Ⅰ。Directions： Read each of the following statements carefully. Decide which one of the four choices best completes the statement and put the letter A，B，C or D in the brackets.（2%×10=20%）
1.Chomsky uses the term （ ） to refer to the actual realization of a language user‘s knowledge of the rules of his language in linguistic communication.
A. langue B. competence
C. parole D. performance
2.In terms of the place of articulation， the following sounds [t][d][s][z][n] share the feature of （ ）。
A. palatal B. alveolar
C. bilabial D. dental
3.Transformational Generative Grammar was introduced by （ ） in 1957.
A. L. Bloomfield B. F. Saussure
C. N. Chomsky D.M. A. K. Halliday
4.Natural languages are viewed to vary according to （ ） set on UG principles to particular values.
A. Adjacent Condition B. parameters
C. Case Condition D. Case requirement
5. Synonyms are classified into several kinds. The kind to which“girl”and“lass” belong is called （ ） synonyms.
A. stylistic B. dialectal
C. emotive D. collocational
6. The illocutionary point of （ ） is to express the psychological state specified in the utterance.
A. representatives B. commissives
C. expressives D. declaratives
7. Modern English words man， woman， child， eat， fight， ect. originate from （ ）。
A. Middle English B. Old English
C. French D. Norman French
8. In a diglossic country， the two diglossic forms of a language are generally two varieties of the same language， but there are situations in which the H-variety may have no （ ） relationship with the L-variety.
A. genetic B. social
C. direct D. close
9.Many aphasics do not show total language loss. Rather， different aspects of language are impaired. Aphasics in （ ） area reveal word-finding difficulties and problems with syntax.
A. Werniker‘s B. visual
C. motor D. Broca‘s
10. （ ） motivation occurs when the learner desires to learn a second language in order to communicate with native speakers of the target language.
A. Instrumental B. Functional
C. Integrative D. Social
Ⅱ。 Directions： Fill in the blank in each of the following statements with one word， the first letter of which is already given as a clue. Note that you are to fill in ONE word only， and you are not allowed to change the letter given.（1％×10=10％）
11. If a linguistic study describes and analyzes the language people actually use， it is said to be
12. Stops， fricatives， affricates， liquids， and glides all have some degree of o and are therefore consonants.
13. M is the smallest meaningful unit of language.
14. A is the movement of an auxiliary verb to the sentence-initial position， such as “be”， “have”， “do” etc.
15. R is what a linguistic form refers to in the real world； it is a matter of the relationship between form and the reality.
16. In Austin‘s early speech act theory， c were statements that either state or describe， and were thus verifiable.
17. In the process of first language acquisition， children usually construct their personal grammars， and their language develops in stages until it a the grammatical rules of the adult language.
18. A s community is one group， all of whose members share the same language or at least a single language variety.
19. People may communicate their feelings or thoughts via n signals such as facial expressions， gestures， postures， or proxemic space.
20. Although the development of a communicative system is not unique to human beings， the natural acquisition of l as a system of highly abstract rules and regulations for creative communication is what distinguishes humans from all other animal species.
Ⅲ。Directions： Judge whether each of the following statements is true or false. Put a T for true or F for false in the brackets in front of each statement. If you think a statement is false， you must explain why you think so and give the correct version. （2％×10=20％）
21. （ ） The writing system of a language is always a later invention used to record speech； thus there are still many languages in today‘s world that can only be spoken， but not written.
22. （ ） In such sound combinations as /bi：p/， /geip/ and /su：p/， the voiceless stop /p/， occurring in the final position， is unaspirated， i.e. pronounced with the strong puff of air withheld to some extent.
23. （ ） The part of speech of the compound is always determined by the part of speech of the second element， without exception.
24. （ ） The relationship between the embedded clause and its matrix clause is one of a part to the whole.
25. （ ） The contextualist view of meaning holds that meaning should be studied in terms of the situational context and linguistic context.
26. （ ） Searle‘s classification of illocutionary acts is based on the classification of performative verbs.
27. （ ） One kind of language change results in an increase of the number of exceptional or irregular morphemes. This kind of change has been called internal borrowing—that is， we “borrow” from one part of the grammar and apply the rule generally.
28. （ ） There are differences in the way people of various age categories speak. The differences most easily noted by the layman are likely to be grammatical in nature.
29. （ ） The left hemisphere of the brain is superior to the right hemisphere because the left hemisphere is language-dominant.
30 （ ） A child born to a Chinese or English speaking family takes about the same number of years to acquire their native tongue， regardless of their general intelligence.
Ⅳ。Directions： Explain the following terms， using one or two examples for illustration.（3％×10=30％）
31. assimilation rule
33. bound morphemes
34. surface structure
39. the Sapir-Whorf hypothesis
Ⅴ。 Answer the following questions.（10％×2=20％）
41. The phonological features that occur above the level of individual sounds are called suprasegmental features. Discuss the main suprasegmental features， illustrating with examples how they function in the distinction of meaning.
42. Explain and give examples to show in what way componential analysis is similar to the analysis of phonemes into distinctive features.