Ⅰ。Each of the statements below is followed by four alternative answers. Choose the one that would best complete the statement and put the letter in the bracket.（30%）
1.An idiom is characterized by （ ）。
A. semantic unity B. structural stability
C. non-motivation D. all the above
2. Which words belong to the functional words （ ）
A. prepositions， auxiliaries， conjunctions
B. articles， adjectives， pronouns
C. adverbs， conjunctions， nouns
D. prepositions， auxiliaries， articles
3. A word is a symbol that （ ）。
A. is used by the same speech community
B. represents something else in the world
C. is both simple and complex in nature
D. shows different ideas in different sounds
4. “Phone”， “doc”， “sis” and “fridge” are examples of （ ）
A. abbreviation B. shortening
C. clipping D. analogy
5. Meaning is closely related to （ ）。
A. concept B. contextualism
C. implicature D. symbolism
6. （ ） is a figure of speech containing an implied comparison in which a word or phrase ordinarily and primarily used of one thing is applied to another.
A. Simile B. Synecdoche
C. Overstatement D. Metaphor
7. Most English idioms are （ ） .
A. opaque B. transparent
C. motivated D. self-evident
8. The pond was full of garbage， giving （ ） the worst smell that you can imagine.
A. off B. over
C. in D. up
9. （ ） are morphemes used to express grammatical relationships between a word and its context.
A. Grammatical morphemes B. Inflectional morphemes
C. Bound morphemes D. A and B
10. Stylistically， back-formed words are largely （ ） and some of them have not gained public acceptance.
A. informal B. adjectives
C. human nouns D. formal
11. The word “nose” in the phrase “the nose of the plane” is related to （ ）。
A. onomatopoeic motivation B. semantic motivation
C. morphological motivation D. etymological motivation
12. Which of the following statements is NOT true （ ）
A. English is more closely related to German than French.
B. Scandinavian languages refer to Icelandic， Norwegian， Danish and Swedish.
C. Old English was not a highly inflected language.
D. In early Middle English period， English， Latin， and French existed side by side.
13. In the idiom “fortune‘s wheel”， we change it into “wheel of fortune” without changing meaning. This change of constituent is known as （ ）。
A. replacement B. deletion
C. position-shifting D. dismembering
14. “Marshal”， “lady”， and “fond” have experienced the process of （ ） of meaning.
A. degradation B. elevation
C. extension D. narrowing
15. The words which occur before or after a word and may affect its meaning form （ ）。
A. grammatical context B. lexical context
C. context of culture D. extra-linguistic context
16. According to the purpose of dictionaries we have （ ） dictionaries.
A. monolingual， bilingual and multilingual B. synchronic and diachronic
C. pocket， medium-sized and unabridged D. general and specialized
17. The rhetorical coloring of “Time and tide wait for no man.” is （ ） .
A. rime B. juxtaposition
C. reiteration D. alliteration
18. The majority of newly coined words are （ ） .
A. adverbials B. nouns
C. verbs D. adjectives
19. “Yahoo” is a （ ） motivated word.
A. semantically B. etymologically
C. onomatopoetically D. morphologically
20. Much of this early excitement and expectation was met with successive breakthroughs in scientific research on plant gene transfer methods， identification of valuable genes， and the eventual performance of transgenic crops. How is the underlined word formed （ ） .
A. compounding B. blending
C. back-formation D. prefixation
Ⅱ。Complete the following statements with proper words or expressions according to the course book.（10%）
21. ________ began with the establishment of printing in England.
22. According to the functions of affixes， we can put them into two groups： inflectional and ________ affixes.
23. NATO stands for ________.
24. Relative synonyms also called ________ are similar or nearly the same in denotation， but embrace different degrees of a given quality.
25 The idiom “Jack of all trades” is the shortened from “Jack of all trades and ________.”
Ⅲ。Match the words in Column A with those in Column B according to 1） rhetorical features of the idioms；2）sense relations；3）assimilation degree；4）characteristics of the basic word stock and motivation.（10%）
26.UNESCO （ ） a morphological motivation
27.terminology （ ） b translation loan
28.alliteration （ ） c acronym
29.meat （ ） d metaphor
30. will and testament （ ） e sum and substance
31. juxtaposition （ ） f repetition
32. in the cradle （ ） g narrowing
33. Nazi （ ） h rain or shine
34. minibus （ ） I borrowed words
35. Hidden Dragon， Crouched Tiger （ ） j semantics
Ⅳ。Define the following terms.（15%）
37. Inflectional morphemes
38. Affective meaning
40. Sentence idioms
Ⅴ。Answer the following questions. Your answers should be clear and short. Write your answers in the space given below.（15%）
41. What are the foreign elements in the English vocabulary
42. What does the following verbs tell us
A man changes his habits， alters his conduct， and varies his manner of speaking.
43. Analyse morphemes in the following words.
individualistic characteristic inflectional
Ⅵ。 Analyze the following. Write your answers in the space given below.（20%）
44. If some students ask you to recommend one or two good dictionaries to them， what would you recommend Why
45. Determine the language from which each of the given words has been borrowed and translate them into Chinese.
Original language Translation
4. San Francisco