Ⅰ。Directions： Match the words in Column A with their definitions in Column B. Write the letter of the answer to each word in Column A on your ANSWER SHEET.（10 points，1 point for each）
1.nuance A. the act of sending out
2.originality B. the act of using force to compel people to do something
3.cessation C.the quality of being a new type or different from others of the same type
4.emission D. the state of being short of
5.deficiency E. kind； having the desire to do good
6.scrutiny F. a pause or a stop
7.lament G. subtle difference in meaning， color， feeling
8.speculate H. careful and thorough examination； close study or look
9.coercion I. to form opinions without having definite or complete knowledge
10.benevolent J. to express sorrow for
Ⅱ。Directions： Read each of the following sentences carefully， and choose A，B，C or D that has the closest meaning to the underlined word or phrase. Write the corresponding letter of the answer on your ANSWER SHEET.（10 points，1 point for each）
11.Still，despite all of the problems that exist， most Americans prefer the U.S. economic system over any other， as the results of poll after poll indicate.
[A]riot [B]place where voting takes place
[C]survey of public opinions [D]economic crisis
12.Factories which used it had to be built on the banks of fast flowing streams， but these were often located in inaccessible， thinly populated areas， which made transportation of goods difficult.
[A]unable to reach [B]remote
13.These range from intangibles-something in the air， the international zeitgeist-to specifics such as important designers‘ collections， exhibitions or popular films.
[C]something that can not be touched or felt
[D]something in one‘s dreams.
14.Hunters have almost exterminated many of the larger animals like the bighorn sheep and the grizzly bear.
[C]destroyed completely [D]captured completely
15.That is particularly significant， since in the past Dr.Owen has been a robust defender of the nuclear industry.
16.Black，he said， was a convicted traitor. He had sent people to their death who were acting on behalf of Britain‘s interests and he was making a profit out of it
[D]who has been tried in court and found guilty
17.Reduced consumption of meat， increased use of new high protein food made from soybeans， and development of ocean resources for food are some alternatives that must be considered.
[C]new types [D]latest creations
18.This cosmic vista， seen in a photo released by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration（NASA）two weeks ago， is the latest in a series of stunning images captured from the ends of the universe by the Hubble Space Telescope.
[A]terrible films [B]unrealistic pictures
[C]fake pictures [D]surprising pictures
19.He made plain that he was looking for something more substantial than the “feel good” factor based on inflationary pay claims and soaring house prices.
20.Alcohol is also high in calories， but beer and wine contain some of the B vitamins and wine is a good source of iron， so even a teetotaler could not describe all alcohol as useless， nutritionally speaking.
[B]person who never touches alcoholic drinks
Ⅲ。Directions： Skim Passage 1 and read the statements given right after the passage and judge whether they are True or False. Write the corresponding answers on your ANSWER SHEET.（10 points，1 point for each）
1.Radio signals are still interfering with air traffic safety， a problem China‘s radio watchdog is working diligently to solve.
2.The watchdog is focusing its attention on improperly placed antennae and paging（寻呼）stations， which are commonly located on high hills， towers and buildings.
3.“The radio regulatory commissions nationwide are being asked to make technical checks and rational arrangements for the positioning of paging stations，”says Chen Jinxing， an official with the Ministry of Information Industry.
4.“The initiative‘s（行动） purpose is to avoid inter-modulation（互相调制） interference and other signals from the transmitters（发射机） which may be harmful to air communications frequencies.”
5.Paging stations‘ transmitters should be positioned at least 250 metres from each other，Chen said.
6.A special investigation was conducted recently， in which 58 percent of China‘s 26，502 paging transmitters were examined and more than 770 radio-interference cases were dealt with.
7.Negative effects of paging transmitters， although not eliminated， have diminished， noted ministry official Li Haiqing.
8.Li was commenting on reports that some air communications frequencies in Hong Kong Special Administrative Region have been affected by paging stations along the mainland‘s coastal regions.
9.A special panel（检查小组） of air communications experts was established earlier this year to co-ordinate activities of parties concerned.
10.“In mid-October， Hong Kong officials reported the 121.00 MHz and 126.500 MHz frequencies for its eastern air routes were being interfered with，”panel member Zhong Yangfang said in Guangzhou.
11.“We‘ve taken technical measures in Shantou and Huizhou cities， the sources of the interfering signals.”
21.One of the problems that air traffic safety is facing is radio signals.
22.The watchdog‘s main concern now is unsuitable positions of antennae and paging stations.
