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2001年10月浙江省高等教育自学考试英语阅读与理解试题

2005-06-10 00:00   【 】【我要纠错

  课程代码:07525

  Ⅰ。Match each word in column A with its definition in column B.Two definitions are not needed.Write your answer on the Answer Sheet.(15%)

  A B

  1.alter a.guiltless

  2.irritated b.chance

  3.release c.annoyed

  4.elegant d.lucky

  5.absorb e.graceful

  6.innocent f.set free

  7.suitable g.strange

  8.uncertainty h.change

  9.odd i.take in

  10.opportunity j.crazy

  11.save k.appropriate

  12.repay l.display

  13.grave m.rescue

  14.insane n.pay back

  15.fortunate o.serious

  p.distant

  q.indecision

  Ⅱ。Choose A,B,C, or D that has the closest meaning to the underlined word or phrase.Write your answer on the Answer Sheet.(15%)

  1.They must either change their behaviour or become extinct.

  A.no longer active B.innate impulse

  C.different or separate D.no longer in existence

  2.Calories measure the energy we derive from the food we eat.

  A.use B.save C.get D.spend

  3.Experiments show that on a normal distribution curve the deviation from the mean represented by the top of the curve is equal on both sides.

  A.difference B.turning away C.distance D.departure

  4.So if you hook your children with reading,you influence not only his future but also that of the next generation.

  A.hang B.attract C.fasten D.band

  5.Relax the muscles at the end of your exhalation,then inhale gently.

  A.stretch out B.breathe in C.sigh D.breathe out

  6.If they fall behind too far on these obligations,they run the risk of having their houses,cars or other items taken over or repossessed by the lenders.

  A.duties B.debts C.necessities D.payments

  7.Or it may refer to the subject which is studied to obtain knowledge as to the financial operation conducted to discharge international obligations.

  A.perform B.send out C.dismiss D.pay

  8.Tuition at a private school like U.S.C. was reckoned at $20 per credit.

  A.estimated B.considered C.thought of D.accounted

  9.The momentous sights revealed by the Hubble can stir anybody‘s imagination.

  A.instant B.occasional

  C.extremely important D.worth remembering

  10.The symptoms of influenza are fever,headache and muscular pain.

  A.forces B.effects C.conditions D.signs

  11.I suppose that you are fully aware of the strengths and defects of your character.

  A.virtues B.merits C.attributes D.weaknesses

  12.This matter is so confidential that it must not be discussed outside the office.

  A.important B.sensational C.horrible D.secret

  13.Although monkeys occasionally menace their enemies,they are usually not dange rous unless they are provoked.

  A.threaten B.purse C.kill D.consume

  14.I found that the local people were hostile to the Asian immigrants.

  A.agreeable B.helpful C.indifferent D.unfriendly

  15.No one is a more cautious driver than my mother.

  A.careful B.timid C.skillful D.experienced

  Ⅲ。Read ″MORE PEOPLE AND MORE PRODUCTS″ carefully.After reading the passage,first decide whether the 10 statements that follow are True(T) or False(F),then translate paragraphs 4,11 of the passage into Chinese.(25%)

  MORE PEOPLE AND MORE PRODUCTS

  1 About three hundred years ago,there were approximately half a billion people in the world.In the two centuries that followed the population doubled,and,by 1850,there were more than a billion people in the world.It took only 75 years for the figure to double once more,so that now the population figure stands at approximately three and one half billion.Each day the population of the world increases by about 150,000.

  2 In former centuries the population grew slowly.Famines,wars,and epidemics,such as the plague and cholera,killed many people.Today,although the birth rate has not changed significantly,the death rate has been lowered considerably by various kinds of progress.

  3 Machinery has made it possible to produce more and more food in vast areas,such as the plains of America and Russia.Crops have been increased almost everywhere and people are growing more and more food.New forms of food preservation have also been developed so that food need not be eaten as soon as it is grown.Meat,fish,fruit and vegetables can be dried,tinned or frozen,then stored for later use.

  4 Improvement in communications and transportation has made it possible to send more food from the place where it is produced to other places where it is needed.This has helped reduce the number of famines.

