I. The following paragraphs are taken from the textbooks followed by a list of words and expressions marked A to X. Choose the one that best completes each of the sentences and write the corresponding letter on your Answer Sheet. One word or expression for each blank only. （0.5 point for each. 12 points）
1. Women have not even reached the level of 1 that blacks are reaching. No women sit on the Supreme Court. Only two have held Cabinet 2 ， and none do 3 . Only two women hold ambassadorial rank. But women 4 in the lower-paying， menial， unrewarding， dead-end jobs， and when they do 5 better positions， they are 6 paid less than a man for the same job.
2. The satisfaction of killing time and of affording some 7 ， however modest， for ambition， belongs to most work， and is 8 to make even a man whose work is dull happier 9 than a man who has no work at all. But when work is interesting， it is capable of giving satisfaction of a far higher 10 than mere relief from 11 . The kinds of work in which there is some interest may be arranged in a 12 . I shall begin with those which are only mildly interesting and end with those that are worthy to absorb the whole energies of a great man.
3. A grocer used to be very 13 about his cheese. Cheddar was made and 14 by hundreds of little factories. Representatives of the factories had 15 customers， and cheese was 16 by hand to suit the grocers， who knew precisely what their 17 wanted. Some liked them 18 ； some liked them yellower； some liked anise seed in cheese， or caraway.
4. It has been 19 that the youth of America has been in the vanguard of the discovery of both the disease and the 20 . The various escapist movements， however， have committed the gross error of assuming that original sin 21 their elders， their rulers， and that they themselves could manifest their essential 22 by building little neo-Edens. The drug 23 could confirm that the paradisal vision was available to all who 24 it.
A. tokenism B. on the average C. culture D. sold E. outlet F. invariably
G. hierarchyH. sought I. order J. at present K. fussy L. sufficient
M. predominate N. particularO. assumed P. rested with Q. prepared
R. tedium S. cure T. patrons U. innocence V. reach W. rank X. sharper
Ⅱ。 There are 15 sentences with a blank in each， followed by a list of words or expressions marked A to X. Choose the one that best completes each of the sentences and write the corresponding letter on your Answer Sheet. One word or expression for each blank only. （1 point for each， 15 points）
1. He used to _______ his frustrations by throwing glasses onto the ground.
2. Many people still cannot accept the idea of euthanasia though some ______ it.
3. However hard he had tried to keep the truth from _______， everybody got to know what he had done.
4. It never _______ me that he should be the murderer.
5. About 90% of the population in this village are _______. They cannot read or write.
6. The signature in the contract is quite clear and _______. That helps us to find out who should be responsible for it.
7. I have not even read the first chapter， _______ finished the book.
8. The prices of agricultural products always _______ seasonally.
9. Italy is one of the richest countries in the world _______ art treasures
10. This essay is very difficult to understand _______ there are many technical terms.
11. There was not much time left. So I _______ my mother to help me.
12. As soon as you were captured by fresh air that you scream against _______ you came out.
13. It is a beautiful morning， the sun _______ across the garden.
14. An exhibition of art works by _______ artists was held last week in the art gallery.
15. I don‘t know， _______， I don’t care.
A. instead of B. in terms of C. intelligent D. legible E. flashing
F. the minute G. so long as H. act out I. indigenous J. affectionate
K. occurred to L. in that M. at all N. coming to light O. embrace
P. exhaled Q. roped in R. dominant S. for that matter T. illiterate
U. slanting V. arbitrary W. let alone X. fluctuate
Ⅲ。 Each of the following sentences is given two choices of words or expressions. Choose the right one to complete the sentence and write the corresponding letter on your Answer Sheet. （1 point for each， 15 points）
1. I caught a （A. glimpse， B. glance） of the falls when the train passed by.
2. She had been on the （A. defensive， B. defensible） before but now she attacked.
3. When he was saying all those things against the government and against the council， he became more and more ugly and （A. agitated， B. embittered）。
4. If you fit the statistical averages， by the age of 20 you will have been （A. disposed， B. exposed） to at least 20，000 hours of television.
5. Whether or not he can be the chairman is （A. debatable， B. arguable）。
6. The sweet （A. odor B. scent） of vanilla had met us as she opened the door.
7. The young man was （A. recruited， B. registered） by the company.
8. She answered all the questions from the strangers and gave them an （ A. ingenuous B. ingenious） smile.
9. Being extremely （A. sensitive， B. sensible） to cold， I care for neither skiing nor skating.
10. But （A. at large， B. by and large） the news reports and commentaries on CBS and NBC and ABC make every effort to present viewers with more than one aspect of an issue.