23.One measure that the radio regulatory commissions take is to close some paging stations.
24.If the distance between paging stations‘ transmitters is 160 meters， the signals sent out by the transmitters could be safe for air traffic.
25.The normal distance between two paging stations‘ transmitters is 250 meters.
26.A special investigation has recently examined 26，502 paging transmitters.
27.The negative effects of paging transmitters are now lessening.
28.A special panel of air communications experts was established to look into the accidents caused by some paging stations.
29.In the middle of October， the air signals for Hong Kong‘s eastern air routes were affected by the paging stations of Shantou and Huizhou.
30.Air communications frequencies are crucial to air traffic safety.
Ⅳ。Directions： Read Passages 2 and 3 and choose the correct answer. Write the corresponding letter of the answer on your ANSWER SHEET.（20 points，1 point for each）
1.The snow surface may become extremely cold on a clear winter night， but below the surface the temperature may be many degrees warmer. This is because a snow blanket contains a lot of air， which is an effective insulator against heat conduction. For this reason， many small mammals live quite comfortably beneath a snow cover in winter， despite a climate above the snow severe enough to kill them. Shrews， tiny mammals whose metabolism is so high that they are almost never still， make tunnels under the snow when it is only an inch or two deep rather than dart about above the snow. Part of this may be for protection from predators， but part of it may be that the climate beneath the snow is more hospitable.
2.Some animals make use of snowbanks for protection in heavy snowstorms. Grouse are known to fly from tree perches directly into a snowbank and remain there for the duration of a storm. If a glaze of ice happens to cover the snow after the storm and prevents the birds from digging out of their natural igloos， they may be trapped so long that they starve， suffocate or become prey for foxes and other predators that walk on top of the crust. But a snowbank has probably saved the lives of many birds and other animals in severe weather.
3.Plants whose tender parts would be killed by extreme could often survive if they are insulated from the severe climate by an air-filled snow blanket. If a snowfall covers a boxwood hedge， for example， its owner may be tempted to knock off the snow and thus keep the branches from breaking. However， it may be wise to leave a snow cover on such plants if only to protect them from extremes of temperature which might otherwise kill the plants.
4.Besides safeguarding small mammals and some birds， a snow cover protects untold numbers of insects， worms， snails and many other small creatures in the soil. Without the snow blanket， soil temperatures in winter would plunge low enough to kill many of the organisms in it. Snow， however， prevents this. The lowest temperature is at the top of the snow cover， not at its base.
31.In Paragraph 1 the word “severe” implies that the winter is _______.
[A]rather dark [B]quite long
[C]extremely cold [D]very windy
32.Many small mammals like to live beneath a snow cover because _______.
[A]above the snow there is no food
[B]it is cooler there
[C]it is comfortable there
[D]it is warmer and safe there
33.A grouse is probably a/an _______.
34.The word “predators” in the passage refers to _______.
[A]animals killing and eating other animals for survival
35.What will probably happen to the birds if their natural igloos are covered by a glaze of ice？
[A]They will stay underneath the snow comfortably.
[B]They will probably try to dig out of their natural igloos.
[C]They will probably wait there till they are killed.
[D]They will probably be trapped so long that they starve or suffocate.
36.When plants are covered by a snowfall， you‘d better _______.
[A]leave the snow cover on the plants
[B]knock the snow off the plants
[C]keep plants‘ leaves bare
[D]cover plants with more snow
37.Beneath a snow cover in winter _______.
[A]worms and small creatures are frozen to death
[B]some mammals are starved to death
[C]many animals live comfortably
[D]birds become prey for foxes
38.What does “it” in Paragraph 4 refer to？
[A]The snow blanket.
39.Snow insulates against cold because _______.
[A]it is thick [B]it is heavy
[C]it is white [D]it contains air
40.What would be a good title for this passage？
[A]How Snow Forms a Blanket
[B]Snow， a Blanket of Protection
[C]Weather Patterns of Snow Storms
[D]Snowy Regions of the North
1.For me， scientific knowledge is divided into mathematical sciences， natural sciences or sciences dealing with the natural world（physical and biological sciences），and sciences dealing with mankind（psychology， sociology， all the sciences of cultural achievements， every kind of historical knowledge）。In the first place， all this is pure or theoretical knowledge， sought only for the purpose of understanding， in order to quench man‘s thirst for knowledge.
