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2004年4月全国高等教育自学考试英语科技文选试题

2005-06-11 00:00   【 】【我要纠错

  课程代码:00836

  PART A: VOCABULARY

  Ⅰ。Directions: Add the affix to each word according to the given Chinese, making changes when necessary (10%)

  1.custom 合乎风俗习惯的 1._____________________________

  2.plausible 难以置信的 2. _____________________________

  3.guarantee 保证人 3._____________________________

  4.routine 通常地 4._____________________________

  5.sphere 半球 5._____________________________

  6.wilder 使迷惑 6._____________________________

  7.discriminate 不分青红皂白的 7._____________________________

  8.symbol 作为……的象征 8._____________________________

  9.foam 泡沫似的 9._____________________________

  10.convey 输送(n.) 10. _____________________________

  Ⅱ。Directions: Fill in the blanks, each using one of the given words or phrases below in its proper form. (10%)

  bind up an array of give off focus on draw on

  reach out suck up account for after all rest on

  11.As the blood passes through the lungs it __________its excess nitrogen.

  12.A near-sighted person cannot _____________accurately __________distant objects.

  13.There was practically no experience to ______________in the building of such structures.

  14.Mathematics _______________closely ____________the problems of real life today.

  15.He was unable to escape _______________proofs.

  16.___________, to the physicist, metal physics is but a small branch of the wider field of solid-state physics .

  17.The vacuum cleaner _____________moisture from the carpet.

  18.Only the most sophisticated theories of modern physics can ___________this phenomenon.

  19.Newton‘s laws ________________a very solid base of experimental evidence.

  20……The child _________a hand towards the apple.

  Ⅲ。Directions: Fill in each blank with a suitable word given below. (10%)

  it about forward though noticed on in that suggested related

  The last decade has brought 21 a revolution in our understanding of the earth and the forces that shape 22 . Centuries ago geographers 23 that the continents of Africa and South America appear to fit together like a jig-saw puzzle. In 1620 Sir Francis Bacon speculated that their similarity of shorelines could not be an accident 24 he did not consider actual movement. During the 1800s there were discoveries of identical fossils and rock layers 25 the two continents. In 1912 the German meteorologist Wegener put 26 the hypothesis 27 all the continents of the earth have moved, 28 the grounds that they all seem to fit together like a jig-saw puzzle. He 29 that the movement was the result of forces 30 to the spin of the earth.

  21. ____________ 22. ____________ 23. ____________ 24. ___________ 25.____________

  26. ____________ 27._____________ 28.____________ 29.____________ 30. ___________

  PART B: TRANSLATION

  Ⅳ。Directions: Translate the following sentences into English, each using one of the given words or phrases below. (10%)

  blur allot overall no wonder a spectrum of

  31.总的来说,形势令人鼓舞。

  32.未来的努力将为有效控制虫害提供一系列实用的策略,对此我们很乐观。

  33.近年来这些分界线已经有些模糊不清了。

  34.无怪乎,这么多商人坚信它将成为经济增长的强有力工具。

  35.人们所能希望的,最多是充分利用分配给他们每一个人的时间。

  Ⅴ。Directions: Translate the following paragraphs into Chinese. (15%)

  36. Between the distant quasars and the stars of the Sun‘s neighborhood lies a vast middle ground where the architecture of the cosmos stands in full display. Far from scattering at random as astronomers once surmised, galaxies tend to congregate, as people do. Moreover, their congregations also congregate, and so on. These vast clouds of organization-in which galaxies behave like swarming dust motes-have taught astronomers that there’s much more to the universe than meets the eye. An astronomer can examine a galaxy and from its brightness make a guess as to how many stars and how much dusty gas it contains. Yet when we track the movements of galaxies in a self-contained cluster, they move as if each galaxy were far heavier than it appears. It‘s like watching go-carts move as unstoppably as trucks. What is this mass that looms invisibly among the bright lights of the galaxies  No one knows.

  _______________________________________________________________________________PART C: READING COMPREHENSION

  Ⅵ。Directions: Read through the following passages. Choose the best answer and put the letter in the bracket. (20%)

  Sulfur dioxide, a colorless and odorless gas in typical outdoor concentrations, is formed naturally through biological decay and volcanic eruptions. Sulfur dioxide becomes most dangerous to people when, clinging to small particulates (颗粒状物), it is carried into the lungs. When this happens, as it did in the deadly incident of the mid-1900s, it may kill or incapacitate sensitive individuals such as the very young or very old or those with serious preexisting heart or lung problems. It can also cause increased illness in normally healthy people.