  5 Generally speaking,people live in conditions of greater security.Practices such as the slave trade,which caused many useless deaths,have been stopped.

  6 Progress in medicine and hygiene has made it possible for people to live longer.People in Europe and North America live,on the average,twice as long as they did a hundred years ago.In other countries,too,people generally live much longer than they once did.Babies,especially,have a far better chance of growing up because of increased protection against infant disease.However,all countries do not benefit to the same degree from this progress in medicine and hygiene.

  7 In Europe and North America,the growing population has had the advantage of greater quantities of natural resources and food.However,in some places,such as the monsoon countries of Asia,the birth rate has always been very high.Now,with better hygienic conditions and better medical care,fewer babies die;but the birth rate has not changed.This means that the population is growing very rapidly and that there is not enough food for everyone.

  8 Half the world‘s people live in Asia,but most of them are concentrated in the coastal regions and on the islands.The same type of populace concentration is true of other continents,although they are often far less populated.There are still vast regions of the world where very few people live:the central regions of the larger continents,mountainous areas,deserts,the far north,and tropical jungles.

  9 In prehistoric times,people from Africa and Asia migrated to other continents.Europe was occupied by people from the east,America by groups from Asia.In th e nineteenth century,the population of Europe increased rapidly,and living conditions were sometimes difficult because of wars,famines,or political conditions.Many Europeans left their countries to find better conditions in America,Africa and Australia.

  10 During the nineteenth and twentieth centuries,migrations have taken place within certain countries:the cities with their industries have attracted people away from the country.The possibility of earning a fixed salary in a factory or office was more attractive than the possibility of staying on the farm and having one‘s work destroyed by frost,storms,or droughts.Furthermore,the development of agricultural machinery made it possible for fewer people to do the same amount of work.

  11 Thus,at the same time that the industrial revolution made it possible to produce goods more cheaply and more quickly in factories,agricultural revolution also took place.Instead of leaving fields empty every third year,farmers began to plant clover or some other crop that would enrich the soil.Instead of using only animal fertilizer,farmers began to use chemical fertilizers to keep the soil rich.These methods have enabled French farmers,for example,to get five times as much wheat as was obtained from the same land two centuries ago.

  12 In many countries farmers find it more profitable to raise only one crop or one kind of animal.They choose the kind that gives the best results.Then they sell all that they produce,instead of trying to grow a little of everything and consume what they grow.This is a more feasible type of operation because modern methods and machinery are adapted to specific animals and specific crops.Therefore,it would be too expensive to do all the work by hand,or to buy the equipment needed for several different kinds of farming.

  13 At the same time,constant progress has been going on in industry.Fifty years ago it took a day to assemble the pieces of an automobile.Today one factory can produce one car in a minute.Today,too,it takes only one textile worker to supervise the production of as much cotton cloth as 4,000 workers could have produced in the eighteenth century.Modern industry needs large numbers of specialized workers.The less specialized workers are gradually being replaced by new machines.Large quantities of raw materials,sometimes brought from halfway around the world,are also needed.To work the machines,energy must be supplied from sources such as coal,water power,electricity and oil.And to build,maintain and improve modern factories,great financial resources are necessary.A factory is often the property of a society or a government,rather than the property of one person.

  14 After producing its goods,industry must sell these goods to people.If a factory can produce more goods than it is able to sell in its own country,it tries to sell them to people of other countries.Thus,nowadays we see more and more trade agreements making it easier to exchange raw materials and manufactured goods between countries,and great advertising campaigns helping industries sell more goods.

  A.Decide whether the following statements are True(T) or False(F) according to the information given in the passage.Write T or F on the Answer Sheet.(10%)

  1.There are now five times as many people in the world as there were three hundred years ago.

  2.The greatest problem that this increase of population has brought about is that the earth can no longer provide enough food despite the various kinds of progress made during the last 75 years.

  3.Human lives are now less threatened by famines because people suffering from starvation in one area can get more food from other areas as a result of improvements in transportation.

  4.In Paragraph 7,the writer suggests that Asian countries still enjoy the advantage of sufficient natural resources in spite of the rapid growth of their population.