2.What distinguishes man from animal is that he knows and needs to know. If man did not know that the world existed， and that the world were of a certain kind， that he existed in the world and that he himself were of a certain kind， he wouldn‘t be man. The technical aspects or applications of knowledge are equally necessary for man and are of the greatest importance， because they also contribute to defining him as man and permit him to pursue a life increasingly human.
3.But even while enjoying the results of technical progress， he must defend the primacy and autonomy of pure knowledge. Knowledge sought directly for its practical applications will have immediate and foreseeable results， but not the kind of results whose revolutionary scope is in large part unforeseen， except by the imagination of the Utopians.
4.Let me recall a well-known example. If the Greek mathematicians had not applied themselves to the investigation of conic sections， zealously and without the least idea that it might someday be useful， it would not have been possible centuries later for people to navigate far from shore. The first men to study the nature of electricity could not imagine that their experiments， carried on because of mere intellectual curiosity， would eventually lead to modern electrical technology， without which we can scarcely conceive of contemporary life.
5.Pure knowledge is valuable for its own sake， because the human spirit cannot resign itself to ignorance. But， in addition， it is the foundation for practical results that would not have been reached if this knowledge had not been sought disinterestedly.
41.According to the passage， scientific knowledge includes _______.
[A]mathematical sciences and natural sciences
[B]sciences dealing with mankind
[D]all of the above
42.The author does NOT include among the sciences the study of _______.
43.The word “quench”in Paragraph 1 is closest in meaning to _______.
[A]satisfy [B]put down
44.According to the passage， what makes man different from animal is that _______.
[A]man has knowledge and wants to get knowledge
[B]man can make things
[C]man has the ability of speaking
[D]man is of a special kind
45.In Paragraph 3 “pure knowledge” refers to _______.
[A]practical application [B]applied sciences
[C]theoretical sciences [D]technical progress
46.The author points out that the Greeks who studied conic sections contributed to the world in _______.
[A]electrical technology [B]mathematics
47.The first men studied the nature of electricity _______.
[A]out of desire to learn something new
[B]for the development of electrical technology
[C]in order to do some experiments concerning electricity
[D]so as to control electricity
48.In Paragraph 4，the word “which” refers to _______.
[A]the experiments [B]intellectual curiosity
[C]modern electrical technology [D]the nature of electricity
49.How many reasons were given in this passage to account for the value of pure science？
50.The title below that best expresses the idea of this passage is _______.
[A]The Relationship Between Theoretical Sciences and Applied Sciences
[B]The Primary Importance of Theoretical Sciences
[C]Man‘s Distinguishing Characteristics
[D]The Difference between Science and Philosophy
Ⅴ。Directions： Passage 4 is taken from the TEXTBOOK. Read the passage carefully and choose the best answer. Write the corresponding letter of the answer on your ANSWER SHEET.（10 points，1 point for each）
1.As spring comes to the rough Bering Sea and the gigantic ice floes begin to melt， the water becomes alive with migrating animals. Both whales， the graceful giants of the deep， and sleek， gray seals can be seen swimming northward through narrow channels in the shifting ice. These animals， which have long been threatened by encroaching civilization， may soon disappear from the Bering and other seas around the world unless protective measures are taken.
2.For centuries whales， intelligent， air-breathing mammals， were abundant in the waters off the Alaskan coast； however， their isolated sanctuary was invaded by hunters in 1848 when an American whaling ship discovered the rich whaling area. During the next 60 years， whalers， in search of bone and oil， almost destroyed the entire whale population of the Bering Sea. Particularly harmed by the unrestricted commercial whaling were the slow-moving bowhead whales； so many of them were killed that the species never recovered. At present， the population of the bowhead is estimated at less than 3，000.According to many conservationists， it is the most endangered whale on earth.
3.In an attempt to avoid the eradication of other whale species， countries interested in commercial whaling established the International Whaling Commission（IWC） in 1946.The IWC limits the number of whales that may be killed per year， and since 1973 the Commission has been steadily reducing its quotas. Today， only about seven countries still engage in commercial whaling. The reductions recommended by the IWC have brought loud cries of protest from countries with large whaling industries， especially Japan and the Soviet Union. These countries fear that their industries will not be able to survive such drastic cuts and that their national economies will suffer as a result. Although the IWC has no means of enforcing its regulations， since most whaling takes place in international waters， the Japanese and the Soviets are reluctant to ignore them. Previous decisions to disregard whale quotas resulted in costly boycotts of Japanese and Russian products by American conservationists.