  Particulates have both natural and man-made sources. Natural sources include the sea, volcanoes, forest fires, and wind blown silt. Important man-made sources include incenerators, manufacturing and industrial processes, fossil-fueled power plants, mining and materials processing, the internal combustion engine, and agricultural activities. On a global scale, natural emissions of particulates far exceed man-made emissions, but man-made emissions are predominant in industrialized or urban areas.

  The health effects of particulates depend on their size and composition. The larger particulates are usually filtered out in the nose and throat and rapidly cleared from the body. Smaller particulates may be carried deeper into the lungs. Particulates reaching sensitive deep lung areas are considered relatively more important for health purposes. Welfare effects caused by particulates have to do with soiling clothes and surfaces, and in combination with some gases, such as sulfur dioxide, corroding materials.

  Acid rain, or more accurately, acidic deposition (which refers to both wet and dry deposition of acidifying compounds), is one of the most controversial and important environmental issues of the day. It is the subject of both international concern and worldwide research.

  The principal causes of high rainfall acidity are sulfuric, nitric, and hydrochloric acids. The major man-made sources of pollutants that cause these acids are fossil-fueled utility and industrial boilers and the internal combustion engine. Proposed efforts to control man‘s contributions to acid rain concentrate on controlling these acidifying pollutants, especially sulfur dioxide.

  Acidity is measured using a logarithmic scale of 0 to 14 called the pH scale. On this scale, a neutral substance has a pH of 7. An acidic substance, like vinegar, has pH value less than 7. An alkaline or basic substance (碱性物质), like baking soda, has a pH value higher than 7. Theoretically, pure rainfall has a pH of 5.6 and is acidic because the water has combined with carbon dioxide in the air to form weak carbonic acid. Rain with a lower pH than 5.6 is called acid rain. Recent evidence suggests that natural rain (in the absence of man-made pollution) is several times more acidic than previously thought. In several remote areas of the globe, rainfall pHs of 4.5 to 5.0 are routinely encountered. Some scientists suggest that these low pH values indicate the global extent of the acid rain problem.

  In some areas, there have been fishkills associated with acidic stream runoff following heavy rains. If the water in the streams, rivers, and lakes becomes too acidic, fish cannot survive. Scientists are also studying the effects of acid rain on crops, plants, and land animals. For sensitive environments, an increase in the acidity of rainfall could be, very serious. Clearly something must be done.

  However, it would be unwise to investigate every aspect of acid rain before action is taken.

  ( ) 37.which of the following would be the best title for the passage

  A. Sulfur Dioxide: The Silent Killer

  B. The Effects of Sulfur Dioxide and Acid Rain

  C. How Chemistry is Destroying Our University

  D. Why New Stronger Anti-Pollution Laws Are Needed

  ( ) 38. According to the passage, the dangers of sulfur dioxide are increased when_______.

  A. people participate in arduous exercise, like marathons

  B. drought conditions exist for extended periods of time

  C. particulates carry it into the lungs

  D. acid rain increases

  ( ) 39.You may infer from the passage that a substance with a pH balance of 4_________.

  A. could not mix with a substance of pH balance above 7

  B. has no acidity

  C. is volatile and dangerous

  D. is acidic

  ( ) 40. The author gives the same information about which of the following in his discussion of sulfur dioxide, particulates, and acid rain

  A. The solution to the problem.

  B. The leading scientists working on the problem.

  C. The sources of the problem.

  D. The number of deaths attributable to the problem.

  ( ) 41.The next paragraph of this passage would most likely discuss which of the following

  A. The steps to take to decrease acid rain.

  B. The importance of swift action to work on the problems.

  C. The economic difficulties in implementing acid rain controls.

  D. The programs that have already been attempted and have failed to decrease acid rain.

  Why does the Foundation concentrate its support on basic rather than applied research  Basic research is the very heart of science, and its cumulative product is the capital of scientific progress, a capital that must be constantly increased as the demands upon it rise. The goal of basic research is understanding, for its own sake. Understanding of the structure of the atom or the nerve cell, the explosion of a spiral nebula or the distribution of cosmic dust, the causes of earthquakes and droughts, or of man as a behaving creature and of the social forces that are created whenever two or more human beings come into contact with one another—the scope is staggering, but the commitment to truth is the same. If the commitment were to a particular result, conflicting evidence might be overlooked or, with the best will in the world, simply not appreciated. Moreover, the practical applications of basic research frequently cannot be anticipated. When Roentgen, the physicist, discovered X-rays, he had no idea of their usefulness to medicine.