11. Nobody trusts him any more because of his （A. fraudulent， B. false） behaviour.
12. There is some （A. resemblance， B. similarity） between cheese and cheese foods， but they taste different.
13. The word “ghetto” had not even entered the （A. lexicology， B. lexicon） of race relations.
14. One boy stood with his back to the camera， leaning （A. stooped， B. stooled） against a gate lintel.
15. A teacher should not be （A. segmental， B. partial） to any of his students.
Ⅳ。 Translate the following into English and write your translation on your Answer Sheet. （3 points each for 1-4， 6 points for 5）
3. 很多人认为美国的教育在世界上是一流的，但作者却认为美国的教育存在严重的问题。4. 许多黑人青年都纷纷离开瓦茨。他们认为，只有在黑人区外才能干出一番事业。
Ⅴ： Proficiency Test （40%）：
Read the following passage and answer the questions：
A Good Night‘s Sleep
1） The would-be sleeper who refights his daily battles in bed - or rehearses tomorrow‘s problems - finds it hard to fall asleep. Then he starts worrying about his inability to sleep which increases his insomnia， which increases his worries， which…… In a new development that may help the insomniac to break this vicious cycle， Dr. Werner P. Koella of the Worcester Foundation for Experimental Biology has discovered a chemical in the brain that may control normal sleep.
2） The substance， known as serotonin， is one of a number of so-called neurohormones in the brain that researchers suspect play an important part in controlling the mind and the emotions. Such chemicals， researchers have learned， assist in transmitting nerve impulses from one nerve cell to another. Serotonin， Koella notes， is produced in particularly high concentrations in the hypothalamus， the “primitive” lower part of the brain and the brain stem， which joins the brain to the top of the spinal cord and is known to contain the centers controlling the level of consciousness. Conceivably， Koella reasoned， serotonin was the transmitter substance in the brain stem and hypothalamus that regulated sleep.
3） In preliminary experiments， Koella found that giving serotonin to cats produced signs of sleep. Electrode leads were implanted in the cats‘ brains and attached to an EEG （electroencephalogram） machine to record the brain waves； next， the serotonin was injected directly into the brain or an artery in the neck. The pupils of the animals’ eyes narrowed and the electro-encephalograms showed “slow” waves characteristic of deep sleep within five to ten minutes.
4） More recently， Koella deprived cats of serotonin. The animals， again equipped with implanted electrodes， were given PCPA， a drug that blocks the formation of serotonin. They were then placed in small compartments fitted with one-way mirrors and watched round the clock.
5） Normally cats sleep about fifteen hours a day； but Koella‘s cats， after receiving PCPA， spent about 30 minutes of each day sleeping. Most of the time， their EEG’s showed the brainwave patterns of arousal. Occasionally the cats would curl up as if to go to sleep， but would soon get back on their feet to wander about. The animals showed signs of irritability and often meowed complainingly after a few days of sleep deprivation， but had normal reflexes. The effects of the PCPA wore off eight days to two weeks after administration of the drug； the cats returned to their normal sleeping patterns as serotonin levels in their brains rose again.
6） Koella believes that at least some types of chronic insomnia may be caused by a drop in brain-serotonin levels. The Worcester physiologist is now working on chemical ways to raise the brain‘s serotonin levels and produce， in his words， “a truly physiological sleeping pill”。 Synthetic sleeping pills， such as barbiturates， bring sleep， but at a price： they depress the central nervous system， reduce heart action and respiration - and they can become habit-forming or even addictive.
7） In one promising experiment toward the goal of letting the body “make its own pill”， Koella has found that administration of 5-hydroxytryptophan， the chemical substance from which the body derives serotonin， will quickly restore a normal sleeping pattern to cats lacking in serotonin.
A. Choose the best answer and write the corresponding letter on your Answer Sheet.（10%）：
1. The main idea of this article is that
A. Dr. Koella has done many experiments with cats.
B. Dr. Koella has discovered a chemical called serotonin which might be the body‘s natural hormone for controlling sleep.
C. Serotonin might be a better sleeping aid because it is a natural hormone.
2. In Paragraph 1， the second sentence ends with several periods （……） to show that
A. the cycle being described continues on and on without end.
B. the author did not know how to finish the sentence.
C. a typographical error was made.
3. The brain stem is located （Paragraph 2）
A. in the hypothalamus.
B. between the brain and spinal cord.
C. in the transmitter nerve cells.
4. Paragraph 2 explains
A. where the hypothalamus is located.
B. why Dr. Koella chose to experiment with serotonin.
C. important information about serotonin.
5. The main idea of Paragraphs 3， 4， and 5 is that
A. Dr. Koella experimented on cats to determine the effects of various am
ounts of serotonin on the cats‘ sleeping habits.
