I. Each of the statements below is followed by four alternative answers Choose the one that would best complete the statement and put the letter in the bracket（30％）？
1. Degradation can be illustrated by the following example[ ]
A. lewd → ignorant
B. silly → foolish
C. last → pleasure
D. knave → boy
2. Homophones are often employed to create puns for desired effects of： [ ]
D. all the above
3. The four major modes of semantic change are _____. [ ]
A. extension， narrowing， elevation and degradation
B. extension， generalization， elevation and degradation
C. extension， narrowing， specialization and degradation
D. extension， elevation， amelioration and degradation
4. The use of one name for that of another associated with it is rhetorically called _____. [ ]
5. Idioms adjectival in nature function as _____. [ ]
6. Grammatical context refers to _____ in which a word is used. [ ]
C. semantic pattern
D. syntactic structure
7. In the idiom ‘in good feather’， we change ‘good’ into ‘high， full’ without changing meaning.？
This change of constituent is known as _____ . [ ]
8. The word “laconic” is _____. [ ]
A. onomatopoeically motivated
B. morphologically motivated
C. semantically motivated
D. etymologically motivated
9. CCELD is distinctive for its _____. [ ]
A. clear grammar codes
B. language notes
C. usage notes
D. extra columns
10.Which of the following words is NOT formed through clipping？ [ ]
11.Old English has a vocabulary of about _____ words. [ ]
A. 30，000 to 40，000
B. 50，000 to 60，000
C. 70，000 to 80，000
D. 80，000 to 90，000？
12. _____ are bound morphemes because they cannot be used as separate words. [ ]
13. Besides French words， English also absorbed as many as 2，500 words of _____ in the Middle English period. [ ]
A. Dutch origin
B. Danish origin
C. Latin origin
D. Greek origin
14. A word is a symbol that _____ . [ ]
A. is used by the same speech community
B. represents something else in the world
C. is both simple and complex in nature
D.shows different ideas in different sounds
15.Some words in the basic word stock are said to be stable because they _____. [ ]
A. are complex words.
B. are technical words
C. refer to the commonest things in life.
D. denote the most important concepts.
II. Complete the following statements with proper words or expressions according to the course book（10％）
16. The same idiom may show _____ differences when it is used in different meanings including affective meaning.
17. LDCE is a _____ dictionary.
18. Antonyms are classified on the basis of _____.
19. The opposite of semantic elevation in meaning change is called _____.
20. Pronouns and numerals enjoy nation-wide use and stability， but have limited _____.
III. Match the words or expressions in Column A with those in Column B according to 1）types of meaning changes；2）types of meaning；3）language branches and 4）features of idioms（10％）
21. grammatical meaning （ ） A. Scottish
22. reading-lamp （ ） B. neither fish， flesh， nor fowl
23. pen （ ） C. morphologically motivated
24. alliteration （ ） D. head of a state
25. difference in connotation （ ） E. answer/ respond
26. elevation （ ） F. etymologically motivated
27. degradation （ ） G. garage （ a place for storing cars）
28. narrowing （ ） H. thing （any object or event）
29. extension （ ） I. part of speech
30. Celtic （ ） J. knave （a dishonest person）
IV. Study the following words and expressions and identify 1）types of bound morphemes underlined；2）types of word formations；3）types of meaning and 4）types of meaning of idioms.（10％）
31. heart and soul （ ）？
32. father—male parent （ ）
33. mother—female parent （ ）
34. city-bred （ ）
35. lip-reading to lip-read （ ）
36. headache （ ）
37. antecedent （ ）
38. preview （ ）
39. receive （ ）
40. called （ ）
V. Define the following terms（10％）
41. specialized dictionary
42. collocative meaning
45. old English
VI. Answer the following questions. Your answers should be clear and short Write your answers in the space given below.（12％）
46.What‘s the fundamental difference between radiation and concatenation？ Illustrate your points.
47. What is dismembering？
48. What is collocative meaning？ Give one example to illustrate your point.
VII. Analyze and comment on the following. Write your answers in the space given below.（18％）
49. The ‘pen’ is mightier than the ‘sword’。
Explain what ‘pen’ and ‘sword’ mean respectively using the theory of motivation.
50. Study the following sentence， paying special attention to the words in italics. If you find anything wrong， please explain why and then improve the sentence.（100 words）
The police were ordered to stop drinking about midnight.
I. Each of the statements below is followed by four alternative answers. Choose the one that would best complete the statement and put the letter in the bracket. （30%）
II. Complete the following statements with proper words or expressions according to the course book. （10%）
19. degradation 或 pejoration
20.productivity and collocability
III. Match the words or expressions in Column A with those in Column B according to 1） types of meaning changes；2）types of meaning；3）language branches and 4） features of idioms. （10%）
IV. Study the following words and expressions and identify 1） types of bound morphemes underlined；2） types of word formation；3）types of meaning and 4） types of meaning of idioms.（10%）
31. adverb idiom/ idiom adverbial in nature
32. conceptual meaning
33. conceptual meaning
37. bound root
39. bound root
40. inflectional affix/morpheme？
V. Define the following terms.（10%）
41. Specialized dictionary refers to a dictionary which concentrates on a particular area of language or knowledge. （内容1.5分；语言0.5分）
42. Collocative meaning is that part of the word meaning suggested by the words before or after the word in discussion. （内容1.5分；语言0.5分）
43. Words which were used to designate one thing but later changed to mean something else have experienced the process of semantic transfer.
44. the minimal meaningful unit of a language.？
45. the language used in England from 450 to 1150.
VI. Answer the following questions. Your answers should be clear and short. Write your answers in the space given below.（12%）
46. 要点： Radiation Concatenation
i） primary meaning i） first sense？
（1）break up an idiom into pieces（2分）
（2）an unusual case of using idioms（1分）
（3）in literature or popular press for special effect（1分）
48. Collocative meaning consists of the associations a word acquires in its collocation. In other words， it is that part of the word-meaning suggested by words before or after the word in discussion. For example， ‘pretty’ and ‘handsome’ share the conceptual meaning of ‘good looking’， but are distinguished by the range of nouns they collocate with：
VII. Analyze and comment on the following. Write your answers in the space given below. （18%）
1）Motivation accounts for the connection between the linguistic symbol and its meaning.（2分）
2） Semantic motivation， one of the four major types of motivation， explains the connection between the literal sense and figurative sense of the word.（3分）
3）In this sentence， ‘pen’ reminds one of the tool to write with， thus suggesting writing； ‘sword’ reminds one of the weapon to fight with， thus suggesting war.（4分）
（1）it is ambiguous（2分）
（2）ambiguity caused by the structure（2分）
（3）stop drinking can be understood as？
1）police stop drinking by themselves （1分 ）
2）police stop people drinking （1分）
1）The police were ordered to stop people drinking about midnight.
2）The police were ordered to stop drinking by themselves about midnight.