of research workers, with elaborate laboratories and test houses, and new materials to give the best strength in relation to weight are constantly being tested.

  47. The two main requirements of aircraft design are ______.

  A. speed and cheapness

  B. reliability and passenger comfort

  C. making things both light and dependable

  D. ability to stay up in the air and avoid breakdowns

  48. The maximum possible weight of an aircraft is determined by ______.

  A. the enigne power B. the amount of freight room

  C. the number of passengers D. international regulations

  49. The stress man‘s job is to calculate ______.

  A. how safe the plane is

  B. how strong each part must be

  C. what height the plane will fly at

  D. the amount of luggage each passenger may carry

  50. The first three aeroplanes of a new type ______.

  A. are all destroyed B. do not fly

  C. are later broken up for spare parts D. are used for testing purposes 51. The passenger cabin test in water is designed to ______.

  A. make sure the plane would be safe if it landed in water

  B. test fatigue strength

  C. see of the cabin will burst like a bomb

  D. keep the cabin cool

  Surprisingly, no one knows how many children receive education in English hospitals, still less the content or quality of that education. Proper records are just not kept.

  We know that more than 850,000 children go through hospital each year, and that every child of school age has a legal right to continue to receive education while in hospital. We also know there is only one hospital teacher to every 1,000 children in hospital.

  Little wonder the latest survey concludes that the extent and type of hospital teaching available differ a great deal across the country. It found that half the hospitals in England which admit children have no teacher. A further quarter have only a part-time teacher. The special children‘s hospitals in major cities do best; general hospitals in the country and holiday areas are worst off.

  From this survey, one can estimate that fewer than one in five children have some contact with a hospital teacher-and that contact may be as little as two hours a day. Most children interviewed were surprised to find a teacher they had not been prepared for it by parents or their own school. If there was a teacher they were much more likely to read books and do maths or number work; without a teacher they would only play games.

  Reasons for hospital teaching range from preventing a child from falling behind and maintaining the habit of school to keeping a child occupied, and the latter is often all the teacher can do. The position and influence of many teachers was summed up when referred to them as ‘the library lady’ or just ‘the helper’。

  Children tend to rely on concerned school friends to keep in touch with school work. Several parents spoke of requests for work being ignored or refused by the school. Once back at school, children rarely get extra teaching, and are told to catch up as best they can.

  Many short-stay child-patients catch up quickly. But schools do very little to ease the anxiety about falling behind expressed by many of the children interviewed.

  52. The writer of this article points out that ______.

  A. every child in hospital receives some teaching

  B. not enough is known about hospital teaching

  C. hospital teaching is of poor quality

  D. many children pass through hospital each year

  53. This latest survey found that hospital teaching is provided ______.

  A. for the whole of the usual school day

  B. in every children‘s hospital in the country

  C. for a small proportion of children

  D. by full-time teachers

  54. It seemed that the children interviewed in hospital ______.

  A. liked having maths lessons regularly

  B. wanted to play gamed most of the time

  C. did not expect to receive any teaching

  D. did not want any contact with their schools

  55. It is suggested that most teachers of children in hospital were .

  A. successful in getting the co-operation of parents

  B. unable to get help from other hospital staff

  C. unable to provide a proper teaching programme

  D. in a position of great influence in the hospital

  56. Some children in hospital are able to keep up with their school work because ______.

  A. the nurses try to teach them

  B. their friends help them to do so

  C. teachers from the school come to the hospital

  D. their parents bring them books from the library

  Ⅶ。Passage-writing.(15%)

  Direction: Write a passage (150-200 words) in English on “My View on Genetic Foods”。 Your essay should cover these three points:

  57.(1)尽管存在许多争议,基因食品正在进入人们的生活。

  (2)基因食品的利与弊。

  (3)我个人对基因食品的态度。

 

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