  5.The population density is not even;some areas are densely populated while the population of many other regions is very sparse.

  6.Since ancient times people have been trying to better their life by means of changing their place of living.

  7.Many people left their land and went to cities because there they could hope to find a job with regular pay and could live a less risky life.

  8.During the 19th and 20th centuries,largescale migrations gave rise to an agricultural revolution.

  9.In many countries farmers have stopped growing many kinds of crops at the same time because they can not sell them.

  10.As a result of the increase of industrial productivity,people from different countries need to come into more frequent contact with each other.

  B.Translate paragraphs 4,11 of the passage into Chinese.Write your Chinese version on the Answer Sheet.(15%)

  Ⅳ。Read the following four passages carefully and then choose A,B,C, or D that you think is the best answer.Write your answer on the Answer Sheet.(45%)

  Passage One

  A unique laboratory at the University of Chicago is busy only at night.It is a dream laboratory where researchers are at work studying dreamers.Their findings have revealed that everyone dreams from three to seven times a night,although in ordiary life a person may remember none or only one of his dreams.

  While the subjects-usually students-are asleep,special machines record their brain waves and eye movements as well as the body movements that signal the end of a dream.Surprisingly,all subjects sleep soundly.Observers report that a person usually fidgets before a dream.Once the dream has started,his body relaxes and his eyes become more active,as if the curtain had gone up on a show.As soon as the machine indicates that the dream is over,a buzzer wakens the sleeper.He sits up,records his dream,ane goes back to sleep-perhaps to dream some more.

  Researchers have found that if the dreamer is wakened immediately after his dream,he can usually recall the entire dream.If he is allowed to sleep even five more minutes,his memory of the dream will have faded.

  1.According to the passage,researchers at the University of Chicago are studying ______.

  A.the content of dreams B.the meaning of dreams

  C.the process of sleeping D.dreamers while they dream

  2.Their findings have revealed that ______.

  A.everyone dreams every night

  B.dreams are easily remembered

  C.dreams are likely to be frightening

  D.persons dream only one dream a night

  3.The researchers were surprised to find that ______.

  A.dream memories are often incomplete

  B.persons sleep soundly while they dream

  C.sleepers relax while dreaming

  D.dreamers can record their own dreams

  4.Just before a dream a sleeper will usually ______.

  A.relax B.lie perfectly still

  C.fidget D.make more eye movements

  5.In the dream laboratory,the dreams are recorded ______.

  A.as soon as the student wakes in the morning

  B.at stated intervals during the night

  C.about five minutes after the end of each dream

  D.immediately after each dream

  Passage Two

  If women are mercilessly exploited year after year,they have themselves to blame.Because they tremble at the thought of being seen in public in clothes that are out of fashion,they are always taken advantage of by designers and big stores.Clothes which have been worn only a few times have to be put aside because of the change of fashion.When you come to think of it,only a woman is capable of standing in front of a wardrobe packed full of clothes and announcing sadly that she has nothing to wear.Changing fashions are nothing more than the intentional creation of waste.Many women spend vast sums of money each year to replace clothes that have hardly been worn.Women who cannot afford to throw away clothing in this way waste hours of their time altering the dresses they have.Skirts are lengthened or shortened;neck lines are lowered or raised,and so on.

  No one can claim that the fashion industry contributes anything really important to society.Fashion designers are rarely concerned with vital things like warmth,comfort and durability.They are only interested in outward appearance and they take advantage of the fact that women will put up with any amount of discomfort,as long as they look right.There can hardly be a man who hasn‘t at some time in his life smiled at the sight of a woman shaking in a thin dress on a winter day,or delicately picking her way through deep snow in high heeled shoes.

  When comparing men and women in the matter of fashion,the conclusions to be drawn are obvious.Do the constantly changing fashions of women‘s clothes,one wonders,reflect basic qualities of inconstancy and instability Men are too clever to let themselves be cheated by fashion designers.Do their unchanging styles of dress reflect basic qualities of stability and reliability This is for you to decide.

  6.Designers and big stores always make money ______.