4.The IWC would like to ban hunting of the endangered bowhead； however， this proposal has created a great deal of controversy in the United States due to strong protests from Alaskan Eskimos. The natives of Alaska resent the attempt to take away their hunting right. For over 1，000 years， they have depended upon whales for the meat and raw materials necessary for survival in the Arctic. Present United States laws already strictly limit the number of whales that may be killed by each village； nevertheless， the population of the bowhead whale is critically low - perhaps too low to survive even minimal hunting by the Eskimos.
5.Another animal of the Bering Sea that is faced with possible extinction is the northern fur seal， valued highly by hunters for its soft and durable fur. The Pribilof Islands，200 miles north of the Aleutian Islands off the Alaskan coast， are the seal‘s summer breeding grounds. For centuries the isolated islands have been the annual goal for thousands of migrating fur seals， some coming from as far south as the waters off southern California. The seals were undisturbed by humans until 1786 when the islands were discovered by Gerasim Pribilof， a Russian fur trader. Recognizing the potential profit， Pribilof immediately sent his men ashore with orders to kill as many seals as they could skin during the summer. Over the next fifty years，Russian hunters proceeded to kill an estimated 80 percent of the northern fur seal population， reducing to about 600，000 a herd that had probably numbered close to 3 million. This mass slaughter did not stop until the herd has decreased to the point where commercial hunting was no longer profitable.
6.During the subsequent lull in hunting， the seal population made a good， although temporary， recovery. By the time the United States bought Alaska， including the Pribilof Islands， from Russia in 1867，the seal herd has increased to around 2.5 million. This recovery resulted in a revival of hunting on the islands and at sea； however， fur hunters from around the world shot at the animals indiscriminately， killing even pregnant and nursing females， and once again the species neared extinction.
7.In 1911，only 200，000 seals remained when the United States， Japan， Russia， and Canada signed a treaty that forbade the killing of female seals. The agreement， which is still being followed today， saved the northern fur seal from immediate extinction.
8.In the United States， a growing public awareness of these endangered species has caused a drop in the demand for seal fur and a ban on the importation of whale products； nevertheless， this spring hunters around the world will kill thousands of seals and whales. The furs of the seals will appear in stores as sealskin coats and gloves， and the whales will be transformed into such diverse products as steaks， soap， pet food， glue， crayons， and suntan lotion. Concerned individuals and conservationist groups， such as Greenpeace， continue to argue that it is absurd to use endangered species for such products， especially when suitable alternatives exist. Consequently， they are demanding that further restrictions be imposed on whale and seal hunting in the hopes that the 200-year exploitation of these animals by civilization will come to an end and that seals and whales will once again be allowed to roam the seas undisturbed.
51.Whalers hunted whales before 1900 ______.
[A]for their fur
[B]for their bones and flesh
[C]for their skin
[D]for their bones and oil
52. ______ were most endangered by the unrestricted commercial whaling in the Bering Sea.
[A]Gray seals [B]Blue whales
[C]Dolphins [D]Bowhead whales
53.The IWC was established ______.
[A]to protect sea animals from extinction
[B]to protect whaling industry
[C]to ensure that other whale species may not meet the same fate as bowhead whales
[D]to protect bowhead whales from extinction
54.How did American conservationists show their protest to Japan and the Soviet Union when the two countries decided to disregard whale quotas？
[A]They charged them with disregard of whale quotas.
[B]They placed boycotts on Japanese and Russian products.
[C]They urged the two countries to observe the whale quotas.
[D]They held demonstrations to show their protest.
55.Which of the following statements is true according to Paragraph 3？
[A]The IWC has been steadily increasing its quotas.
[B]Japan and the Soviet Union support large cuts in whale quotas.
[C]The number of countries involved in commercial whaling has decreased.
[D]Whaling industry will develop in the next decade.
56.Alaskan Eskimos protested against the attempt to take away their hunting rights because ______.
[A]They wanted to make money on whaling
[B]they lived on whales
[C]they thought the attempt violated their rights
[D]they needed whales for their bones
57.What is implied in paragraphs 5 and 6？
[A]If fur seals had lived in other places rather than in Bering Sea they would not have been killed in large number.
[B]Fur seal hunters could make large profits from seal hunting before 1786.
[C]Fur seal hunters could make large profits from 1786 to 1836.
[D]The mass slaughter of fur seals stopped because commercial hunting was no longer profitable.
58.Fur seals neared extinction once again because ______.
[A]hunters only shot pregnant and nursing seals for more money
[B]hunters shot any fur seal they saw
[C]hunters did not observe the IWC‘s regulations
[D]hunters lived on them for food and raw materials
59.The main idea expressed in paragraphs 5，6 and 7 is ______.
