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2003年4月全国高等教育自学考试英语科技文选试题

2005-06-10 00:00   【 】【我要纠错

  课程代码:00836

  PART A:VOCABULARY

  I.Directions:Add the affix to each word according to the given Chinese,making changes when necessary.(10%)

  1.bark 从事 1.

  2.quantity 与量有关的 2.

  3.fold 展开 3.

  4.atomic 亚原子的 4.

  5.fluent 流利 5.

  6.genet 遗传学 6.

  7.breed 由杂交产生 7.

  8.foot 在脚下 8.

  9.galax 星系 9.

  10.audible 听不见的 10.

  II.Directions:Fill in the blanks,each using one of the given words or phrases below in its proper form.(10%)

  turn off start with out of phase take off stand for at work

  in accordance with compatible with in advance show up

  11.The difference between hot and cold water very clearly if we use a thermometer.

  12.Let us a typical solid such as ice.

  13.The mechanic is on your car now.

  14.Remove the washer by first the nut.

  15. Ohm‘s Law,the current increases when the potential difference is increased.

  16.Ordinary light consists of waves all .

  17.Here F the force of attraction.

  18.These numerical instructions are programed .

  19.The computer program isn‘t this operating system.

  20.The new type of rectifier can by a negative pulse.

  III.Directions:Fill in each blank with a suitable word given below.(10%)

  competitive abundant produce balance disrupt numerous scarce

  survival chiefly rapidly

  The 21 of an exotic species in a new habitat depends on many factors— 22 ,of course,the availability of food and the presence or absence of predators and parasites.If food is too

  23 or food-getting too 24 ,or if predators are too 25 ,the exotic species will not survive.If food is 26 and predators are absent,it will 27 multiply to plague proportions and 28 the life every organism(including man) in the habitat.Even if the 29 between food and predators is just right,the species may 30 important secondary ecological consequences.

  21. 22. 23. 24. 25.

  26. 27. 28. 29. 30.

  PART B:TRANSLATION

  IV.Directions:Translate the following sentences into English,each using one of the given words or phrases below.(10%)

  subject analytical coincide with emerge from precede

  31.太阳从云朵后钻出。

  32.他在我之前担任协会主席。

  33.他们把动物作为实验对象。

  34.这样,每一千四百六十年,历年只有一次和太阳年一致。

  35.分析化学家在过去几年研制的设备有许多现在被有机化学家和无机化学家所使用。

  V.Directions:Translate the following paragraphs into Chinese.(15%)

  36.One of the prime purposes of architecture is to heighten the drama of living.Therefore, architecture must provide differentiated spaces for different activities,and it must articulate them in such a way that the emotional content of the particular act of living which takes place in them is reinforced.

  Life is a continuous flow of experience;each act or moment of time is preceded by a previous experience and becomes the threshold for the experience to come.If we acknowledge that an objective of life is the achievement of a continuous flow of harmonious experiences,then the relationship of spaces to one another,as experienced over time,becomes a major design problem.When viewed in this way,architecture takes its place with the arts of poetry and music,in which no single part can be considered except in relation to what immediately precedes or follows it.

  PART C:READING COMPREHENSION

  VI.Directions:Read through the following passages and circle the best answer marked A,B,C or D.(20%)

  Recent findings suggest that visual signals are fed into at least three separate processing systems in the brain,each with its own distinct function. One system appears to process information about shape perception;a second,information about color;a third,information about movement,location,and spatial organization.An understanding of the functions and capabilities of these three systems can shed light on(弄明白)how artists manipulate materials to create surprising visual effects.

  It is possible to summarize the functions of the three subsystems of the visual system as follows.The parvo system carries highly detailed information about stationary objects and about borders that are formed by contrasting colors.It does not,however,carry information about specific colors.Because much of the information about the shape of objects can be represented by their borders,we suspect that this system is important in shape perception.The blob system processes information about colors,but not about movement,shape discrimination,or depth.The magno system carries information about movement and depth.It is good at detecting motion but poor at scrutinizing(细看) stationary images.In addition it appears to be color-blind;it is unable to perceive borders that are visible only on the basis of color contrast.

  Cells in the parvo system can distinguish between two colors at any relative brightness of the two.Cells in the color-blind magno system,on the other hand,are analogous to a black-and-white photograph in the way they function:they signal information about the brightness of surface but not about their colors.For any pair of colors there is a particular brightness ratio at which two colors,for example,red and green,will appear as the same shade of gray in a black-and-white photograph;hence any border between them will vanish.Similarly at some relative red-to-green brightness level,the red and green will appear identical to the magno system.The red and green are then called equiluminant.A border between two equiluminant colors has color contrast but no luminance contrast.

  Many artists have seemed to be empirically aware of these underlying principles and have used them to maximize particular effects.Some of the peculiar effects of Op Art,for example, probably arise from color combinations that are strong activators of the parvo system but are weak stimuli for the magno system.An object that is equiluminant with its background looks vibrant and unstable.The reason is that the parvo system can signal the object‘s shape but the magno system cannot see its borders and therefore cannot signal either the movement or the position of the object.Hence it seems to jump around,drift,or vibrate on the canvas(油画)。

  ( )37.The passage is primarily concerned with .