  A.by constantly changing the fashions in women‘s clothing

  B.because they are capable of predicting new fashions

  C.by mercilessly exploiting women workers in the clothing industry

  D.because they attach great importance to quality in women‘s clothing

  7.To the writer,the fact that women alter oldfashioned dresses is seen as ______.

  A.a waste of money B.a waste of time

  C.an expression of taste D.an expression of creativity

  8.The writer would be less critical if fashion designers placed more stress on the _____ of clothing.

  A.cost B.comfort C.suitability D.appearance

  9.According to the passage,which of the following statements is TRUE

  A.The fashion industry makes an important contribution to society.

  B.The constant changes in women‘s clothing reflect their strength of character.

  C.New fashions in clothing are created for the commercial exploitation of women.

  D.Fashion designs should not be encouraged since they are only welcomed by women.

  10.By saying ″the conclusions to be drawn are obvious″(Lines 1-2,Paragrap 4),the writer means that ______.

  A.men are more reasonable in the matter of fashion

  B.women are better able to put up with discomfort

  C.men are also exploited greatly by fashion designers

  D.women‘s inconstancy in their choice of clothing is often laughed at

  Passage Three

  Languages are very versatile and adaptable.Their versatility is shown by the fact that all kinds of people,from scholars and mystics to laborers and mechanics,can make use of the same language to carry on their work,their social life,their thoughts,and their recreations.There are differences between the ways in which these different groups use their language,but it is at bottom the same means of communication.Another sign of the versatility of language is the fact that speakers are constantly saying new things that they never heard before,and others understand their uterances with equal ease,often without even realizing that they are new.This is one of the great differences between language proper and the pseudo languages used by animals.So far as we know,all animal communications consist of a relatively short list of utterances which cannot be changed,expanded,

  or used in new and different ways.An animal “language”,then is rather like one of those little pocket phrase books for travelers.Even if he memorizes the book,the traveler is restricted to the immediate practical needs covered by the repertory of messages in the book.He can ask the way to his hotel or the price of a souvenir,but he can‘t comment very effectively on the sunset or describe the way things are in his hometown.And if something he says moves a speaker of the language to engage in real conversation,the traveler is lost.But two speakers of the same language,even though they may be very different in background,experience,education,and personality,can find a way to talk about anything they want to,using sentences that were never printed in any phrase book because nobody ever used them before.

  The adaptability of language is related to its versatility.Like other human institutions,a language is adjusted by long use to the particular needs of the people and the society that use it.When these needs change,the language also changes,usually much more rapidly than most other institutions.This is why it is that in 1500 years — a relatively short space of time in human history — English has changed from the language of a rough,warlike,rather savage,agrarian,tribal society like that of the Anglo Saxons to the typical languages of the most complicated technological civilization yet developed on earth.It has always been easily adjusted to meet the new needs put upon it by a new religion,a new social system,an age of worldwide exploration,conquest,and colonization,and a series of political,agricultural,industrial,scientific,technological,and electronic revolutions.Other languages have done the same,and the process is going on today as the peoples of many different cultures around the world cope with the problem of adapting to Western society.Here again language shows itself fundamentally different from the communication systems of animals.A group of animals transplanted from their natural habitat to a new and different one do not devise new cries to deal with the new circumstances.They have only their little phrase book of specific and unalterable utterances,many of which are irrelevant to their new condition.

  11.Language is the means of ______.

  A.recreation B.social life C.communication D.work

  12.An animal ″language″ cannot be ______.

  A.changed B.expanded

  C.used in new and different ways D.all above

  13.The same language can be used by all kinds of people to ______.

  A.describe the way things are in his hometown

  B.carry on their social life

  C.express their thoughts

  D .all above

  14.Speakers can say something ______.

  A.they have never heard

  B.others cannot understand

  C.that are new and others can understand

  D.both A and C

  15.An animal pseudo language is something like ______.

  A.a textbook B.a little pocket phrase book

  C.a walking dictionary D.an encyclopedia

  16.Two speakers of the same language ______.

  A.can talk anything they want to B.can engage in real conversation

  C.either A or B D.can‘t comment very effectively on the sunset

  17.A language is changed by ______.