B. cats have a tendency to sleep more if they are given serotonin.
C. Dr. Koella found cats more appropriate for his experiments than other animals.
6. The information in Paragraph 5 indicates that PCPA was responsible for
A. a lack of sleep.B. the cats‘ meowing.
C. normal sleeping patterns.
7. In Paragraph 6， Dr. Koella implies， but does not directly state， that
A. he has developed a natural sleeping pill which will raise the serotonin level in the body.
B. a natural sleeping pill would be superior to synthetic pills because it would have no bad effects on the body.
C. sleeping pills are habit-forming.
8. The language used in this article indicates that Dr. Koella
A. is positive that serotonin controls sleep.
B. is quite uncertain whether serotonin controls sleep.
C. thinks that serotonin might control sleep.
9. A good title for this article would be
A. “The Cats Want to Sleep.”
B. “I Can‘t Sleep Tonight.”
C. “Some New Sleep Research”
10. To get a good night‘s sleep， Dr. Koella is A a B sleeping pill. （Fill in the spaces with one word from Group A and one word from Group B.）
A： 1） using 2） developing 3） sleeping 4） giving
B： 1） cat 2） EEG 3） artificial 4） natural
B. Choose the best answer and write the corresponding letter on your Answer Sheet.（6%）：
1. “The would-be sleeper who refights his daily battles in bed - or rehearses tomorrow‘s problems - finds it hard to fall asleep.” The italicized words mean
A. He cannot fall asleep but he wants to.
B. He doesn‘t want to fall asleep， but he can’t stay awake.
C. He wants to fall asleep， and he does.
D. He doesn‘t want to fall asleep， and he doesn’t.
2. “Conceivably， Koella reasoned， serotonin was the transmitter substance in the brain stem and hypothalamus that regulated sleep.” The italicized words indicate that
A. Koella was sure that serotonin regulated sleep.
B. Koella thought it was possible that serotonin regulates sleep.
3. “They were …… watched round the clock” means that
A. the cats walked around a clock.
B. the cats were watched 24 hours a day.
C. there was a round clock in the cats‘ compartments.
4. “In preliminary experiments， Koella found that giving serotonin to cats produced signs of sleep. More recently Koella deprived cats of serotonin， and they spent only about 30 minutes of each day sleeping.” The italicized word indicates that
A. when Koella increased the serotonin， the cats could not sleep.
B. when Koella took away the usual amount of serotonin， the cats could not sleep.
5. “Dr. Koella has discovered a chemical in the brain that may control sleep.” This means
A. it is possible that this chemical controls sleep.
B. this chemical definitely controls sleep.
6. “Synthetic sleeping pills bring sleep， but at a price： they can be habit-forming or even addictive.” The italicized words mean
A. with possible dangerous effects
B. they are very expensive
C. not easily
C. Choose an appropriate synonym from the list below for the italicized word. Be sure to use correct verb tenses and singular or plural forms for nouns.Then write your answer on the Answer Sheet. （10%）：
circle first practice habitual control place stand in the way of
excite inability to sleep man-made
1. Before we presented the play， we rehearsed for three weeks.
2. Rayon is a synthetic fiber.
3. Serotonin seems to regulate sleep.
4. Koella‘s preliminary studies on serotonin produced interesting results.
5. The policeman blocked the angry people who were trying to enter the building.
6. An artificial heart was implanted in the man‘s body.
7. I have chronic insomnia.
8. The people were aroused by the politician‘s speech.
9. Insomnia is very frustrating.
10. When you can‘t sleep， you worry and when you worry， you can’t sleep； it is a vicious cycle.
D. Translate the following sentences from English into Chinese and write your translection on the Answer Sheet.（9%）：
1. The would-be sleeper who refights his daily battles in bed — or rehearses tomorrow‘s problems — finds it hard to fall asleep.
2. Electrode leads were implanted in the cats‘ brains and attached to an EEG （electroencephalogram） machine to record the brain waves.
3. Occasionally the cats would curl up as if to go to sleep， but would soon get back on their feet to wander about.
E. Answer the following question in English within 80-100 words and write your answer on the Answer Sheet.（5%）：
This article mentions that people take various drugs which artificially cause them to fall asleep. Do you think a person should take drugs to make him fall asleep， wake up easily， or change his personality？ What if such drugs are known to be habit-forming？ （For example： sleeping pills， tranquilizers， stimulants.）