  A.describing subsystems of the visual system and showing their relevance to art

  B.comparing three theories on how the visual system analyzes images in a work of art

  C.explaining how artists use color contrasts to create particular visual effects

  D.explaining how the visual system is distinguished among different colors

  ( )38.Which of the following would create visual effects most similar to those discussed in the 4th paragraph

  A.A watercolor in which colors are applied imprecisely to outlined shapes.

  B.A painting in which different shades of the same color are used to obscure the boundaries between objects.

  C.A black-and-white sketch in which shading is used to convey a sense of depth.

  D.An advertisement in which key words are at the same level of brightness as a background of contrasting color.

  ( )39.The passage provides information about which of the following

  A.Why the parvo system is considered to be responsible for shape perception.

  B.Why the blob system can process information about colors but not movement.

  C.The mechanism that enables the blob system to distinguish between stationary objects.

  D.The mechanism that enables the magno system to carry information about shape discrimination.

  ( )40.According to the passage,which of the following is true of the visual system

  A.It processes visual signals in three consecutive stages.

  B.It processes visual signals through separate processing systems in the brain.

  C.It consists of only three separate systems.

  D.It consists of separate systems with high overlap in processing functions.

  41.The author uses all of the following in the discussion in the third paragraph EXCEPT .

  A.an example B.definition of terms

  C.contrast D.a rhetorical question

  The latest clock to be invented is a “language clock” which helps us to determine the dates of certain occurrences.This clock requires neither engines,springs,pendulums,not electricity.

  In 1950 some research workers in America discovered that languages change at a steady rate through the centuries.They organized their investigation in the following way.First they prepared a list of 200 things for which there are common words in every language.Then they compared these words in modern languages with the ancient languages from which the modern ones had developed.They found that for a certain proportion of the 200 things,the ancient words continued to be used,though written or pronounced differently.But in other cases the ancient words had been replaced by new words which had been introduced into the language.

  After a thousand years,on the average,81% of the old words(162 of the 200 words) were still in use.After 2,000 years,on the average,81% of these 162 words(or 66% of the original total of 200) remained.After 3,000 years,81% of these 131 words (or 53% of the original number) remained in use,and so on.(1995)

  Next this group of research-workers investigated situations which two different languages had developed separately and independently,from the same ancient language.(In modern times,of course,such situations are very unlikely to occur.Why )They found that after 1,000 years,as before,each daughter language shared only 66% of its 200 words from the original parent language.But (as you might expect) the words which they kept were not quite the same.The proportion of words actually shared by the daughter languages was therefore 81% of 81%,which is 66% of the original 200 words.After 2,000 years they shared 66% of 66% of the words,i.e.43% of the original vocabulary.And after 3,000 years they shared only 29% of the original vocabulary.

  A long time ago,some Eskimos,speaking the Eskimo language,left the mainland of Alaska and began to live in a group of islands (called the Aleutian Islands) at some distance from the coast.Recently,research workers compared the islanders‘ language with the modern Eskimo language.They found that the Aleutians and the Eskimos shared only 29% of the words on the standard list.From this fact the investigators were able to calculate the date of the event referred to at the beginning of this paragraph.

  ( )42.A “language clock” is .

  A.an electric clock B.an electronic clock

  C.a mechanical clock D.a figurative clock

  ( )43.On the average,after 3,000 years,the percentage of the 200 original words which remained in use was .

  A.66% B.45%

  C.81% D.53%

  ( )44.Using the language clock,researchers were able to determine .

  A.why the Aleuts left the mainland

  B.when language of the Aleuts began to change

  C.when the Aleuts left the mainland

  D.why some Eskimos remained on the mainland

  ( )45.According to the passage,which of the following statements is NOT true

  A.Some Aleuts are the descendants of Eskimos on the mainland of Alaska.

  B.Through the centuries languages change only in words.

  C.To establish the “language clock” the Americans investigated and compared vocabulary.

  D.A “language clock” is used to count dates.

  ( )46.The significant period of time for language clock research is .

  A.1,000 years B.100 years

  C.10,000 years D.10 years

  VII.Directions:Read the following passage,and then fill in the table with the information based on the passage.(10%)

  Lasers make possible a fascinating form of photography known as holography.Holos means “complete” and graphos means “picture” in the Greek language.A hologram records a complete,three-dimensional picture of an object.When observed,a hologram looks so convincing that the viewer has the uncanny sensation of being able to reach out and touch the real object.

  In comparison,photographs are recorded images of the intensity of ordinary,incoherent light,They are two-dimensional because it is difficult to systematically measure the random phases of incoherent light.A hologram,on the other hand,is made with coherent laser light.Coherent light waves that are out of phase can be measured to produce a three-dimensional record of the depth of every detail of an image.

  Two Types of Images Recorded by Photography

  Name Characteristic Light Used

  47 48 49

  photograph 50 51

  47.

  48.

  49.

  50.

  51.

  Part D:Writing

  VIII.Passage-writing.(15%)

  52.Directions:Write a passage(150-200 words) in English on the title “How to Avoid the Energy Crisis”。Develop the ideas according to the Chinese outline given below.

  1)能源是人类社会发展必不可少的,但目前普遍使用的煤、石油、天然气等储量有限。

  2)一旦发生能源危机,它对于人类社会产生的后果不堪设想。

  3)怎样解决能源问题?

 

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