课程代码：00833 一、判断正误题The following
statements are about the facts presented in the first chapter of the book ， please indicate
in the brackets whether they are true （T ） or false （F ）（10% ）
1. In the 5th century ， the controversy between the naturalist and the conventionalists in Greece was on the regularities of language.（）
2. Bloomfield ， who maintained that linguistics should only admit data that could be objectively verified ， is regarded as the father of American Formalism. （）
3. Contrastive analysis is proposed by the habit-formation theory as a valid means to predict potential errors.（）
4. The Swiss psychologist Piaget used hypothetical mental constructs， which he called schemas ， to describe the envelopment of Children‘s reasoning abilities at each stage. （ ）
5. When the mother tongue and the target language share a meaning but express it in different ways， the learner will transfer the ways of expression in the mother tongue to the target language.（）
6. Halliday thinks that the process of first language acquisition is actually the process of learning how to communicate in that language.（）
7. Wilkins insisted that the orientation of the language teaching was essentially toward the understanding and acquisition of linguistic features ， rather than the purposes and social use of communication.（）
8. American structuralism ， started at the beginning of the 20th century ， became very popular and influential in the 1930s and 1940s throughout the world. （）
9. The naturalists argued that the forms of words reflected directly the nature of objects.（）
10. According to the habit-formation theory ， errors should be avoided and should be corrected if they have been made.（）
二、填空题Ⅰ。 Fill in the blanks so as to complete the description of different theories of language learning（7%）
1. According to Halliday， the learner acquires the formation of __________ discourse before he acquires the formation of single sentences.
2. The Oral Approach involves systematic principles of selection ， __________ ， and presentation.
3. The __________ Approach emphasizes the conscious teaching of grammar or of language rules.
4. The Situational Language Teaching believes in a theory of learning that is based on a type of __________ habit-formation theory.
5. The theory of learning underlying the Grammar-Translation Method was __________ Psychology.
6. The Communicative Approach hold that language is best learned through use in __________
7. The theory of language underlying the __________ Method was derived from Comparative Historical Linguistics.
Ⅱ。 Fill in the blanks so as to complete the definition of important concepts in language learning （7%）
8. __________ theory offers explanations for the facts that all children acquire their first language at roughly the same speed， that they will make mistakes that never occur in the adult language， and that they can understand or produce sentences they have never heard before.
9. __________ learning refers to the learning of material by repeating it over and over again until it is memorized， without paying attention to its meaning.
10. __________ in Linguistics generally refers to the learner‘s misuse or misunderstanding of the target language， grammatical or pragmatic.
11. For Bloomfield ， a language was a habit of __________ behavior， which consisted of series of stimuli and responses.
12. __________ syllabus is a grammar-oriented syllabus based on a selection of language items and structures.
13. __________ distance is the result of various affective factors of the learner.
14. In Functional Linguistics，the __________ meaning of a linguistic item is its operation in the network of formal relations.
三、选择题Each question in this section consists of an incomplete statement and four choices marked A， B， C， and D. You are to complete each statement by choosing the most appropriate one from the given choices. （10% ）
1. Halliday DOES NOT hold which of the following views？（）
A. Linguistic events should be accounted for at three primary levels： substances ，
form， and context. B. Vocabulary plays the most important role in foreign language learning.
C. Language should be regarded as the realization of meanings inherent in social system. D.
The dimensions of contexts are linked to the linguistic forms and to the ideational ， interpersonal
and textual functions of language. 2. ____ and ____ are distinguished by whether the adult
learner of a second language pays a conscious attention to the rules of the target language.
A. Learning …… acculturation B. Learning…… acquisition C. Acculturation …… accommodation
D. Acquisition…… accommodation 3. Organization of the grammatical content of New Concept
English is based on the principle of（）。
A. acculturation B. communication C. cognition D. gradation 4.（） has made the first
attempts to establish theoretical principles to develop a methodological framework for teaching
English as a foreign language in ELT history. A. The Audiolingual Approach B. The Communicative
Approach C. The Direct Method D. The Oral Approach 5. The Reform Movement started from（）
when Wilhelm Vietor published a pamphlet entitled Language Teaching Must Start Afresh ！
A. the 1970s B. the end of the 18th Century C. the end of World War Ⅱ D. the
end of the 19th century 6.（） was instrumental in setting out the fundamental considerations
for a “functional-notional” approach to syllabus design based on communicative criteria. A.
Halliday B. Wilkins C. Chomsky D. Bloomfield 7. James Asher was the founder of（）。
A. the Direct Method B. the Cognitive Approach C. Total Physical Response D.
Suggestopaedia 8. According to（）， the appropriate goal of psychology is to understand the
environmental conditions that would cause an animal or human to behave in a particular way.
A. behaviorist psychology B. cognitive psychology C. psychoanalysis D. Gestalt psychology
9. The revolution in linguistic theory in the 1960s refers to the arrival of the（）。
A. Structuralist theory B. Communicative linguistics C. Transformational-Generative
linguistics D. Habit-formation theory 10. G. Lozanov was the founder of （）。
A. the Community Language Learning B. the Direct Method C. Suggestopaedia D.
The Natural Approach
Ⅰ。 The following are statements about theories of language.
Decide if they support one of the following approaches/methods（6%）：A ）the Communicate
Approach；B ）the Direct Method ；C ）the Audiolingual Method ；D ）the Cognitive Approach
；E ）the Grammar-Translation Method；F ）the Natural Approach；G ）the Oral Approach. 1.
Elements in a language are produced in a rule-governed（structured） way. __________ 2. The
underlying theory of language was derived from Comparative Historical linguistics. __________
3. The theory of language can be characterized as a type of British structuralism. __________
4. Every language has its own structures and can not be forced into the constraining pattern
of Latin grammar. __________ 5. Language is a system of structurally related elements for
the expression of meaning. __________ 6. Communication is the primary function of language.
Ⅱ。 Decide which technique （s ） is （are ） most often used by what method
a. Grammar-Translation __________ b. The Natural Approach __________ c. The Cognitive
Approach __________ d. The Direct Method __________ e. The Communicative Method __________
f. The Audiolingual Method __________ g. The Oral Approach __________ 1. Use language laboratory.
2. Translation from mother tongue into the target language or vice versa and rewriting a story，
an event or a text. 3. Role-play. 4. Use of authentic text-based materials. 5. The learner‘s
own personal experiences are enhanced as important contributing elements to classroom learning.
6. Vocabulary is introduced as a connected story. 7. New sentence patterns are presented in
situations. 8. Tightly organized textbooks and visual aids are employed. 9. Students are required
to memorize bilingual word lists and grammatical rules. 10. Learners are not required to say
anything until they feel ready.
五、简答题Answer the following questions（30% ）。
1. What is the main content of the affective filter Hypothesis proposed by Krashen？
2. What are the five slogans that express the theoretical principles of the Audiolingual
3. How do you understand the relationship between the grammatical forms of a language
and their communicative functions ？
4. How does the hypothesis of linguistic universals explain the second language acquisition
5. How does the cognitive theory explain the second language acquisition process？
6. What are the main trends of applied linguistic research in the present period？
1. Are there any similarities and differences between the Oral Approach and the Audio-lingual
Method in terms of language theories and learning theories？
2. Appropriacy of language use has to be considered alongside accuracy. What implications
does this have for attitudes to errors？