I. Each of the statements below is followed by four alternative answers. Choose the one that would best complete the statement and put the letter in the bracket. （30%）
1. There are ______ major classes of compounds.
A. two B. for C. three D. five
2. Which of the following statements is NOT true
A. Connotative meaning refers to associations suggested by the conceptual meaning.
B. Stylistic meaning accounts for the formality of the word concerned.
C. Affective meaning is universal to all men alike.
D. Denotative meaning can always be found in the dictionary.
3. After the invading Germanic tribes settled down in Britain， their language almost totally blotted out ______.
A. Old English B. Middle English
C. Anglo-Saxon D. Celtic
4. The idiom “Jack of all trades” results from ______.
A. addition B. position-shifting
C. dismembering D. shortening
5. ______ are those that cannot occur as separate words without adding other morphemes.
A. Free roots B. Free morphemes
C. Bound morphemes D. Meaningful units
6. The major factors that promote the growth of modern English are ______.
A. the growth of science and technology
B. economic and political changes
C. the influence of other cultures and languages
D. all the above
7. Since the beginning of this century， ______ has become even more important for the expansion of English vocabulary.
A. word-formation B. borrowing
C. semantic change D. both B and C
8. Which of the following characteristics of the basic word stock is the most important
A. Stability B. Collocability.
C. Productivity. D. National character.
9. The two major factors that cause changes in meaning are ______.
A. historical reason and class reason
B. historical reason and psychological reason
C. class reason and psychological reason
D. extra-linguistic factors and linguistic factors
10. The fundamental difference between homonyms and polysemants is whether ______.
A. they come from the same source
B. they are correlated with one central meaning
C. they are listed under one headword in a dictionary
D. all the above
11. Degradation of meaning is the opposite of ______.
A. semantic transfer B. semantic pejoration
C. semantic elevation D. semantic narrowing
12. An idiom consists of at least two words. Each has a single meaning and often functions as one word. This is called ______.
A. semantic unity B. structural stability
C. rhetorical function D. none of the above
13. Which of the following suffixes can be used to form both nouns and adjectives ______
A. -ion. B. -ism. C. -ity. D. -ist.
14. More often than not， functional words only have ______.
A. lexical meaning B. associative meaning
C. collocative meaning D. grammatical meaning
15. Linguistic context is also known as ______ context.
A. social B. verbal C. lexical D. physical
II. Complete the following statements with proper words or expressions according to the course book. （10%）
16. In the course book， the idioms are classified according to ______ functions.
17. Linguistic context can be further divided into ______ context and grammatical context.
18. The ______ languages made only a small contribution to the English vocabulary with a few place names like Avon， kent， Themes.
19. Morphemes which are identical with root words are considered to be ______.
20. According to semanticists， a word is a unit of ______.
III. Match the words or expressions in Column A with those in Column B according to 1） stylistic meanings； 2）language groups； 3）degrees of inflections and 4） onomatopoeic motivation. （10%）
（ ）21. apes A. colloquial
（ ）22. Old English B. a language of full endings
（ ）23. Irish C. Italic
（ ）24. tiny D. very formal and official
（ ）25. French E. yelp
（ ）26. cattle F. poetic
（ ）27. domicile G. Celtic
（ ）28. abode H. gibber
（ ）29. foxes I. a language of leveled endings
（ ）30. Middle English J. low
Ⅳ。 Study the following words and expressions and identify 1） types of affixes； 2） types of meaning and 3） types of motivation. （10%）
31. mismanage （ ）
32. elephants-trumpet （ ）
33. pretty （ ）
34. forehead （ ）
35. bossy （ ）
36. sun： a heavenly body which gives off light， heat （ ）
37. anti-establishment （ ）
38. subsea （ ）
39. a sea of troubles （ ）
40. harder （ ）
Ⅴ。 Define the following terms. （10%）
42. functional words
44. bilingual dictionary
Ⅵ。 Answer the following questions. Your answers should be clear and short. Write your answers in the space given below. （12%）
46. What factors should one take into account when he chooses a dictionary
47. What are the features of compounds Give examples.
48. Cite ONE example to illustrate what grammatical meaning is.
Ⅶ。 Analyze and comment on the following. Write your answers in the space given below. （18%）
49. Read the following extract and try to guess the meaning of the word in italics. Then explain what contextual clues help you work out the meaning.
‘Get me an avocado， please，’Janet said， smacking her lips， but her brother， with a glance up at the branches， said that there were none ripe yet.
50. Make a tree diagram to arrange the following words in order of hyponymy.
apple， cabbage， food， vegetable， mutton， fruit， peach， meat， beef， orange， spinach， pork， celery