  A.the needs of people who use it B.the society where it was created

  C.the human institutions D.the long use of it

  18.Generally speaking,a language changes more rapidly than ______.

  A.the manners and customs B.the religions

  C.the interpersonal relationship D.all above

  19.English can be adjusted to the new needs of ______.

  A.technological revolution B.a new social system

  C.an age of worldwide exploration D.all above

  20.A language will always change so long as ______.

  A.its people cope with new phenomena

  B.its people want to improve the communication with each other

  C.its people move to new places

  D.the peoples of different cultures meet very often

  Passage Four

  One of the oldest seafaring ships in the world has been reconstructed after seven years‘ patient archaeological work.The ship,a 60-foot sailing vessel,sank off the coast of Cyprus in the days of Alexander the Great around the year 300 B.C……Its discovery and restoration have now thrown new light on the ancient trade routes and shipbuilding techniques.

  What makes the Cyprus ship so imformative is the remarkable state of preservation-mainly due to an unusual feature of its design.The hull was sheathed on the outside with lead that was fixed to the timber with bronze tacks which helped the wooden frame survive 2000 years under the sea.

  The first clue to the wreck‘s existence came in 1964 when a sponge diver from the presentday resort of Kyrenia came across a pile of amphorae(ancient storage jugs)。Unfortunately his diving air supply ran out just at that moment,so that he had no time to mark the spot.It took him three more years and hundreds of dives before he chanced upon them again.

  He reported his find to an underwater archaeological team from the University of Pennsylvania,which was surveying the Cypriot coasts for wrecks.After checking his description,the team decided to concentrate their resources on the Kyrenia ship,and over the next two years a team of no fewer than 50 archaeologists and divers took part in the excavation.

  With the help of a metal detector,the team discovered that wreckage lay scattered over a 2000square-feet area,often buried beneath sand and seaweed.Each item was carefully photographed in its place,and a system of plastic grids stretched over the whole site so that it could be accurately mapped.

  More than 400 amphorae lay buried in the sand.The ship had been carrying a cargo of wine and almonds.More than 9000 of these were found in or nearby the amphorae,their outer shells still perfectly preserved.As well as these,there were 29 stone grain mills,being carried both as cargo and as ballast.These were carefully stowed in three rows parallel to the axis of the keel.

  As well as the main cargo,there were other small finds.Four wooden spoons,four oil jugs,four salt dishes and four drinking cups suggested the number of crew on the ship‘s last voyage.There was an axe,and near the intricately carved mast lay a wooden pulley,used to raise and lower the yard.A bronze cauldron,used perhaps to prepare the crew’s meals,was also lying in the wreck.

  Of five bronze coins found,none dated earlier than 306 B.C……Carbon 14 analysis of the almond cargo pinpointed their date at about 288 B.C.,but that of the ship‘s planking suggested an earlier date of 370 B.C……Thus the Kyrenia ship was more than 80 years old the day she sank—a long life for a wooden hull and proof of the good craftsmanship of her builder.

  Raising the delicate timbers of the ship presented grave problems.The archaeologists decided that trying to lift them out in one piece would be too risky.Instead the hull was cut into sections on the site by an electric underwater saw.Then each carefully labelled piece was raised to the surface by a lifting balloon.Once out in the air again,each timber section was treated with a preservative called polyethylene glycol.This replaces the water in the weakened wood so that the timbers do not disintegrage when they dry.

  Until the discovery of the ship,little was known of the Eastern Mediterranean trading vessels,their routes or their cargoes.Thanks to the different shaped amphorae,the Kyrenia ship‘s last voyage can be traced.She had been threading her way southwards along the coast of Anatolia,stop-

  ping at the islands of Samos,Kos and Rhodes,before continuing eastwards to the north coast of Cyprus.

  What calamity caused her to sink about a quarter of a mile east of the horseshoe harbour of Kyrenia remains a mystery.There are no traces of fire on board,which rules out the possibility of lightning.Perhaps a sudden autumn storm simply caught her four man crew unawares.They seem to have abandoned the ship,for no human remains were found on board.