  Applied research, undertaken to solve specific practical problems, has an immediate attractiveness because the results can be seen and enjoyed. For practical reasons, the sums spent on applied research in any country always far exceed those for basic research, and the proportions are more unequal in the less developed countries. Leaving aside the funds devoted to research by industry—which is naturally far more concerned with applied aspects because these increase profits quickly—the funds the U.S Government allots to basic research currently amount to about 7 percent of its over-all research and development funds. Unless adequate safeguards are provided, applied research invariably ends to drive out basic. Then, as Dr. Waterman has pointed out, “Developments will inevitably be undertaken prematurely, career incentives will gravitate strongly toward applied science, and the opportunities for making major scientific discoveries will be lost. Unfortunately, pressures to emphasize new developments, without corresponding emphasis upon pure science…tend to degrade the quality of the nation‘s technology in the long run, rather than to improve it.”

  42.The title below that best expresses the ideas of this passage is__________.

  A. Foundation Funds

  B. The Attractiveness of Applied Research

  C. The Importance of Basic Research

  D. Basic Research vs. Applied Research

  43. Industry is primarily interested in applied research because it ________.

  A. provides better understanding

  B. offers immediate profit

  C. drives out basic research

  D. solves practical problems

  44. Basic research is vital because________________.

  A. it leads to results that can be appreciated

  B. it is driven out by applied research

  C. it provides the basis for scientific progress

  D. it tends to degrade the nation‘s technology

  45. The federal government_____________.

  A. encourages basic research

  B. devotes more than 90% of its research and development funds to applied research

  C. spends far more on applied research than on military problems

  D. opposes the Foundation‘s grants to basic research

  46. Less developed countries______________.

  A. spend little on research

  B. devote a large portion of their budget to applied research

  C. realize that progress depends on basic research

  D. devote less than 7% of their scientific budget to basic research

  Ⅶ。 Directions: Read the following passage, and then fill in the table with the information based on the passage. (10%)

  Topology is the geometry of distortion. It deals with fundamental geometric properties that are unaffected when we stretch, twist or otherwise change an object‘s size and shape. It studies linear figures, surfaces or solids; anything from pretzels and knots to networks and maps. Another name for topology is analysis of position. Unlike the geometries of Euclid, Labachevsky, Riemann and others, which measure lengths and angles and are therefore called metric, topology is nonmetric and nonquantitative geometry. Its propositions hold as well for objects made of rubber as for the rigid figures encountered in metric geometry.

  Topology seems a queer subject; it delves into strange implausible shapes and its propositions are either childishly obvious (that is, until you try to prove them) or so difficult and abstract that not even a topologist can explain their intuitive meaning. But topology is no queerer than the physical world as we now interpret it. A world made up entirely of erratic electrical gyrations in curved space requires a bizarre mathematics to do it justice, Euclidian geometry, despite its familiar appearance, is a little too bizarre for this world; it is concerned with wholly fictitious objects-perfectly rigid figures and bodies which suffer no change when moved about. Topology starts from the sound premise that there are no rigid objects, that everything in the world is a little askew, and is further deformed when its position is altered. The aim is to find the elements of order in this disorder, the permanence in this impermanence.

  Differences between Topology and Euclidian Geometry

  Study Scope of Study Premise of Study Characteristitics of Study

  Topology

  ① ②Everything in the

  word is ___________

  and _____________.

  ③

  Euclidian

  Geometry

  lengths and angles ④Everything in the

  word is ___________

  and _____________.

  ⑤

  47.①__________________________________________________

  48.②__________________________________________________

  and__________________________________________________

  49.③__________________________________________________

  50.④___________________________________________________

  and__________________________________________________

  51.⑤___________________________________________________

  Part D: Writing

  Ⅷ。 Passage-writing. (15%)

  52. Directions: Write a passage (150-200-word) in English on the title “Are Space Programs Worthwhile ”。 Develop the ideas according to the Chinese outline given below.

  (1)人类几十年以来,致力于外层空间的探索,并投入了大量的人力、物力和财力。

  (2)各种航天计划的目的是什么?与解决地球上经济发展、人口过多等问题有矛盾吗?

  (3)航天计划究竟值得吗? (请说明理由)

 

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