Ⅰ。Each of the following statements is followed by four alternatives. Read each statement and the four alternatives carefully and decide which of the four alternatives best completes the statement （20%）。
1.Language is （ ），which means that speech is the primary medium of language.
C.symbolic D.human specific
2.“A pond of flesh” is derived from Shakespeare‘s （ ）
A.Romeo and Juliet B.Anthony and Cleopatra
C.The Merchant of Venice D.King Lear
3.“A greenhorn” in English refers to （ ）
A.a horn in the color of green
B.a foolish person
C.a simple and inexperienced person
D.a jealous person
4.Analogy is often made in English between （ ） and people who are rude or hot-tempered people with high intelligence or remarkable power of endurance.
5.（ ） words emerged to classify things，for instance，direction，time，quantity and quality while function words indicate the relationship between things.
6.The English speaking people are direct，so（ ）
A.they reason from the particular to the general，from parts to the whole，or from the small to the big.
B.they reason from the general to the particular，from the whole to the part，from the big to the small.
C.they prefer the information structure in which the more important information precedes the less important information.
D.they prefer the information structure in which the less information precedes the more important information.
7.（ ） is the leader of the British government.
A.Prime Minister B.Queen
8.“Visitors should go up the stairs at once” is a （ ） style of language.
9.The English idiom “to be all thumbs” means（ ）
A.to be clumsy B.to be important
C.to be rich D.to be proud
10.When an Englishman says “I was only pulling your leg”，he means （ ）
A.I was only warning you
B.I was only trying to prevent you from making progress
C.I was only joking
D.I was only asking you for help
11.When offering another person to be first in going through a door，getting in a car，the normal expression is （ ）
B.“You go first，please”
C.“Would you like to go first？”
D.“Can you go first，please？”
12.In English speaking countries expensive gifts will （ ）
A.make them uncomfortable for they will not know how to return the kindness
B.make them very happy for they think they are highly valued
C.make them surprise for they will not know how to use it
D.make them embarrassed for they know they are not worth it
13.（ ） is what is communicated by the way in which a speaker or writer organizes a message，in terms of ordering，focus，or emphasis.
A.Conceptual meaning B.Thematic meaning
C.Social meaning D.Affective meaning
14.A noble man holding the highest hereditary title outside the royal family is （ ）
15.（ ） is the planet second in order from the sun，derived from the Roman goddess of love and beauty.
16.“Love store” corresponds to （ ）
17.The word in British English for “faculty” is （ ）
18.When signifying “come here”，English speakers would （ ）
A.extend their closed hands，plams up，with only their forefingers moving back and forth
B.extend their open hands，palms down，toward the person with all fingers crooked in a beckoning motion
C.extend their closed hands，palms up，toward the person with all fingers crooked in a beckoning motion
D.extend their open hands，palms down，with only their forefingers moving back and forth
19.A Don Juan is （ ）
A.a captivation man known as a great lover or seducer of women
B.an idealistic and impractical person
C.a person or thing suffering from undeserved neglect
D.a woman of breathtaking beauty
20.American and British English are two （ ） of the English language.
Ⅱ。Each of the following incomplete statements is followed by four alternatives. Read each statement and the four alternatives carefully and decide which of the four alternatives can complete the statement. There might be more than one correct answer. （10%）
21.The relationship between language，culture and thought is that（ ）
A.they are three parts of a whole
B.language is determined by culture while culture is determined by thought
C.each of them can operate independently
D.the three aspects interact，each influencing and shaping the other two
22.The euphemistic expression for “backward countries” are （ ）
23.Generally speaking，the main function of English newspaper reporting is （ ）
A.to teach the reader B.to advise the reader
C.to inform the reader D.to enlighten the reader
24.“To make bricks without straw” （ ）
A.means to do something without proper material
B.means one is bound to fail when trying to do something without necessary material
C.corresponds to “做劳而无功的工作” in Chinese
D.corresponds to “做无米之炊” in Chinese
25.Major differences in English and Chinese advertising are（ ）
A.differences in service
B.differences in brand names
C.differences in vocabulary and grammar
D.differences in varieties
26.Deductive refers to （ ）
A.reasoning from the general to the particular
B.reasoning for the particular to the general
C.the main thesis preceding the supporting information
D.the supporting information preceding the main thesis
27.（ ） can be related to individualism.
A.“Tell money after your father”
B.“Wives and children are bills of charges”
C.“Even reckoning makes long friends”
D.“Maids want nothing but husbands，and when they have them，they want everything”
28.Names include （ ）
A.given names B.surnames
C.full names D.nicknames or pet names
29.In Australian English，（ ） that may be used to describe persons of Asian appearance are clearly derogatory.
30.Red caps refer to （ ）
A.military policemen in American English
B.porters in American English
C.porters in British English
D.military policemen in British English
Ⅲ。 Fill in each underlined space with a proper expression. （10%）
31.Language is the _______ of cultural information.
32.Meaning is conveyed not only by words or verbal language but also by _______.
33.The English equivalent for “趁热打铁” is _______.
34.The “_______” English refers to those basic English items that appear in most or all varieties of English.
35.Lexical，grammatical and textual features are often attributed to _______.
36.When addressing or referring to a king，queen or emperor，we use _______ together with possessive pronouns.
37.A marriage arranged in order to strengthen the political，social，or financial position of one or both parties is called _________.
38.It is often said that English is a language with _______ grammar and Chinese is a language with implicit grammar.
39.The major theme of western culture is individualism while the central theme of traditional Chinese culture is _______ or environmentalism.
40.“Private school” in American English refers to the same as “_______” in British English.
Ⅳ。Answer the following questions briefly.（12%）
41.What are the main features of the headline and lead in English newspaper reporting？
42.What are euphemisms and their major functions？
43.What are tenors and vehicles in metaphors and similes？
44.What is a Solomon？
45.What does the English idiom “a big fish in a small pond” mean？
46.What is body language？
47.Dally not with money or women
48.If you don‘t mind waiting for a while，I’ll see if he is available.
49.A smooth sea never made a skilful mariner.
50.He was deprived of the right to participate in the Olympic Games.
51.The tone taken by the author towards the defenders of crime is ironical.
Ⅵ。Define the following terms： （10%）
58.terms of humility
Ⅶ。Discuss the following topics： （22%）
60.What are the connotative meanings of dogs to Chinese and English speaking people？
61.In what way is an English letter of invitation different from a Chinese one？