  21.The discovery of the ship is important to students of early ships and their routes because ______.

  A.as the oldest surviving ship it is a valuable source of information

  B.it is a useful means of extending their existing knowledge

  C.its discovery has changed completely their existing ideas

  D.this provides the only information about early Mediterranean trading ships that have come their way.

  22.Archaeologists were able to learn a lot about the construction of the ship because ______.

  A.it was discovered only a short distance from land

  B.there were various forms of tools and equipment

  C.it was in a surprisingly good condition

  D.a lot of its cargo still remained

  23.How was the first discovery of the ship made

  A.By chance

  B.As a result of an archaeological survey

  C.With the help of a metal detector

  D.By underwater photography

  24.When informed of the discovery the archaeological team decided ______.

  A.to narrow down their investigation to this ship

  B.to include this research in their programme

  C.to organise a team to search for other wrecks in this area

  D.to examine at the same time other nearby wrecks

  25.Which of the following tasks is not stated as having formed part of the research

  A.Recording pictures of the finds

  B.Making an exact plan of the position of the finds

  C.Locating all the parts of the ship and its cargo in the area

  D.Storing everything carefully in rows

  26.The stone grain mills were being carried to ______.

  A.provide flour for food for the crew

  B.contain stores of corn

  C.keep the ship low enough in the water

  D.strengthen the structure of the ship

  27.The approximate date of the shipwreck could be decided from ______.

  A.the dates on the coins found

  B.the analysis of the age of the materials from which the ship was built

  C.the scientifically-determined age of some of the cargo

  D.a knowledge of the date of the building of the ship together with her known age

  28.The archaeologists faced a considerable problem in raising the ship because ______.

  A.the structure would be extremely heavy to bring to the surface as a whole

  B.raising all the separate parts would be a long and tedious job

  C.the materials were very frail and could be damaged

  D.the raising of such a large structure might involve some of the men in accidents

  29.The ship‘s route could be determined from ______.

  A.the discovery that she had been travelling southwards and eastwards

  B.the various containers she was carrying

  C.the types of wines on board

  D.the fact that she had sunk just near Kyrenia

  30.Which of the following items of information is quite certainly correct

  A.There were no survivors of the shipwreck.

  B.The disaster took the crew by surprise.

  C.No member of the crew was drowned as a result of the wreck.

  D.A considerable amount of the cargo remained on board.

  浙江省2001年10月高等教育自学考试

  英语阅读与理解试题参考答案

  课程代码:07525

  Ⅰ。Match each word with its definition.(15%)

  1.h 2.c 3.f 4.e 5.i

  6.a 7.k 8.q 9.g 10.b

  11.m 12.n 13.o 14.j 15.d

  Ⅱ。Choose A,B,C, or D that has the closest meaning to the underlined word or phrase.(15%)

  1.D 2.C 3.A 4.B 5.B

  6.A 7.A 8.A 9.C 10.D

  11.D 12.D 13.A 14.D 15.A

  Ⅲ。True(T) or False(F) and Translation(25%)

  A.True(T) or False(F)(10%)

  1.F 2.F 3.T 4.F 5.T

  6.T 7.T 8.F 9.F 10.T

  B.Translation(15%)

  4.通信和运输的改进使得人们有可能将更多的粮食从其产地运送到其他需要粮食的地方。这样做起到了减少饥荒数量的作用。

  11. 因此,在工业革命使得人们有可能在工厂更快更便宜地生产商品的同时,农业革命也发生了。代之以让田地每三年荒芜一次,农民们开始种植苜蓿或其他能使土地肥 沃的作物。他们还开始使用化肥,而非仅用牲畜粪便令土地保持肥沃。例如,这些方法使法国农民在同样土地上所收获的小麦是两个世纪前的五倍。

  Ⅳ。Reading Comprehension(45%)

  1.D 2.A 3.B 4.C 5.D

  6.A 7.B 8.B 9.C 10.A

  11.C 12.D 13.D 14.D 15.B

  16.C 17.A 18.D 19.D 20.D

  21.B 22.C 23.A 24.A 25.D

  26.C 27.C 28.C 29.B 30.D

 

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