[A]the uncertainty of fur seal‘s fate
[B]the development of whale hunting industry
[C]the mass slaughter of fur seals
[D]the fate of fur seals in the hands of man
60.This article tells us ______.
[A]the reasons for hunting whales and seals
[B]the consequences of whaling in Bering Sea
[C]how man has endangered seals and whales
[D]the IWC is not efficient
Ⅵ。Directions： The following questions are closely related to Passage 4.Write a brief answer（one to three complete sentences） to each of the questions on your ANSWER SHEET. Pay attention to the words， grammar and sentence structure in your answers.（15 points，3 points for each）
61.Why has the reduction in whaling recommended by the IWC met with protest？
62.Why was there a lot of hunting of fur seals in Bering Sea？
63.How was the northern fur seal saved from immediate extinction？
64.The public opinion in the U.S.A. has had some effect on the U.S. market for seal fur and whale products. Use your own words to tell the effect.
65.Why are individuals and conservationist groups concerned demanding that further restrictions be imposed on whale and seal hunting？
Ⅶ。Directions： Translate the following sentences（taken from Passage 4） into Chinese and write the Chinese version in the corresponding space on your ANSWER SHEET.（15 points，3 points for each）
66.Both whales， the graceful giants of the deep， and sleek， gray seals can be seen swimming northward through narrow channels in the shifting ice.
67.Particularly harmed by the unrestricted commercial whaling were the slow moving bowhead whales； so many of them were killed that the species never recovered.
68.Although the IWC has no means of enforcing its regulations， since most whaling takes place in international waters， the Japanese and the Soviets are reluctant to ignore them.
69.Present United States laws already strictly limit the number of whales that may be killed by each village； nevertheless， the population of the bowhead whale is critically low-perhaps too low to survive even minimal hunting by the Eskimos.
70.Recognizing the potential profit， Pribilof immediately sent his men ashore with orders to kill as many seals as they could skin during the summer.
Ⅷ。Directions： Scan Passage 5 and find the words which have roughly the meanings given below. Write the words in the corresponding space on your ANSWER SHEET.（10 points，1 point for each）
Note： The numbers in the brackets refer to the numbers of paragraphs in the passage.
71.to meet with unexpectedly （1）
72.to have an opportunity or right to do something （1）
73.to provide enough room for （2）
74.act of taking something to someone or some place （3）
75.parts of something considered separately （3）
76.able to be used （3）
77.to stop before something has been completed （3）
78.to manage （4）
79.to continue to follow a course of action that has already started （4）
80.to keep something for future use （5）
1.Many users first encounter computer networks when they send or receive electronic mail（e-mail） to or from a remote site.E-mail is the most widely used application service. Indeed， many computer users access networks only through electronic mail.
2.E-mail is popular because it offers a fast， convenient method of transferring information. E-mail can accommodate small notes or large voluminous memos with a single mechanism. It should not surprise you to learn that more users send files with electronic mail than with file transfer protocols.
3.Mail delivery is a new concept because it differs fundamentally from other uses of networks that we have discussed. In all our examples， network protocols send packets directly to destination， using timeout and retransmission for individual segments if no acknowledgement returns.In the case of electronic mail， however， the system must provide for instances when the remote machine or the network connections have failed. A sender does not want to wait for the remote machine to become available before continuing work， nor does the user want the transfer to abort merely because communication with the remote machine becomes temporarily unavailable.
4.To handle delayed delivery， mail systems use a technique known as spooling. When the user sends a mail message， the system places a copy in its private storage（spool）area along with identification of the sender， recipient， destination machine， and time of deposit. The system then initiates the transfer to the remote machine as a background activity， allowing the sender to proceed with other computational activities.
5.The background mail transfer process becomes a client. The process first uses the domain name system to map the destination machine name to an IP address， and then attempts to form a TCP connection to the mail server on the destination machine. If it succeeds， the transfer process passes a copy of the message to the remote server， which stores the copy in the remote system‘s spool area. Once the client and server agree that the copy has been accepted and stored， the client removes the local copy. If it cannot form a TCP connection or if the connection fails， the transfer process records the time delivery was attempted and terminates. The background transfer process sweeps through the spool area periodically， typically once every 30 minutes， checking for undelivered mail. Whenever it finds a message or whenever a user deposits new outgoing mail， the background process attempts delivery again. If it finds that a mail message cannot be delivered after an extended time（e.g. 3 days） the mail software returns the message to the sender.